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Full text of "Combined history of Randolph, Monroe and Perry counties, Illinois . With illustrations descriptive of their scenery and biographical sketches of some of their prominent men and pioneers"

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^iojrapl^ital ^IvbIi^bb ofj soma t\ {\m |}romm$nl Men anit mon^grs. 


J. L. Mcdonough & co., 



1883. m^- 



"T^HE publishers desire to return their sincere thanks 
to those who have aided in making this ivork 
thorough and complete. For the incidents relative to 
the early settlement of these counties, we are indebted 
to a feiv early pioneers, who have seen a wild fron- 
tier country develop into a 'wealthy and populous com- 
munity. For other facts zoe are under obligations to 
a class of intelligent men, 'who, amid the ordinary 
pursuits of life, have taken pains to thoroughly in- 
form themselves on the resources of their county. 
Among those 'who have specially contributed to the 
eoinplctencss of this history, are Samuel Jlfansker, 
Hugh Mathews, John .Sivawwick, Antoine Blais, Ed- 
inond Menard, the sei'cral jnenihers of the O'Hara 
family, E H. Lciuen, W. S. D Smith, the Holmes 
family, W. K. Murphy, John Chestniit'wood, J. H. Wilson, 
Joseph ]\\ Drury, William and John F. Schuchcrt. 
We also acknoivledge our obligations to the 'writings of 
Governor Reynohh, Rev. John M. Peck, Captain Pit. 
man, of the English army, also the American State 
papers and the 'writings of the Jesuit Fathers. Many 
old and valuable manuscripts, both in the French 
and English languages, ha'ce been examined. These 
rare papers ha've made plain and intelligible some 
of the earliest incidents and anecdotes pertaining to 
this region of the state. 

The articles on the common schools have been pre- 
pared by gentlemen thoroughly acquainted with their 
subject, 'wliose names appear at the head of the sketches 
in the body of the 'work. Among the chapters most 

fruitful in interest to a great number of our readers, 
'will be found those 'which treat of the early history 

of the churches. Many persons arc now living 'whose 
fathers and grandfathers, in the humble log cabin, 
'which 'was then the only house of 'worship, assisted 
in founding organizations 'which ha-ce been of the 
greatest good to subsequent generations. To the clergy- 
men of the different denominations, and to many of 
the older members of these societies, 'we arc indebted 
for much 'valuable information. The editors of the 
several newspapers ha've also rendered assistance in 
that prompt and eheeiful manner so characteristic of 
the journalistic profession. 

We have endea'oored, 'with all diligence and care- 
fulness, to make the best of the material at our 
command. The facts 'were gathered from a hundred 
different sources, and depend largely, not on exact 
written records, but on the uncertain and conflicting 
recollections of different indi'oiduals ! We lia've tried 
to preser'oe the incidents of pioneer history, to aecuratc- 
Iv present the natural features and material resources 
of this portion of the state, and to gather the facts 
likely to be of most interest to our present readers, 
and of greatest importance to coining generations. 
If our readers iiill take into consideration the diffi- 
culties of the task, 'we feel assured of a favorable 
'verdict on our undertaking. 

The Publishers. 



A Brief Sketch of the North- Vv est 
Geographical Position, 9 ; Early Explora- 
tions, 9 ; Discovery of the Ohio, 15 ; 
English Explorations and Settle- 
ments. 16 ; American Settlements, 22 ; 
Division of the North- West Territory, 
23 ; Present Cnndition of the North- 
West, 24 9-25 

Brief Histokicil Sketch of Illisois. 
French Possessions, 25 ; The first Settle- 
ments in Illinois, 26; Founding of 
Kaskaskia, 27 ; As a part of Louisi- 
ana, 27 ; Fort Chartres, 28 ; Under 
French rule, 29; Character of the Early 
French Settlers, 30; A Po.ssession of 
Great Britain, 30 ; Conquest by Clark, 
32 ; The " Compact of 1787," 32 ; Land 
Tenures, 34 ; Physical Features of the 
State, 35 ; Progress and Development, 
35; Material Resources of the State, 
36 ; Annual Products, 36 ; The War 
Record, 36 ; Civil Government, 39 ; 
Territorial and State Officers, 40 ; Mis- 
cellaneous Information 25—43 


GEOQRAPHy, .\griculti;r.4.l Resources and 
Railroad Facilities. 

Randolph Coustt,-46 ; Monroe Countv, 
47 ; Perry Cousty, 48 ; Transpor- 
tation facilities, 49; St Louis and 
Cairo Short Line Railroad, 50 ; St. 
Louis and Cairo. 51 ; Wabash, Chester 
and Western, 51 ; St. Louis Coal 
Road, 51 ; Illinois Central, 52; Rail- 
road Lands.'53 10-53 

General Stialum. 53; Randolph County, 
54 ; Coal Measures, 54 ; Chester Lime- 
stone, 55 ; Economical Geology, 55 ; 
Monroe County, 56; Perry County. 
57 53-58 

List of Native Woody Plants, Grasses, 

etc., etc 58-59 

Treating of the Various Families of Ani- 
mals and Birds that have existed in 
these counties 59-62 

Pioneer Sbttleme.n'ts. 
Randolph County, 62; The French Set- 
tlers, 62; Character of the Early 
French Settlers, 63 ; American Immi- 
gration, 64; American Population in 
1800, 67 ; Subsequent Settlements, 
67; E.irly Mills, 75 ; Overflows of the 
Mississippi, 75; Monroe County, 75; 
Indian Hostilities, 78; Early Mills, 
82; Destructive Hurricane, 82 ; Perry 
County, 83; Manners and Customs 
of the American Pioneers, 86. . . 62--89 

Civil History. 
Randolph County from 1778 to 1818, 
89 ; License for trade, 92 ; Letters to 
the Court of Kaska.skia, 92 ; Kahokia 
Fund (No. 1.) 93; Warrant for Exe- 
cution. 94 ; Todd's Embargo, 95 ; 
James Moore's Naturalization, 96; 
Land Tenure, 97; Extract from assess- 

ment of 1808, 98; Government of 
County in Territorial Times, 100 ; 
Scraps from Records of the Period 
1795 to 1809, 101 ; 1809 to 1819, 102 ; 
List of Township Officers 1809, 103 ; 
Proceedings in Courts of Justice, Ter- 
ritorial Laws. 104 ; Shadrach Bond 
and Rice Jones' Duel, 105 ; Dunlap — 
Jones Murder, 105 ; Another Murder 
Case, 105; Probate Court 1809, 106; 
Estates under Administration from 
1809 to 1818, 106 ; Slavery in Ran- 
dolph County, 107; Manumission in 
1760, 108 ; A Negro Child set Free, 
109; Public Buildings, 111; Early 
Marriages. 112; Randolph represented 
in Territorial Legislature, 1795 to 
1818, 112; Territorial Officers, 113; 
Randolph County, 1818 to 1883, 113; 

Census 1825. ; Heads of Families, 

115; County Finances, 1819 to 1844, 
lis ; Change of County Seat to Ches- 
ter, 119; Financial Condition of the 
County, September Ist, 1882, 122 ; 
List of county Officers, 121-127. . 89-127 

Mo.N-ROE County (from 1816 to 1882), 127; 
County Government, 129 ; List of 
Tax-payers in 1816, 132 ; Emancipa- 
tion Papers, 133 ; Tenure of Lands, 
134; Lands Entered, 135; Early 
Transfers of Real Estate, 136; First 
Road Petitions and names of Monroe 
county Pioneers, 137 ; Early Mar- 
riages, 139 ; Towns and Villages prior 
to 1820, 140 ; Contracts for first Public 
Buildings, 141 ; Prairie Du Long, 144 ; 
Circuit Courts, 1817 to 1848, 146; 
Challenge to Fight a Duel, 148; Mur- 
ders, 148 ; Naturalization, 148 ; In 
General Assembly from 1818 to 1848 — 
1883, 149 ; Precincts, March, 1875, 
155 ; Statistics. 1881-'82. 1.56; Mur- 
der and Execution. 1.56 , In General 


Assembly 1848 to '84, State Offices 
and Congress, Officers of county, 159. 
Perry Cockty, 161 ; First License, 164 ; 
First session of Circuit Court, 1 64 ; 
First Road Districts and Road Offi- 
cers, 1G5 ; Proceedings in Relation to 
Establishing the County Seat, 165; 
First Officers, 166 ; First Fiscal State- 
ment, 167 ; First Probate Court, 167 ; 
Petition for Redress, 168 ; First Gen- 
eral Election, 168 ; First Bridge, 169; 
First Court House, 169 ; Second Court 
House-Remonstrance against build- 
ing it, 170; Third Court House, 170; 
Present Court House, 171 ; First and 
Present Jail, 171 ; Almshouse, 173 ; 
Circuit Court, 173; First Murder 
Trial — Execution of Vaughn, 174 ; 
Statistics, 175 ; Subscription to Rail- 
roads, 177 ; Saline and Swamp Lands, 
177 ; Officers, 17S 89-180 

The Bench and B.vr. 
B.^NTOLPH CoL-XTV, ISO; Former mem- 
bers of the Bar, 182 ; Present Mem- 
bers, 185; Monroe County, For- 
mer Members of the Bar, 186 ; 
Present Members, 187; Perky County, 
18S ; Non-Resident Lawyers, 190 ; 
Former and Present Members, 191.180-193 

The Press. 
R.ixnoLrn County. — First Newspaper in 
Illinois, 193. Subsequent Newspa- 
pers— Monroe COUNTY, 198, Perry 
County, 199 193-201 

Early French, Conquest by Clark, 201 ; 
War of 1812, 203 ; Soldiers in Black 
Hawk and Mexican Wars, 204 ; Re- 
bellion, 207 ; Muster Roll of all the 
Soldiers who enlisted from Randolph, 
Monroe and Perry counties . . . 201-231 

Common Schools. 
Randolph county, 231 ; Monroe county, 

237 , Perry county, 238 231-242 



Randolph County.— Reformed Presbyte- 
rian, 243 ; Evangelical Lutheran, 249 ; 
Catholic, 254 ; Presbyterian, 257 ; 
Christian, 258; St. Mark's Parish, 
259'; Freewill Baptist, 259 (Randolph 
and Perry counties) ; German M. E., 
260. Monkoe County. — Concord 
Presbyterian, 261 ; Methodist, 261 ; 
German Evangelical, 262 ; Baptist, 
263 ; Catholic, 263. Perry County. 
—Christian, 265 ; Presbyterian, 266 ; 
Baptist, 267 ; Methodist, 278 ; Ger- 
man Evangelical, 279 ; Holy Catho- 
lic, 280 ; United Presbyterian (Ran- 
dolph and Perry), 281 243-281 


Adair, Captain William 431 

Anderson, J. B 392 

Anderson, R. B 351 

Angerer, Hon. John T 453 

Ashwood and Marlow 372 

Beem, John T 445 

Bickelhaupt, Peter 327 

Blais, Antoine 379 

Blakeslee, A. J 442 

Boldt, Dr. H. M 312 

Boyd, Hon. John 346 

Boyd, Thomas 350 

Breese, William M 364 

Brey, Paul C 321 

Burch, J. G 311 

Burbank, Hiram L 441 

Campbell Bros 393 

Campbell, William A 302 

Canniff, James F 325 

Crozier, Dr. William J 419 

Curlee, Charles W. and Albert N 441 

Curlee, Joseph B 366 

Davis, Richard M 358 

Derousae, Louis 297 

Derouase, Louis J. Jr 309 

Detrich, J. E 390 

Dudenbostel, Louis 427 

Devine, John 296 

Dyer, Dr. L 443 

Edwards, Captain M. C 357 

Elliott, James C 430 

Eld, William 327 

Fairchild, W. S 402 

Frank, John B 461 

Gerlach, Daniel 391 


Gerlach, John D. . • • 295 

Gladson, William E 343 

Gordon, Abram G 302 

Goddard, Reuben J 394 

Goodman, J. William 398 

Gordon, Rev. George A 426 

Gordon, Rev. H. S 426 

Grant William H 419 

Guker, Frederick, (deceased.) 405 

Hamilton, P. P 433 

Hammack, Lewis 352 

Hartmann, Christian F 320 

Hawthorne, J. C 394 

Heape, Hon. Lysias 363 

Hilyard, W. H 326 

Holbrook, J. C 298 

Hoener, Hon. Ambrose 329 

Holmes, Joseph B 290 

Holmes, William M 302 

Holt, Nelson 364 

Horner, H. C 302 

Janson, Hon. John 320 

Jahn, George E 329 

Kane, Louis M, 349 

Koenigsmark, Thomas 455 

Laurence, M. B 441 

Lee, A. H 3S0 

Lemen Edwin H 340 

Malone, James M 284 

Mansker, Samuel 469 

Matlack and Wassell 301 

Mathews, Hugh 411 

McBride, John T 300 

McCandless, W. L 359 

McFie, John R 373 

McKenzie, William R 294 

Menard, Edmond 310 

Metzger, Charles 327 

Michan, John 394 

Murphy, William K 344 

Murphy, William P 393 

O'Hara, Henry 462 

Pautler, Joseph 418 

Payne, Thomas J 323 

Penny, James J. . • 343 

Penwarden, Thomas F 360 

Pickett, James 428 

Pollock, J. T 299 

Pyatt, Hon. John W 356 

Ragland, J. K. P 343 

Richards, Charles P 439 

Rickert, J. W 322 

Riess, George L 404 

Roe, Charles H 355 

Rose, William, M. D 4.55 



Rothstein, Dr. Hugo 327 

Bushing, Evan B 353 

Sauer, Nicholas 419 

SchlierhoU, Charles A. M 328 

Schuchert, John F 293 

Schuchert, William 292 

Scott, Henry P ^-14 

Swanwick, John *ll 

Smith, W. S. D 348 

Thiea, John H 428 

Thompson, Captain R. Q 354 

Thum, Jacob 458 

Ward, John B 440 

Watt, James 41U 

Wheatley, B. W. S 445 

Wheeler, Charles M 312 

Wiesenborn, John 324 

Williams, Frederick 3fi6 

Williams, John S, M. D 305 

Wilson, J. H 454 

Wilson, Warren N 301 

Winthrop, Hon. Charles E R 3H4 

Wisely Brotliers 372 



Baldwin 405 

Beaucoup 472 

Blair 463 

Bluff 421 

Breemen 465 

Brcwerville 374 

Central 420 

Chester 284 

Columbia 449 

Coulterville 369 

Cutler 446 

Du Quoin 433 

Evansville 415 

Florence 312 

Grand Cote 429 

Harrisouville 412 

Kaskaskia 303 

Mitchie 395 

Moredock 333 

New Design 330 

New Hanover 447 

Paradise .... 3(i7 

Pinckneyville 335 

Prairie du Long 456 

Prairie du Rocher 375 

Red Bud 398 

Renault 382 


Rockwocii 467 

Ruma 459 

South Western 432 

Sparta 384 

Steele's Mills 423 

Tamaroa 3()0 

Tilden 407 

Waterloo 314 

Wine HiU 470 


Anderson, J. B 392 

Anderson, Marj' 392 

.'Anderson, R. B 3.")1 

Blai.s, Antoine 379 

Blakeslee, A. J 442 

Brey, Paul C 321 

Burch, J. G :!11 

Canniff, James F 32:i 

Derousse, Louis 297 

Detrich, J. E 390 

Devine, John 296 

Dudenbostel, Louis 427 

Gerlach, Daniel 391 

Gerlach, John D 295 

Hamilton, P. P 438 

Hilyard, W. 11 326 

Holbrook, J. C 298 

Holmes, Joseph B 290 

Lee, A. H 380 

Lemen, Edwin H. and Wife 340 

Mansker, Samuel 469 

Mathews, Hugh 411 

Mathews, Jane M 411 

McBride, John T 300 

McCandless, W. L 359 

McFie, John B 373 

McKenzie, William B 294 

Menard, Edmund 310 

Murphy, William K 344 

O'Hara, Henry 402 

Payne, Thomas J 323 

Pautler, Joseph 118 

Pollock, J. T 299 

Bickert, J. W 322 

Rieas, George L 404 

Roe, Charles H 355 

Rushing, Evan B 353 

Schlierholz, Charles A. M 328 

Schuchert, John F 293 

Schuchert, William 292 

Scott, Henry P 444 

Smith, W. S. D 348 

Sprigg, James D 403 

Swanwick, John 291 

Watt, James 410 

Ward, John B 440 

Wiesenborn, John 324 

Wilson. J. II 454 


-Anchor Flouring Mills Facing 446 

Been, E. M Facing 406 

Boekholf, S Facing 400 

Brickey and Aubuihon, . . Between 396--397 

Brown, Charles Facing 406 

Cape Hotel Facing 424 

Catholic Church Facing .308 

Creagau, Thomas Facing 460 

Crisler, J. M Facing 308 

Deroiisse, Mrs. M K Facing 296 

Eberman, Isaac Facing 332 

Evang. St. Pauls Church, Waterloo, Facing 320 

Evansville Catholic Cliurch 460 

Fults, Christopher Facing 393 

Gardner Roller Mills Facing 448 

Goodman, J. W Facing 41ii 

Grann^-niann, Louis Facing 446 

Gant, Thomas Facing 304 

Knapp, P. C Facing 360 

Lemen, E. H F-acing 342 

Livingstone, Dr. G. P Facing 416 

McKenzie, Dr. Williiuii R Facing :'j01 

Maus, Philipp A Facing 384 

Map Facing 9 

Milligan, William H Facing 336 

Meredith, Isaac store and residence, Facing 284 
Oldendoriih Wagon Factory, . . . Facing 436 
Old Log School-house and Puncheon 

Bench Facing 232 

Payne, Thomas J Facing 448 

Penitentiary Facing 124 

Public BuiIdings,(Randolph County,) Fac. 120 
Public Buildings, (Monroe County,) Facing 152 
Public Buildings, (Perry County,) . Facing 172 

Pyatt, 1. J Facing 356 

Roussel, F. L Facing 296 

Schuchert, William Facing 284 

Schuchert, John F Facing 288 

Soukup, W Facing 350 

" The Boots Place," Facing 360 

Winklemann, Henry Facing 284 

Wilson, J. H • • . . Facing 455 

White, John Facing 432 

Amendments to Constitution of U. S , . . 509 

Constitution of Illinois 493 

Constitution of United States ,506 

Declaration of Independence 505 

Partial List of Patrons 475 






iN 1784 the North Western Territory was 
ceded to the United States by Virginia. 
It embraced only tlic territory lying be- 
tween the Ohio and Mississippi rivers; 
and north, to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area 
now embraced in the states of" Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, O'aio, and 
that portion of Minnesota lyir.g en the 
east side of the Mississippi river. On the first day of March, 
1784, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee, and 
James Monroe, delegates in Congress on the part of Vir- 
ginia, executed a deed of cession, by which they transferred 
to the United States, on certain conditions, all right, title 
and claim of Virginia to the country known as the Korth- 
western Territory. But by the purchase of Louisiana in 
180.3, the western boundary of the United States was ex- 
tended to the Rocky Mountains and the Northern Pacific 
Ocean. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles, 
being greater than the united areas of the Middle and 
Southern states, including Texas. Out of this magnificent 
territory have been erected eleven sovereign states and eight 
territories, with an aggregate population at the present time 
of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one-third of the entire 
population of the United States. 

Its rivers are the largest on the continent, flowing thous- 
ands of miles through its rich alluvial valleys and broad, 
fertile prairies. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, upon whose bosom floats 
the commerce of many states. Its far-stretching prairies 
have more acres that are arable and productive than any 
other area of like extent on the globe. 

For the last quarter of a century the increase of popula- 

tion and wcakh in the north-west has been about as three to 
one in any other portion of the United States. 


In the year 1512, on Easter Sunday, the Spanish name 
for which is Pa.scua Florida,* Juan Ponce de Leon, an old 
comrade of Columbus, discovered the coast of the American 
continent, near St. Augustine, and in honor of the day and 
of the blossoms which covered the trees along the shore, 
named the new-found country Florida. Juan had been led 
to undertake the discovery of strange lands partly by the 
hope of finding endless stores of gold, and partly by the 
wish to reach a fountain that was said to exist deep within 
the forests of North America, which possessed the power of 
renovating the life of those wlio drank of or bathed in its 
waters. He was made governor of the region he had visited 
but circumstances prevented his return tliither until 1-521 ; 
and then he went only to meet death at the hands of the 

In the meantime, in 1.51G, a Spanish sea-captain, Diego 
Miruelo, had visited the coast first reached by Ponce de 
Leon, and in his barters with the natives had received con- 
siderable quantities of gold, with which he returned home 
and spread abroad new stories vf the wealth hidden in the 

Ten years, however, passed before Pamph'do de Narvaez 
undertook to prosecute the examination of the lands north 
of the Gulf of ]\Iexico. Narvaez was excited to action by 
the late astoni.'^hing success of the conqueror of Montezuma, 
but he found the gold for which he sought constantly flying 
before him; each tribe of Indians referred him to those 
living farther in the interior. And from tribe to tribe he 
and his companions wandered. They suffered untold priva- 
tions in the swamps and forests ; and out of three hundred 
followers only four or five at length reached Mexico. And 
still these disappointed wanderers persisted in their original 
fancy, that Florida was as wealthy as Mexico or Peru. 

*Pascutn, the old English "Fash" or Passover; " Pascua Florida" 
is the " Holvdav of Flowers." 



Among those ^vho had faith in that report was Ferdinand 
de Soto, who had been with Pizarro in the conquests of Peru. 
He asked and obtained leave of the King of Spain to con- 
quer Florida at his own cost. It was given in the year 1538. 
With a brilliant and noble baud of followers he left Europe 
and in May, 1538, after a stay in Cuba, anchored his vessels 
near the coast of the Peninsula of Florida, in the bay of 
S])iritu Santa, or Tampa bay. 

De Soto entered upon his march into the interior with a 
determination to succeed. From June till November of 

1539, the Spaniards toiled along until they reached the 
neighborhood of Appalachee bay. During the next season, 

1540, they followed the course suggested by the Florida 
Indians, who wished them out of their country, and going 
to the north-east, crossed the rivers and climbed the moun- 
tains of Georgia. De Soto was a stern, severe man, and 
none dared to murmur. De Soto passed the winter with his 
little baud near the Yazoo. In April, 1541, the resolute 
Spaniard set forward, and upon the first of May reached 
the banks of the great river of the West, not far from the 
35th parallel of latitude.* 

A month was spent in preparing barges to convey the 
horses, many of which still lived, across the rapid stream. 
Having successfully passed it, the explorers pursued their 
way northward, into the neighborhood of New Madrid ; 
then turning westward again, marched more than two hun- 
dred miles from the Mississippi to the highlands of White 
river; and still no gold, no gems, no cities — only bare prai- 
ries, and tangled forests, and deep morasses To the south 
again they toiled on, and passed their third winter of wander- 
ing upon the Washita. In the following spring (1542), De 
Soto, weary with hope long deferred, descended the Washita 
to its junction with the Mississippi. He heard, when he 
reached the mighty stream of the west, that its lower portion 
flowed through endless and uninhabitable swamps. 

The news sank deep into the stout heart of the disap- 
puinted warrior. His health yielded to the contests of his 
mind and the influence of the climate. He appointed a 
successor, and on the 21st of May died. His body was sunk 
in the stream of the Mississippi. Deprived of their ener- 
getic leader, the Spaniards determined to try to reach Mexico 
by land. After some time spent in wandering through the 
forests, despairing of success in the attempt to rescue them- 
selves by land, they proceeded to prepare such vessels aa 
they could to take them to sea. From January to July 
1543, the weak, sickly band of gold-seekers labored at the 
doleful task, and in July reached, in the vessels thus built, 
the Gulf of Mexico, and by September entered tiie river 
Pauuco. Oue-half of the six huudred f who had disem- 
barked with De Soto, so gay in steel and silk, left their bones 
among the mountains and in the morasses of the South, from 
Georgia to Arkansas. 

De Soto founded no settlements, produced no results, and 
left no traces, unless it were that he awakened the hostility 
of the red man against the white man, aud disheartened 

• Dl' i^nto probably was at tbe lower Chickasaw bluffs. Tlie .Spaniards 
calli'il tlie Mississippi Rio Grande, Great Rivei> wLicb is tlie literal 
meaning of tlie aboriginal name. 
1 t fe liiedna says there lauded 020 men. 

such as might desire to follow up the career of discov( ry for 
better purposes. The French nation were eager and reatly 
to seize upon any news from this extensive domain, and 
were the first to profit by De Soto's defeat. As it was, fir 
more than a century after the expedition, the west reuiaiuLd 
utterly unknown to the whites. 

The French were the first Europeans to make .settlements 
on the St. Lawrence river aud along the great lakes. Qutbec 
was founded by Sir Samuel Champlain in 1608,* and in IGOD 
when Sir Henry Hud.son was exploring the noble rivi r 
which bears his name, Champlain ascended the Sorrelle 
river, and discovered, embosomed between the Green moun- 
tains, or " Verdmont," as the chivalrous aud poetic French- 
man called them, and the Adirondacks, the beautiful sheet 
of water to which his name is iudissolubly attached. In 
1613 he founded Montreal. 

During the period elapsing between the years 1607 and 
1664, the English, Dutch, and Swedes alternately held pos- 
session of portions of the Atlantic coast, jealously watching 
one another, and often involved in bitter controversy, and 
not seldom in open battle, until, in the latter year, the 
English became the sole rulers, aud maintained their right3 
until the era of the Revolution, when they in turn were 
compelled to yield to the growing power of their colonies, 
and retire from the field. 

The French movements, from the first settlement at 
Quebec, and thence westward, were led by the Catholic 
missionaries. Le Caron, a Franciscan friar, who had been 
the companion and friend of Champlain, was the first to 
penetrate the western wilds, which he did in 1616* in a 
birch canoe, exploring lake Huron and its tiibutaries. 
This was four years before the Pilgrims 

"Moored their bark on the wild New England shore." 

Under the patronage of Louis XIII, the Jesuits took the 
advance, and began vigorously the work of Christianizing 
the savages in 1632. 

In 1631, three Jesuit missionaries, Brebeuf, Daniel, and 
Lallemand, planted a mission on the shores of the lake of 
the Iroquois, (probably the modern Lake Simcoe), and also 
established others along the eastern border of Lake Huron. 

From a map published in 1600, it would appear that the 
French had at that date, become quite familiar with the 
region from Niagara to the head of Lake Superior, includ- 
ing considerable portions of Lake Michigan. 

In 1641, Fathers Jogues and Raymbault embarked on 
the Penetanguishine Bay for the Sault St. Marie, where 
they arrived after a passage of seventeen days. A crowil 
of two thousand natives met them, and a great council was 
held. At this meeting the French first heard of many 
nations dwelling beyond the great lakes. 

Father Raymbault ditd in the wilderness in 1642, while 
enthusiastically pursuing his discoveries. The same year, 
Jogues and Bressani were captured by the Indians aud 
tortured, and in 1648 the mission which had been founded 
at St. Joseph was taken and destroyed, and Father Daniel 
slain. In 1641), the missions St Louis and St. Ignatius 

* Western Auuals. 



were also destroyed, and Fathers Brebeuf and Lallemand 
barbarously tortured by the same terrible and unrelenting 
enemy. Literally did those zealous missionaries of the 
Eomish Church "take their lives in their hands," and lay 
them a willing sacrifice on the altar of their faith. 

It is stated by some -writer that, in 1G.54, two fur traders 
accompanied a band of Otfatias on a journey of five hun- 
dred leagues to the west. They were absent two years, and 
on their return brought with thom fifty canoes and two 
hundred and fifty Indians to the French trading posts. 

They related wonderful tales of the countries they had 
seen, and the various red nations they had visited, and 
described the lofty mountains and mighty rivers in glowing 
terms- A new impulse was given to the spirit of adventure, 
and scouts and traders swarmed the frontiers and explored 
the great lakes and adjacent country, and a party wintered 
in IGJO-fiO on the south shore of Lake Superior. 

In IGCO Father Mcsnard was sent out by the Bishop of 
Quebec, and visited Lake Superior in October of that year. 
While crossing the Keeweenaw Point he was lost in the wilder- 
ness and never afterwards heard from, though his ca&sock 
and breviary were found long afterwards among the S'toiu:. 

A change made in the government of Xcw France in 
IGGj. The Company of the Hundred Associates, who had 
ruled it since 1G32, resigned its charter. Tracy was made 
Viceroy, Courcelles Governor, and Talon Intendent* This 
was called the Government of the West Indies. 

The Jesuit missions were taken under the care of the new 
govcnmcnt, and thenceforward became the leaders in the 
movement to Christianize the savages. 

In the same year (1GG.5) Pierre Claude Alloiiez was sent 
out bv way of the Ottawa river to the far west, via the Sault 
St. Marie and the south shore of Lake Superior, where he 
landed at the bay of Chegoimegon. Here he found the 
chief village of the Chippewas, and established a mission. 
lie also made an alliance with them and the >S(te<, Foxes and 
IlUnoi.<,y against the formidable Iroqiioi<. Alloiiez, the nest 
vcar (1GG6) visited the western end of the great lake, where 
he met the Sioux, and from them first learned of the Missis- 
.sippi river which they called "Messipi." From thence he 
returned to Quebec. 

In 1GG3 Claude Dablon and Jacques JIarquette estab- 
lished the mission at the Sault called St. Marie, and during 
the next five years Alloiiez, Dablon and Marquette explored 
the region of Lake Superior on the south shore, and ex- 
tending to Lake Michigan. They also established the mis- 
sions of Chegoimegon, St. Marie, Mackinaw and Green Bay. 

The plan of exploring the Mississippi probably originated 
with Marquette. It was at once sanctioned by the Inten- 
dent, Talon, who was ambitious to extend the dominion of 
France over the whole West. 

In 1G70 Nicholas Perot was sent to the West to propose a 
congress of all the nations and tribes living in the vicinity 
of the lakes ; and, in 1G71, a great council was held at Sault 
St. Marie, at which the Cross was set up, and the nations of 

» The duties of Intendent included a super\-ision of the policy, justice, 
and finance of the province. 

t The meaning of this word is said to be " Men." 

the great Xorth-west wtre taken into an alliance, with much 
pomp and ceremony. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, Marquette, Joliet, and five 
voiinrjeurs, embarked in two birch canoes at Mackinaw and 
entered Lake Michigan. The first nation they visited was 
the " FoUei-Avoincn," or nation of Wild Oats, since known 
as the Menomonies, living around the " Bale des Puans," or 
Green Bay. These people, with whom Marquette was some- 
what acquainted, endeavored to persuade the adventurers 
from visiting the Mississippi. They represented the Indians 
on the great river as being blood-thirsty and savage in the 
extreme, and the river itself as being inhabited by monsters 
which would devour them and their canoes together.* 

Marquette thanked them for their advice, but declined to 
be guided by it. Passing through Green Bay, they ascended 
the Fox River, dragging their canoes over the strong rapids 
and visited the village, where they found living in harmony 
together tribes o{ t\\Q Mlamis, Ma.iCOutcns'\ aud KiLabeaux 
or Kickiipoos. Leaving this point on the 10th of June, they 
made the portage to the " Ou!.iconsi:i," and descended that 
stream to the Mississippi, which they entered on the 17th 
with a joy, as Marquette says, which he could not express."]; 
Sailing down the Jlississippi, the party reached the Des 
Moines River, and, according to some, visited an Indian 
village some two leagues up the stream. Here the people 
again tried to persuade them from prosecuting their voyage 
down the river. After a great feast and a dance, and a 
night passed with this hospitable people, they proceeded on 
their way, escorted by sis hundred persons to their canoes. 
These people called themselves lUtnois, or lUini. The name 
of their tribe was Peruaca, and their language a dialect of 
the Algonquin. 

Leaving these savages, they proceeded down the river. 
Passing the wonderful rocks, which still excite the admira- 
tion of the traveller, they arrived at the mouth of another 
great river, the Pthiiantni, or Missouri of the present day. 
They noticed the condition of its waters, which they described 
as " muddy, rushing and noisy." 

Passing a great rock, § they came to the Ouaboushtgnn, or 
Ohio. Marquette shows this river very small, even as com- 
pared with the lUinois. From the Ohio they passed as far 
down as the Akamsca, or Arkansas, where they came very 
near being destroyed by the natives; but they finally paci- 
fied them, and, on the 17th of July, they commenced their 
return voyage. 

The party reached Green Bay in September without loss 
or injury, and reported their discoveries, which were among 
the most important of that age. Marquette afterwards 
returned to Illinois, and preached to the natives until li"i75. 
On the 18th of Jlay of that year, while cruising up the 
eastern coast of Lake Michigan with a partv of boatmen, 
he landed at the mouth of a stream putting into the lake 
from the east, since known as the river Marquette. He 
performed mai=s, and went a little apart to pray, and being 

•See Icj^end of the erent hird. the terrible " Piasn,^* tlialdcvonred men 
and was only overcome by the sacrifice of a brave young chief. Th<' 
rocks above Alton, Illinois, have some rude representations of this 

t Prairie Indians. ; Marquette's journal. I The grand t >wer. 



gone longer than his companions deemed iiecessar)', they 
went in search of him, and found him dead where he had 
knelt. They buried him in the sand. 

While this distinguished adventurer was pursuing his 
labors, two other men were preparing to follow in his foot- 
step, and make still further explorations, and, if possible, 
more important discoveries. These were the Chevalier 
Robert de la Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

La Salle was a native of Rouen, in Normandy. He was 
educated at a seminary of the Jesuits, and designed for the 
ministry, but, for reasons unknown, he left the seminary and 
came to Canada, in 1G67, where he engaged in the fur trade. 

Like nearly every intelligent man, he became intensely 
interested in the new discoveries of the West, and conceived 
the idea of exploring the passage to the great South Sea, 
which by many was believed to exist. He made known his 
ideas to the Governor-General, Count Frontenac, and de- 
sired his co-operation. The Governor at once fell in with 
his views, which were strengthened by the reports brought 
back by Jlarquette and Joliet, and advised La Salle to 
apply to the King of France in person, and gave him letters 
of introduction to the great Colbert, then Minister of 
Finance and Marine. Accordingly, in 1675, he returned 
to France, where he was warmly received by the King and 
nobility, and his ideas were at once listened to, and every 
possible favor shown to him. 

He was made a Chevalier, and invested with the seigniory 
of Fort Catarocouy, or Frontenac (now known as Kingston) 
upon condition that he would rebuild it, as he proposed, of 

Returning to Canada, he wrought diligently upon the fort 
until 1677, when he again visited France to report progress. 
He was received, as before, with favor, and, at the instance 
of Colbert and his son, the King granted him new letters 
patent and new privileges. Oa the 14th of July, 1678, he 
sailed from Rochelle, accompanied by thirty men, and with 
Tonti, an Italian, for his lieutenant. They arrived at 
Quebec on the 13th of September, and after a few days' 
delay, proceeded to Frontenac. Father Lewis Hennepin, a 
Franciscan friar, of the Recollet sect, was quietly working 
in Canada on La Salle's arrival. He was a man of great 
ambition, and much interested in the discoveries of the day. 
He was appointed by his religious superiors to accompany 
the expedition fitting out for La Salle. 

Sending agents forward to prepare the Indians for his 
coming, and to open trade with them, La Salle himself em- 
barked, on the 18th of November, in a little brigantine of 
ten tons, to cross Lake Ontario. This was the first ship of 
European build that ever sailed upon this fresh-water sea. 
Contrary winds made the voyage long and troublesome, and 
a month was consumed in beating up the lake to the Niagara 
River. Near the mouth of this river the Iroquois had a 
village, and here La Salle constructed the first fortification, 
which afterwards grew into the famous Fort Niagara. On 
the 26th of January, 1679, the keel of the first vessel built 
on Lake Erie was laid at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek, 
on the American side, aiwut six miles above the falls. 
In the meantime La Salle had returned to Fort Frontenac 

to forward supplies for his firthcoming vessel. The little 
barque on Lake Ontario was wrecked by carelessness, and a 
large amount of the supplies slie carried was lost. On the 
7th of August, the new vessel was launched, and made ready 
to sail. She was about seven tons' burden. 

La Salle christened his vessel the " Griffin," in honor of 
the arms of Count Frontenac. Passing across Lake Erie, 
and into the small lake, which they named St. Clair, they 
entered the broad waters of Lake Huron. Here they en- 
countered heavy storms, as dreadful as those upon the ocean 
and after a most tempestuous passage they took refuge in 
the roadstead of MicldlllmacJcinac (Mackinaw), on the 27th 
of August La Salle remained at this point until the middle 
of September, busy in founding a fort and constructing a 
trading-house, when he went forward upon the deep waters 
of Lake Michigan, and soon after cast anchor in Green Bay. 
Finding here a large quantity of furs and peltries, he deter- 
mined to load his vessel and send her back to Niagara. On 
the 18th of September, she was sent under charge of a pilot 
while La Salle himself, with fourteen men,* proceeded up 
Lake Michigan, leisurely examining its shores and noting 
everything of interest. Tonti, who had been sent to look 
after stragglers, was to join him at the head of the lake. 
From the 19lh of Septem'ber to the l?t of November, the 
time was occupied in the voyage up this inland sea. On the 
last-named day, La Salle arrived at the mouth of the river 
3Iiami.s, now St. Joseph. Here he constructed a fort, and 
remained nearly a month waiting for tidings of his vessel; 
but, hearing nothing, he determined to push on before the 
wintershould preventhira. On the 3d of December, leaving 
ten men to garrison the fort, he started overland towards the 
head-waters of the Illinois, accompanied by three monks 
and twenty men. Ascending the St. Joseph River, he 
crossed a short portage and reached the The-a-hi-ki , since 
corrupted into Kanhahce. Embarking on this sluggish 
stream, they came shortly to the Illinois, and soon after 
found a village of the Illinois Indians, probably in the 
vicinity of the rocky blufls, a few miles above the present 
city of La Salle, Illinois. They found it deserted, but the 
Indians had quite a quantity of maize .stored here, and La 
Salle, being short of provisions, helped himself to what he 
required. Passing down the stream, the party, on the 4th of 
January, came to a lake, probably the Lake Peoria, as there 
is no other upon this stream. Here they found a great 
number of natives, who were gentle and kind, and La Salle 
determined to construct a fort. It stood on a rise of ground 
near the river, and was named Creve- Cceur f (broken-heart ), 
most probably on account of the low spirits of the com- 
mander, from anxiety for his vessel and the uncertainty of 
the future. Possibly he had heard of the loss of the " Griffin," 
which occurred on her downward trip from Green Bay ; 
most probably on Lake Huron. He remained at the Lake 
Peoria through the winter, but no good tidings came, and 
no supplies. His men were discontented, but the brave 
adventurer never gave up hope. He resolved to send a 
party on a voyage of exploration up the Mississippi, under 

' Annals of the West. 
t The site of the work is at present un'.;nowa. 



the lead of Father Hennepin, and he himself would proceed 
on foot to Kiagara and Frontenac, to raise more means and 
enlist new men; while Tonti, his lieutenant, should stay at 
the fort, which they were to strengthen in the meantime, and 
extend their intercourse with the Indians. 

Hennepin started on his voyage on the last da}' of Febru- 
ary, 16S0, and La Salle soon after, with a few attendants, 
i-tarted on his perilous journey of twelve hundred miles by 
the way of the Illinois Kiver, the Miami, and Lakes Erie 
! nd Ontario, to Frontenac, which he finally reached in 
safety. He found his worst fears realized. The "Griffin" 
was lost, his agents had taken advantage of his absence, and 
his creditors had seized his goods. But he knew no such 
word as Jail, and by the middle of summer he was again on 
his way with men and supplies for his band in Illinois. A 
sad disappointment awaited him. He found his fort deserted 
and no tidings of Tonti and his men. During La Salle's 
absence the Indians had become jealous of the French, and 
they had been attacked and harassed even by the Iroquois, 
who came the long distance between the shores of Lake 
Ontario and the Illinois River to make war upon the more 
peaceable tribes dwelling on the prairies. L'ncertain of any 
Bi^sistance from La Salle, and apprehensive of a general 
war with the savages, Tonti, in September, 1G80, abandoned 
his position and returned to the shores of the lakes. La 
Salle reached the post on the Illinois in December, 1G80, or 
January, 168L Again bitterly disappointed. La Salle did 
not succumb, but resolved to return to Canada and start 
anew. This he did, and in June met his lieutenant, Tonti, 
at Mackinaw. 

Hennepin in the meanwhile had met with .strange adven- 
tures. After leaving Creve-Coeur, he reached the Missis- 
sippi in seven days ; but his way was so obstructed by ice 
that he was until the 11th of April reaching the AVisconsin 
line. Here he was taken prisoner by some northern Indians, 
who, however, treated him kindly and took him and his 
companions to the falls of St. Anthony, which they reached 
on the first of May. These falls Hennepin named in honor 
of his patron saint. Hennepin and his companions remained 
here for three months, treated very kindly by their captors. 
At the end of this time they met with a band of French, 
led by one Sieur de Lulh,* who, in pursuit of game and 
trade, had penetrated to this country by way of Lake Su- 
perior. With his band Hennepin and his companions re- 
turned to the borders of civilized life in November, 1G80, 
just after La Salle had gone back to the wilderness. Hen- 
nepin returned to France, where, ia 1684, he published a 
narrative of his wonderful adventures. 

Robert De La Salle, whose name is more closely connected 
with the explorations of the Mississippi than that of any 
other, was the next to descend the river in the year 1G82. 
Formal possession was taken of the great river and all the 
countries bordering upon it or its tributaries in the name of 
the King. 

La Salle and his party now retraced their steps towards 
the north. They met with no serious trouble until they 
reached the Chickasaw Bluffs, where ihcy had erected a fort 

" From this man uadoubtedlj- ccmc3 I'.ie name of Dulutli. 

on their downward voyage, and named it Prudhomme. 
Here La Salle was taken violently sick. Unable to proceed, 
he sent forward Tonti to communicate with Count Fronte- 
nac. La Salle himself reached the mouth of the St. Joseph 
the latter part of September. From that point he sent 
Father Zenobe with his dispatches to represent him at court, 
while he turned his attention to the fur trade and to the 
project of completing a fort, which he named St. Louis, 
upon the Illinois River, The precise location of this work 
is not known. It was said to be upon a rocky bluff two 
hundred and fifty feet high, and only accesiible upon one 
side. There are no bluffs of such a height on the Illinois 
River answering the description. It may have been on 
the rocky bluff above La Salle, where the rocks are perhaps 
one hundred feet in height. 

L^pon the completion of this work La Salle again sailed 
for France, which he reached on the 13th of December, 
1G83. A new man. La Barre, had now succeeded Fronte- 
nac as Governor of Canada. This man was unfriendly 
towards La Salle, and this, with other untoward circum- 
stances, no doubt led hira to attempt the colonization of the 
^Mississippi country by w ay of the mouth of the river. Kot- 
withstanding many obstacles were in his path, he succeeded 
in obtaining the grant of a fleet from the King, and on the 
24th of July, 1G84, a fleet of twenty-four vessels sailed from 
Rochelle to America, four of which were destined for Lou- 
isiana, ar.d carried a body of two hundred and eighty 
people, including the crews. There were soldiers, artificers, 
and volunteers, and also " some young women." Discord 
soon broke out between M. de Beanjeu and La Salle, and 
grew from bad to worse. On the iOth of December they 
reached the island of St. Domingo. 

Joutel* was sent out with this party, which left on the 
5lh of February, and traveled eastward three days, when 
they came to a great stream which they could not cross. 
Here they made signals by building great fires, and on the 
loth two of the vessels came in sight. The stream was 
sounded and the vessels were anchored under shelter. But 
again misfortume overtook La Salle, and the vessel was 
wrecked, and the bulk of supplies was lost. At this junc- 
ture M. de Bcaujeu, his second in command, set sail and 
returned to France. La Salle now constructed a rude 
shelter from the timbers of his wrecked vessel, placed bis 
peojile inside of it, and set out to explore the surrounding 
country in hope of finding the Mississippi. He was, of 
course, disappointed : but found on a stream, which is 
named the Yaches, a good site for a fort. He at once re- 
moved his camp, and, after incredible exertions, constructed 
a fortification sufficient to protect them from the Indians. 
This fort was situated on Matagorda Bay, within the present 
liniiU of Texas, and was called by La Salle Fort St. Louis. 

Leaving Joutel to complete the work with one hundred 
men, La Salle took the remainder of the company and em- 
barked on the river, with the intention of proceeding as far 
up as he could. The savages soon became troublesome, and 

•Joutel, historian of tlic voyage, accompanied La Salle, am! snlxic- 
quently wrote his " Journal Historiquc," which was published in Paris, 



on the 14th of July La Salle ordered Joutel to join him 
with his whole I'.rce. They had already lost several of their 
best men, and dangers threatened them on every side. It 
would seem from ihe historian's account of the expedition 
that La Salle began to erect another fort, and also that he 
becartc morose and severe in his discipline, so much so as to 
get the ill will of many of his people. He finally resolved 
to advance into the country, but whether with the view of 
returning to Canada by way of Illinois, or only for the pur- 
pose of making further discoveries, Joutel leaves in doubt. 
Giving his last instructions, he left the fort on the 12th day 
of January, 1687, with a company of about a dozen men, 
including his brother, two nephews. Father Anastasius, a 
Franciscan friar, Joutel, and others, and moved north-east- 
ward, as is supposed, until the 17th of March, when some 
of his men, who had been cherishing revengeful feelings for 
some time, waylaid the Chevalier and shot him dead. 
They also slew one of his nephews and two of his servants. 
Tins deed occurred on the 20th of March, ou a stream 
called Ccnis. 

In 1687, France was involved in a long and bloody war. 
The League of Augsburg was formed by the Princes of tlic 
Empire against Louis XIV., and England, Sf>aiu, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, and Savoy took up arras, and Louis 
found himself battling with nearly the whole of Europe, and 
only Turkey for an ally. This war ended with the peace of 
Kyswick in 1697. 

No material change took place in America, but the colo- 
nists were harassed and many of their people killed or car- 
ried c-ptives to the Canadas. In 1688, the French posses- 
sions ill North America included nearly the whole of the 
continent north of the St. Lawrence, and the entire valley 
of the Mississippi ; and they had begun to establish a line 
of fortifications extending from Quebec to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, between which points they had three great lines 
of communication, to wit : by way of Mackinaw, Green 
Bay, and the Wisconsin Eiver ; by way of Lake Michigan, 
the Kankakee and Illinois Rivers ; and by way of Lake 
Erie, the Maumee and Wabash Rivers, and were preparing 
to explore the Ohio as a fourth route. 

In 1699, D'Iberville, under the authority of the crown, 
discovered, on the second f f March, by way of the sea, the 
mouth of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was 
called by the natives " Malbouchia," and by the Spaniards, 
' La Pulissade," from the great number of trees about its 
mouth. After traversing the several outlets, and satisfying 
himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. An avenue of trade was 
now opened out, which was fully improved. 

At this time a census of New France showed a total 
population of eleven thou.sand two hundred and forty-nine 
Europeans. War again broke out in 1701, and extended 
over a period of twelve years, ending with the treaty of 
L'trecht, in 1713. This also extended to the American Colo- 
nies, and its close left everything as before, with the excep- 
tion that Nova Scotia was captured in 1710. 

In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some 
European colonists. In 1762, the colony was made over to 

Spain, to be regained by France, under the consulate of 

In 1803, it was purchased by the United States, for the 
sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory of Louisiana 
and the commerce of the Mississippi river, came under the 
charge of the United States. Although La Salle's labors 
ended in defeat and death, he had not worked and suffered 
in vain. He had thrown open to France and the world an 
immense and most valuable country. Had established 
several ports, and laid the foundation of more than one 
.settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia are to 
this day monuments of La Salle's labors ; for, th ugh he 
had founded neither of them (unless Peoria, which was built 
nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecrour), it was by those he 
led into the that these places were peopled and civil- 
ized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of the 
Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and 

The French early improved the opening made for them, 
and before 1693, the Reverend Father Gravier began a 
mission among the Illinois, and became the founder of Kas- 
kaskia. For some time it was merely a missionary station, 
and the inhabitants of the village consisted entirely of 
natives ; it being one of three such villages, the other two 
being Cahokia and Peoria. This we learn from a letter 
written by Father Gabriel Marest, dated " Aux Cascaskias, 
Autrement dit de I'lmmaculee concepcion de la Sainte 
Vierge, le 9 Novembrc, 1712." In this letter, the writer 
tells us that Gravier must be regarded as the founder of the 
Illinois mi sions. Soon after the founding of Kaskaskia, the 
missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia,t while 
Peoria arose near the remains of Fort Crevecocur X 

An unsuccessful attempt was also made to found a colony 
on the Ohio. It failed in consequence of sickness.^ 

In the north, De La Motte Cadillac, in June, 1701, laid 
the foundation of Fort Poutchartrain, on the strait, (le De. 
troit'),|| while in the southwest efforts were making to realize 
the dreams of La Salle. The leader in the last named en- 
terprise was Lemoine D'Iberville, a Canadian officer, who 
from 1694 to 1097 distinguished himself not a little by 
battles and conquests among the icebergs of the " Baye 
D'Udson or Hudson Bay." 

The post at Vincennes, on theOubache river, (pronounced 
Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly), was estab- 
lished in 1702. It is quite probable that on La Salle's last 
trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 
Until the year 1750, but little is known of the settlements 
in the northwest, as it was not until this time that the atten- 

■■' The authorities in relation to La Salle are Hennepin : a narrative pub- 
lished in the name of Tonti, in 1697, but disclaimed by liim (Cliarlevoix 
III, 3tl5. Lettres Edifiantes. 

t Bancroft, iii. tflti. 

I There was an Old Peoria on the northwest shore of the lake of that 

name, amile and a half above the outlet. From 1778 to 17% the iiiliaiii- 

tants left this for New Peoria, (Fort Clark) at the outlet. 

State Papers, xviii. 476. 

^ Western An mils, 

f Charlevoix, ii. 2S4. Le Detroit wa.s the whole strait from Erie to 
Huron. The first grants of land at Detroit, t. e., Fort Pontchartrain, 
were made in 1707. 



tion of the English was called to the occupation of this por- 
tion of the new world, which they then supposed they 
owned. Vivier, a missionary among the Illinois, writing 
" Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort Chartres, June 8th, 
1750, says: " We have here whites, negroes, and Indians, to 
say nothing of the cross-breeds. There are five French 
villages, and three villages of the natives within a space of 
twentv-one leagues, situated between the Mississippi and 
another river, called the Karkadiad, (Kaskaskia ). In the 
five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred whites, 
three hundred blacks, and some sixty red slaves or savages. 
The three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight 
hundred souls all told.* Most of the French till the soil. 
They raise wheat, cattle, pigs and horses, and live like 
princes. Three times as much is produced as can be con- 
sumed, and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to 
Kew Orleans." 

Again, in an epistle dated November 17th, 17."iO, Yivicr 
says : " For fifteen leagues above the mouth of the Jlissis- 
sippi, one sees no dwellings * * * * New Orleans contains 
black, white and red, not more, I think, than twelve hun- 
dred persons. To this point come all kinds of lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins, and bear's grease; and 
above all pork and flour from the Illinois. These things 
create some commerce, as forty vessels and more have come 
hither this year. Above New Orleans plantations are again 
met with ; the most considerable is a colony of Germans, 
some ten leagues up the river. At point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, 
witliin five or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. 
Fifty leagues farther up is the Natchez post, where we have 
a garrison." 

Father Marest, witing from the post at Vincennes, makes 
the same observation. Vivier also says, " Some individuals 
dig lead near the surface, and supply the Indians and Can- 
ada. Two Spaniards, now here, who claim to be adepts, 
say that our mines are like those of Mexico, and that if we 
would dig deeper we would find silver under the lead ; at 
any rate the lead is excellent. There are also in this coun- 
try, beyond doubt, copper mines, as from time to time, large 
pieces have been found in the streams." I' 

At the close of the year 17.50, the French occupied in ad- 
dition to the lower ilississippi posts and those iu Illinois, 
one at Du Quesue, one at the ^laumec, in the country of the 
^•lamis, and one at Sandusky, in what may be termed the 
Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the north-west, they 
had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake 
Michigau, at Fort Pontchartraiu (^Detroit), at Micliilli- 
uiackinac or Massillimacinac, Fox Kiver of Green Bay, and 
at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of La Salle were 
now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settle- 
ment. Another nation, however, was now turning its 
attention to this extensive country, and learning of its 
wealth began to lay plans for occupying it and for securing 
the great profits arising therefrom. 

- Lottrc-j Eiliffant,-: i I'm.-, ITolj, vii. 97-IOi;. 
t Western .Vnnali. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, 
namely, the 


The largest branch of the Mississippi river from the east, 
known to the early French settlers as la belle riviere, called 
" beautiful " river, was discovered by Robert Cavalier de 
La .Salle, in 1669. While La Salle was at his trading-post 
on the St. Lawrence, he found leisure to study nine Indian 
dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. While con- 
versing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea. 

In this statement the Mississii)pi and its tributaries were 
considered as one stream. La Salle, believing as most of 
the French at that period did, that the great rivers flowing 
west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to em- 
bark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the 
continent. He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the 
approval of the Governor and the Intendent, Talon. They 
issued letters patent, authorizing the enterprise, but made 
no provisions to defray the expenses. 

At this juncture the seminary St. Sulpicc decided to send 
out missionaries in connection with the expedition, and La 
Salle offering to sell his improvements at La Chive to raise 
the money, the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two 
thousand eight hundred dollars were raised, with which La 
Salle purchased four canoes and, the necessary supplies for 
the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty- 
four persons, embarked iu seven canoes on the St. Lawrence. 
Two additional canoes carried the Indian guides. 

In three days they were gliding over the bosom of Lake 
Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity 
of the present city of Rochester, New York. Here they 
expected to procure guides to conduct them to the Ohio, but 
ill this they were disappointed. After waiting a month in 
the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian from the 
Iroquois colony, at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured 
them they could find guides, and offered to conduct them 
thence. On their way they passed the mouth of Niagara 
river, when they heard for the first time the di.stant thunder 
of the cataract. Arriving among the Iroquois they met 
with a friendly reception, and learned from a Shawnee 
prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. De- 
lighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made i-eady 
to resume their journey, and as they were about to start they 
heard of the arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring 
village. One of them proved to be Louis Joliet, afterwards 
famous as an explorer in the west. He had been sent by 
the Canadian government to explore the copper mines on 
Lake Superior, but had failed and was on his way back to 

On arriving at Lake Superior, they found, as La Salle 
had predicted, the Jesuit fathers, Marquette and Dablon, 
occupying the field. After parting with the priests, La 
Salle went to the chief Iroquois village at Onondago, where 
he obtained guides and passing thence to a tributary of the 
Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far as 



the falls of Louisville. Tlius was the Ohio discovered by 
La Salle, the persevering and successful French explorer of 
the west in 16(39. 

When "Washington was sent out by the colony of Virginia 
in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty com- 
mandant at Quebec replied : " We claim the country on the 
Ohio by virtue of the discoveries of La Salle, and 'will not 
give it up to the Engli.«h. Our orders are to make prisoners 
of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio valley." 


"We have sketched the progress of French discovery in 
the valley of the Mississippi. The first travelers reached 
tha* river in 1073, and when the year 17.50 broke in upon 
the father of waters and the great north-we-st, all was still 
except those little spots upon the prairies of Illinois and 
among the marshes of Louisiana. 

Volney, by conjecture, fixes the settlement of Yiucennes 
about 1735.* Bishop Brute, of Indiana, speaks of a mis- 
sionary station there in 1700, and adds: "The friendly 
tribes and traders called to Canada for protection, and then 
M. De Yincennes came with a detachment, I think, of 
Carignan, and was killed in 1735. "f Bancroft says a mili- 
tary e.stablishment was formed there in 1716, and in 1742 a 
settlement of herdsmen took place. J In a petition of the 
old inhabitants at Viucennes, dated in November, 1793, we 
find the settlement spoken of as having been made before 
1742.§ And such is the general voice of tradition. On the 
other hand, Charlevoix, who records the death of "Vincennes, 
which took place among the Chickasaws, in 1736, makes no 
mention of any post on the Wabash, or any missionary 
station there. Neither does he mark any upon his map, 
although he gives even the British forts upon the Tennessee 
and elsewhere. Such is the character of the proof relative 
to the settlement of Vincennes. 

Hennepin, in 166-3-4, had heard of the " Hohio." The 
route from the lakes to the Mississippi, by the Wabash, was 
explored 1676, 1| and in Hennepin's volume of 1698, is a 
journal, said to be that sent by La Salle to Count Frontenac 
in 1682 or '83, which mentions the route by the Maumeel" 
and Wabash as the most direct to the great western river. 

In 1749, when the English first began to think seriously 
of sending men into the west, the greater portions of the 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota were yet under the dominion of the red men. 
The English knew, however, of the nature of the vast 
wealth of these wilds. 

In the year 1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had 
matured a plan and commenced movements, the object of 
which was to secure the country beyond the Allegheni.s to 
the English crown. In Pennsylvania, also. Governor Keith 
and James Logan, Secretary of the Province from 1719 to 

» Volney's View, p. 336. 

t Butler's Kentucky. 

t History U. S. iii. 346. 

J American State Papers, .xvi. 32. 

II Histoire General Des Voyages xiv., 758. 

^Now called Miami. 

1731, represented to the powers of England the necessity of 
taking steps to secure the western lands Nothing, however, 
was done by the mother country, except to take certain 
diplomatic steps to secure the claim of Britain to this unex- 
ploreil wilderncs?. England nad from the outset cl.aimed 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, on the ground that the dis- 
covery and possession of the sea coast was a discovery and 
possession of the country ; and as is well known, her grants 
to Virginia, Connecticut, and other colonies, were through 
from " sea to sea." This was not all her claims ; she had 
purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This 
was also a strong argument. 

In the year 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, 
held a treaty with the five nations at Albany. These were 
the great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Ououdagas, Cayugas, and Seuecas. 
Afterward the Tuscaroras were taken into the confederacy, 
and it became known as the six nations. They came under 
the protection of the mother country, and again in 1701 they 
repeated the agreement. Another formal deed was drawa 
up and signed by the chiefs of the National Confederacy in 
1726, by which their lands were conveyed in trust to Eng- 
land, " to be protected and defended by his majesty, to and 
for the use of the grantors and their heirs." The validity 
of this claim has often been disputed, but never successfull}'. 
In 1774, a purchase was made at Lancaster of certain lands 
within the " colony of Virginia," for which the Indians 
received £200 in gold and a like sum in goods, with a 
promise that as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The commissioners from Virginia at the treaty were Col. 
Thomas Lee and Col. William Beverly. 

As settlements extended, and the Indians .^egan to com- 
plain, the promise of further pay was called to mind, and 
Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the Alleghenies to Logs- 
town. In 1784, * Col. Lee and some Virginians accom- 
panied him, with the intention of ascertaining the feelings 
of the Indians with regard to further settlements in the west, 
which Col. Lee and others were contemplating. The object 
of these proposed settlements was not the cultivation of the 
soil, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. Accordingly 
after Weiser's conference with the Indians at Logstown, 
which was favorable to their views, Thomas Lee, with 
twelve other Virginians, among whom were Lawrence and 
Augustine, brothers of George Washington, and also Mr. 
Hanbury, of London, formed an association whi h they 
called the "Ohio Company," and in 1748 petitioned the 
king for a grant beyond the mountains. This petition was 
approved by the English government, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to the petitioners half a 
million of acres within the bounds of that colony beyond 
the Alleghenies, two hundred thousand of ^^hich were to be 
located at once. This portion was to be held for ten years 
free of quit-rent, provided the company would put there one 
hundred families within seven years, and build a fort suffi- 
cient to protect the settlement. The company accepted the 
proposition, and sent to London for a cargo suited to the 
Indian trade, which should arrive ij November, 1749. 

»Pljia Facts, pp.40, 120. 


Other companies wore also formed about this time in Vir- 
ginia to cohinize tiie west. On the 12th of June, 1749, a 
grant of 800,1100 acres from the line of Canada, on the 
north and west, was made to the Loyal t'onipany, and on 
the 29th of October, 1751, another of lOO.UOO acres to the 
Grtenbriar Company. * 

The French were not blind all this time. They saw that 
if the British once obtained a stronghold upon the Ohio, 
they might not only prevent their settlements upon it, but 
in time would come to the lower posts, and so gain posses- 
sion of the whole country. Upon the lOth of May, 1744, 
Vaudreuil, the French governor, well knowing the conse- 
quences that must arise from allowing the English to build 
trading posts in the north-.vest, seized some of their frontier 
posts, to further secure the claims of the French to the 
west. Having these fears, and seeing the danger of the 
late movements of the British, Gallisoniere, then Governor 
of Canada, determined to place along the Ohio evidences of 
the French claim to, and possession of, the country. For 
that purpose he sent, in the summer of 1749, Louis Celeron, 
with a party of soldiers, to place plates of lead, on which 
were written out the claims of the French, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of the rivers. These were heard of by 
Willliam Trent, au Indian commissioner, sent out by Vir- 
ginia in 17">2, to treat with and conciliate the Indians, 
while upon the Ohio, and mentioned in his journal. One of 
these plates was found with the inscription partly defaced. 
It bears date August ICth, 1749, and a cojn of the inscrip- 
tion, with particular account, was sent by De Witt Clinton 
to the American Autiiiuariau Society, among whose journals 
it may now be found. These measures did not, however, 
deter the English fnmi going on with their explorations. 

In Februarv, H-)!, Christoph-T Gist was scut by the 
Ohio Company to examine its lands. He went to a village 
of the Twigtwecs, on the Miami, about 1")0 miles above its 
mouth. From there he went down the Ohio Paver nearly 
to the falls, at the jiresent city of Louisville, and in Novem- 
ber ha commenced a survey of the company's lands. In 
1751, General Andrew l/cwis commenced some surveys in 
the Greenbrier country, on behalf of the company already 
mentioned. Meanwhile the French were busy iu preparing 
their forts for defence, and in opening roads. In 1752 
having heard of the trading houses on the Miami River, 
thev, assisted by tlie Oltawas and Cliippewas, attacked it, 
and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of the natives 
were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
The traders were carried away to Canada, and one account 
says several were b\irned. This fort, or trading house was 
called by the Engli.-h writers rickawillany. A memorial 
of the king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawellanes, in the 
centre of the territory between Ohio ami the Wabash." 
This was the first blood shed between the French and 
English, and occurred near the present city of Piqua, Ohio. 
The English were determined ou their part to purchase a 
title from the Indians of lands whi'-h they wished to occupy, 
and in the spring of 1752, Messrs. Fry,t Lomax and Pat. on 

^^Rcvlsiil Pinmipi of Vir.'iiii.i. 
+ .\ftirnar.l-i C'lHiinnii l.i-in-cliicf t 
meut of lUc I'rcnch Vi'-.'.r of 177j. 

Wasliiiii'tou, at Cio commencc- 

were sent from Virginia to hold a conference with the 
natives at L igstown, to learn what they objected to in the 
treaty at Lancaster, and to settle all difficulties. On the 
9th of June the commissioners met the red men at Logs- 
town. This was a village seventeen miles below Pittsburgh, 
upon the north side of the Ohio. Hero had been a trading 
post for many years, but it was abandoned by the Indians 
in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize the 
treaty of Lancaster, but the commissioners taking aside 
Jlontour, the interpreter, who was a son of the famous 
Catherine Montour, and a chief among the six nations, 
being three-fourths of Indian blood, through his influence 
an agreement was eflbcted, and upon the 13th of June they 
all united in signing a deed, confiruiing the Lancaster treaty 
in its fullest extent. Meanwhile the powers beyond the seas 
were trving to out-manieuver each other, and were professing 
to be at peace. The English generally outwitted the Indians, 
and secured themselves, as they thought, by their polite 
conduct. But the French, in this as in all cases, proved that 
they knew best how to manage the natives. While these 
measures were taken, another treaty with the wild men of 
the debatable land was also iu contemplation. And iu Sep- 
tember, 1753, William Fairfax met their deputies at Win- 
chester, Virginia, where he concluded a treaty. In the 
month following, however, a more satisfactc ry interview took 
place at Carlisle, between the representatives of the Iroquois, 
Delawares, Shawneos, Twigtwees, and Wyandots, and the 
commissioners of Pennsylvania, Richard Peters, Isaac Xorris, 
and Bonjamin Franklin. Soon after this, no satisfaction 
being obtained from the Ohi,), either as to the force, position, 
or purposes of the French, Robert Dinwiddie, then Governor 
of Virginia, determined to send to them another messenger, 
and learn if possible their intentions. For this purpose he 
selected a young surveyor, who, at the age of nineteen had 
attained the rank of major, and whose previous life had 
inured him to hardships and woodland ways ; while his 
courage, cool judgment, and firm will, all fitted him fir such 
a mission. This personage was no other than the illustrious 
George Washington, who then held considerable interest iu 
western lands. He was twenty-one years old at the time of 
the appointment.* Taking Gist as a guide, the two, accom- 
panied by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. 
They lefi Will's Creek, where Cumberland now is, on the 
15lh of Xoveraber, and on the 22d reached the Monongahel;;, 
about ten miles above the f 'rk. From there they went t . 
L ogstown, where Washington had a long conference wil'.i 
the chiefs of the six nations. Here he learned the position 
of the French, and also that they had determined not to come 
down the river until the following spring. The Indians were 
non-committal, they deeming a neutral position the safest. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done, went on to Ve- 
nango, au old Indian town at the mouth of the Frencli 
Creek. Here the French had a fort called Fort Machault. 
Ou the 11th of D -c Muber he reached l!ie fort at the head of 
French Creek. Here he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's 
letter, received his answer, and upon the l<)th set out upun 
his return journey with no one l>ut Gist, hii guidi-. and a few 

-'SiKirks' Wa,liiu-:on, Vol. ii., ri>- iZi-n:. 



Indians, who still remained true to liim. They reached home 
iu safety on the 6th of January, 1754. From the letter of 
St. Pierre, Commander of the French fort, sent by Washing- 
ton to Governor Dinwiddle, it was perfectly clear that the 
French would not yield the West without a struggle. Active 
preparations were at once made ia all the English colonies 
for the coming conflict, while the French finished their fort 
at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications to 
be in readiness. The Old Dominion was alive. Virginia 
was the center of great activities. Volunteers were called 
for, and from neighboring colonies men rallied to the conflict, 
and everywhere along the Potomac men were enlisting under 
Governor's proclamation, — which promised two hundred 
thousand acres on tlie Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, 
whither Trent had come for assistance, for his little band of 
fjrty-one men, who were working away in hunger and want, 
to fortify that point at the fork of the Ohio, to which both 
parties were looking with deep interest. The first birds of 
spring filled the firest with their songs. The swift river 
rolled by th^ Alh-glieny hillsides, swollen by the melting 
snows of spring and April showers. The leaves were appear- 
ing, a few Indian Scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed 
near at hand, and all was so quiet that Frazier, an old In- 
dian trader, who had been left by Trent in command of the 
new fort, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, 
ten miles up the M jnougahela. But though all was so quiet 
iu that wilderness, keen eyes had seen the low entrenchment 
that was rising at the fork, and swift feet had borne the news 
of it up the valley,, and on the morning of the 17th of April, 
Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw upon the 
Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink; — sixty batteaux 
and three hundred canoes, filled with men, and laden deep 
with cannon and stores. The fort was called on to surren- 
der: by the advice of the Half-King, AVard tried to evade 
the act, but it would not do. Contreca;ur, with a thousand 
men about him, said 'Evacuate,' and the eusign dared not 
refuse. That evening he supped with his captor, and the 
next day was bowed off" by the Frenchman, and, with his 
men and tools, marched up the Mouongahela." The French 
and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narra- 
ted show that the French were determined to hold the coun- 
try watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries: while the 
English laid claim to the country by virtue of the discoveries 
by the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New Found- 
land to Florida, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had been struck, and the first attempt of 
the English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these 
lands had resulted disastrously to them. The French and 
Indians immediately completed the fortifications begun at 
the fork, which they had so easily captured, and when com- 
pleted gave to the fort the name of Du Quesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek, when the news of the capture of the 
fort arrived. He at once departed to recapture it. On his 
way he entrenched himself at a place called the " Meadows," 
where he erected a fort called by him Fort Necessity. From 

there he surprised and captured a force of French and Indi- 
ana marching against him, but was soon after attacked by a 
much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the morn- 
ing of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned for cam- 
paigns, one against Fort Du Quesne, one against Nova Sco- 
tia, one against Fort Niagara, and one against Crown Point. 
These occurred during 1755-6, and were not successful in 
driving the French from their possessions.. The expedition 
against Fort Du Quesne was led by the famous Braddock, 
who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 
acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered an inglorious de- 
feat. This occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is gen- 
erally known as the battle of Monougahela or " Braddock's 
defeat." The war continued through various vicissitudes 
through the years 1756-7, when, at the commencement of 
1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then 
secretary of state, afterwards Lord Chatham, active prepa- 
rations were made to carry on the war. Three expeditions 
were planned for this year : one under General Amherst, 
against Louisburg; another under Abcrcrombie, against 
Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third under General Forbes, against 
Fort Du Quesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surren- 
dered after a desperate resistance of more than forty days, 
and the eastern partof the Canadian possessions fell into the 
hands of the British. Abercrombie captu red Fort Fronte- 
nac, and when the expedition against Fort Du Quesne, of 
which Washington had the active command, arrived there, 
it was found in flames anl deserted. The English at once 
took possession, rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illus- 
trious statesman, changed the name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the redac- 
tion of Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; 
Araherst was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and 
General Prideaux was to capture Niagara. This latter place 
was taken in July, but the gallant Prideaux lost his life. 
Amherst captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point, without a 
blow ; and Wolfe, making the memorable ascent to the 
plains o£ Abraham, on September 13th, dufeated Montcalm, 
and on the l«lh the city capitulated. In this engagement, 
Montcalm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Jlont- 
calm's successor, marched to Sillery, three miles above the 
city, with th3 purpose of defeating the English, and there, 
on the 28th of the following April, was fought one of the 
bloodiest battles of the French and Indian war. It resulted 
iu the defeat of the French, and the fall of the city of JMon- 
treal. The Governor signed a capitulation by which the 
whole of C.mada was surrendered to the English. This 
practically concluded the war, but it was not until 1763 
that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that 
year, and under its provisions all the country east of the 
Mississippi and north of the Ibervill river in Louisiana, were 
ceded to England. At the same time, Spain ceded Florida 
to Great Britain. 

On the 13th September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was 
sent from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only re- 
maining French post in the territory. He arrived tliere on 



the 9th of November, and suramoaed the place to surrender. 
At first the commander of the post, Beletre, refused, but on 
the 29rh, hearing of the continued defeat of the French array, 
surrendered. The North-west Territory was now entirely 
under the English rule. In 17G2, France, by a secret treaty, 
ceded Louisiana to Spain, to prevent it fulling into the hands 
of the English, who were becoming masters of the entire 
West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fou- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the dominion in question. 
Twent)' years after, by the treaty of peace between the United 
States and England, that part of Canada lying south and 
west of the great lakes, comprising a large territory, was 
acknowledged to be a portion of the United States. In 
1803 Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to France, and by 
France sold to the United States. By the treaty of Paris, 
the regions east of the Mississippi, including all these and 
other towns of the north-west, were given over to England ; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 
17G5, when Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty in 
England, establisheil himself at Fort Chai-tres, bearing with 
him the proclamation of General Gage, dated December 
30th, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Catho- 
lics who worshiped here and the right to leave the country 
with their effects if they wished, or to remain with the priv- 
ileges of Englishmen. During the years 1775 i.nd 177(5, by 
the operations of land companies and the perseverance of 
individuals, several settlements were firmly established be- 
tween the AUeghenies aud the Ohio river, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a 
council held in Kaskaskia, on July .Sth, 1773, an association 
of English traders, calling themselves the " Illinois Land 
Company," obtained from the chiefs of the Kaskaskia, Ca- 
hokia, aud Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on the 
east side of the Mississippi river south of the Illinois. In 
177o a merchant from the Illinois country, named Viviat, 
came to Post Viucennes as the agent of the association called 
the "Wabash Land Company." On the 8th of October he 
obtained from eleven Piauke.-haw chiefs a deed for 37,497, 
GOO acres of land. This dccil was signed bv the grantors, 
attested by a number of the inhabitants of Yincennes, and 
afterward recorded in the office of a Notary Public at Kas- 
kaskia. This and other land companies had extensive 
schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all were frus- 
trated by the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. On 
the 20th of April, 1780, the two comixinies named consoli- 
dated under the name of the " United Illinois and Wabash 
Land Company ; " they afterwards made strenuous efforts to 
have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all signally 
failed. When the war of the Revolution commenced, Ken- 
tucky was an unorganized country, though there were several 
settlements within her borders. 

In Ilutehins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated th.".t at 
that time Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 
white and black inhabitants, the whites being a little the 
more numerous. Cahokia contained fifty houses, 300 white 
inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were east of the !Missis- 
sippi river, about the year 1771 — when these observations 
were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 

238 negroes." From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, 
nothing is recorded and nothing known of these settlements, 
save what is contained in a report made by a committee to 
Congress in June, 1778. From it the following extract is 
made: " Near the mouth of the river Kaskaskia, there is a 
village which appears to have contained nearly eighty fam- 
ilies from the beginning of the late Revolution ; there are 
twelve families at a small village at La Prairie Du Rochers, 
and nearly fifty families at the Cahokia village. There are 
also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philip's, 
which is five miles further up the river." St. Louis had been 
settled in February, 1764, and at this time contained, inclu- 
ding its neighboring towns, over six hundred white aud one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all 
the country west of the Mississippi was under French rule, 
and remained so until ceded back to Spain, its original owner, 
who afterwards sold it and the country including New Or- 
leans to the United States. At Detroit, there were, accord- 
ing to Caj)tain Carver, who was in the north-west from 17G8 
to 1776, more than one hundred houses, and the river was 
settled for more than twenty miles, although poorly cultiva- 
ted, the people being engaged in the Indian trade. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held 
every post of importance in the West. Kentucky was 
formed as a component part of Virginia, and the sturdy 
pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, and recog- 
nizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the 
trade in this part of the New World, held steadily to their 
purposes, and those w'ithin the commonivealth of Ken- 
tucky proceeded to exercise their civil privileges of tlecting 
John Todd aud Richard Gallaway burgesses, to represent 
theni in the assembly of the present state. The chief spirit 
in this far-out colony, who had represented her the year 
previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
of unequalled boldness. He had been watching the move- 
ments of the British throughout the north-west, aud under- 
stood their whole plan. He saw it was through their 
possession of the post at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, and 
other places, which would give them easy access to the vari- 
ous Indian tribes in the north-west, that the British intended 
to penetrate the country from the north aud south, and 
annihilate the frontier fortresses. Tliis moving, energetic 
mau was Colonel, afterwards General George Rodgers Clark. 
He knew that the Indians were not unanimously in accord 
with the English, and he was convinced that, could the 
British be defeated and expelled from the north-west, the 
natives might be easily awed iuto neutrality ; by spies sent for 
the purpose, he satisfied himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlements might easily succeed. Patrick Henry 
was Governor of Virginia, and at once entered heartily iuto 
Clark's plans. The same plan had before been agitated in 
the Colonial Assemblies ; but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufHciently acquainted with the condition of 
affairs at the scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, havingsatisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility 
of his plan, received on the second of January two sets of 
instructions: one secret, the other open. The latter authoriz- 
ed him to proceed to enlist seven companies to go to Ken- 



tucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three months from 
their arrival in the west. The secret order authorized him 
to arm tlie troops, to procure his powder and lead of General 
Hand, at Pittsburg, and to proceed at once to subjugate the 

"With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
in"- rather to raise his men west of the mountains. Here he 
raised three companies and several private volunteers. 
Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which 
he navigated as far as tlie falls, where he took possession of 
and fortified Corn Island, between the present sites of Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and Ivew Albany, Indiana. Remains of 
this fortification may yet be found. At this place he ap- 
pointed Col. Bowman to meet him with such recruits as had 
reached Kentucky by the southern route. Here he an- 
nounced to the men their real destination. On the 24th of 
June he embarked on the river, his destination being Fort 
Massac or Massacre, and then marched direct to Kaskaskia. 
The march was accomplished and the town reached on the 
evening of July 4. He captured the fort near the village, 
and soon after the village itself, by surprise, without the 
loss of a single man or killing any of the enemy. Clark 
told the natives that they were at perfect liberty to worship 
as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the conflict 
thev would, and he would protect them from any barbarity 
from Biitish or Indian foes. This had the desired 'effect, 
and the inhabitants at once swore allegiance to the Ameri- 
can arms, and when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 
Gth of July, they accompanied him, and through their in- 
fluence the inhabitants of the place surrendered. Thus two 
iiniwrtaut posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the Eng- 
lish into the possession of Virginia. During the year 
(1779) the famous " Land Laws " of Virginia were passed- 
Tlie passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the north-west than the gaining 
of a few Indian conflicts. These grants confirmed in the 
main all grants made, and guaranteed to actual settlers their 
rights and privileges. 

After providing for the settlers, the laws provided for sell- 
ing the balance of the public lands at forty cents per acre. 
To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature sent 
four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims 
over many of which great confusion prevailed concerning 
their validity vote.* These gentlemen opened their court on 
October, 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and continued until April 
26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided three thou- 
sand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, — George 
May, who assumed the duties on the 10th day of the month 
whose name he bore. With the opening of the next year 
(1781) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Government of Spain exacted such 
measures in relation to its trade as to cause the overtures 
made to the United States to be rejected. The American 
Government considered they had a right to navigate its 
channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. f 

» Butlur's Kentucky. 

t American State Papera. 

The settlements in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by 
emigrants. It was during this year that the first seminary 
of learning was established in the West in this young and 
enterprising commonwealth. 

The settlers did not look upon the building of the fort in 
a friendly manner as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. 
Spain hael been friendly to the colonies during their struggle 
for independence, and though for a while this friendship ap- 
peared in danger from the refusal of the free navigation of 
the river, yet it was finally settled to the satisfaction of both 
nations. The winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusu- 
. ally severe ones ever experienced in the West. The Indians 
always refered to it as the " Great Cold." Numbers of wild 
animals perished, and not a few pioneers lost their lives. 
The following summer a parly of Canadians and Indians, 
attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possesion of it in 
consecjuence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolt- 
ing colonies. They met with such a determined resistance 
on the part of the inhabitants, even the women taking part 
in the battle, that they were compelled to abandon the con- 
test. They also made an attack on the settlements in Ken- 
tucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable man- 
ner, they fled the country in great haste. About this time 
arose the cjuestion in the Colonial Congress concerning the 
western lauds claimed by Virginia, New York, Jlassachu- 
setts and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this sub- 
ject finally led New York, on the 19th of February, 17S0, to 
pass a law giving to the delegates of that State in Congress 
the power to cede her western lands for the benefit of the 
United States. This law was laid before Congress during 
the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until 
September Oth, when a resolution passed that boely calling 
upon the states claiming western lands to release their claims 
in favor of the whole body. This basis formed the Union, 
and was the first after all of those legislative measures, 
which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois,Michigan, Wisconsin and ^Minnesota. In Decemberof 
the same year, the plan of coneiuering Detroit again arose. The 
conquest might easiiy have been effected by Clark, had the 
necessary aid been furnished him. Nothing decisive was 
done, yet the heads of the Government knew that the safety 
of the North- West from British invasion lay iji ihe capture 
and retention of that important post, the only unconquered 
one in the territory. 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into 
the counties of Lincoln, Fayette, and Jeilerson, and the act 
establishirg the town of Louisville was passed. Virginia in 
accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d day 
of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the 
United States upon certain conditions, which Congress would 
not accede to,* and the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old 
Dominion, failed, nor was anything farther done until 1783. 
During all that time the colonies were busily engaged in the 
struggle with the mother country, and in consequence thereof 
but little heed was given to the western settlements. Upon 
the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio 
Eiver of American parentage occurred, being that of Mary 
9 American State Papers. 



Hcckewelder, daughter of the widely known Moravian Mis- 
sionary, whose band of Christian Indians suffered in after 
years a horrible massacre by the hands of the frontier settlers, 
who had been exasperated by the murder of several of their 
neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to 
humanity, a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of 
shame upon their lives. For this and kindred outrages on 
the part of the whites, the Indians committed many deeds of 
cruelty which darken the years of 1781 and 17S2 in the his- 
tory of the Xorth-west. During the year 1782 a number of 
battles among the Indians and frontiersmen occurred, and 
between the ^loraviau Indians and the Wyandota. In these, 
horrible acts of cruelty were practiced on the captives, many 
of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of fron- 
tier outlaws. These occurred diiefiy in the Ohio Valleys. 
Contemporary with them were several engagements in Ken- 
tucky, in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, 
often by his skill and knowledge of Indian warfore, saved 
the outposts from cruel destruction. By the close of the 
vear victory had perched upon the American banner, 
and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of 
peace had been arranged between the Commissioners of 
England and her unconquerable colonies ; C'ornwallis had 
been defeated on the 19th of October preceding, and the lib- 
erty of America was assured. On the 19.h of April follow- 
ing, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 
proclaimed to the Army of the United States, and on the 3d 
of the next September, the definite treaty which ended our 
revolutionary struggle was concluded. By the terms of that 
treaty, the boundaries of the "West were as follows : On the 
north the line was to extend along the centre of the Great 
Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long 
I.,ake, thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of 
the ^Mississippi Paver ; down its center to the 31st parallel of 
latitude, then on that line east to the head of the Appalach- 
icola Bivcr; down its center to its junction wiih the Flint ; 
thence straight to the head of St. JIary's Kiwr, and theucj 
down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessationof hostilities with England, several 
posts were still occupied by the British in the Xorth and 
West. Among these was Detroit, still in the hands of the 
enemy. Numerous engagements with the Indians through- 
out Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose lands adventur- 
ous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by the 
proper trcatv. To remedy this evil, Congress appointed 
Commissioners to treat with the natives and purchase their 
lands, and prohibited the settlement of the territory until 
this could be done. Before the close of the year another 
attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in 
the North-west she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, 
having on the 20th of December preceding, authorized the 
whole of her possessions to be deeded to the United States. 
This was done on the 1st of March following, and the North- 
west Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To General Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract 
of one hundred and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situ- 
ated anywhere north of the Ohio wherever they cly^se to 

locate them. They selected the region opposite the falls of 
the Ohio, where is now the village of Clarksville, about mid- 
way between the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, 

While the frontier remained thus, and General Ilaldi- 
mand at Detroit refused to evacuate, alleging that he had no 
orders from his king to do so, settlers were rapidly gather- 
ing about the inland forts. In the spring of 17S4, Pittsburg 
was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur Lee, 
who passed through the town soon after on his way to the 
Indian council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very 
prepossessing in appearance. He say.s, " Pittsburg is in- 
habited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who live in paltry 
log houses, and are as dirty as if in the North of Ireland, or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, 
the goods being brought at the vast expense of forty-five 
shillings per hundred lbs. from Philadelphia and Baltimore. 
They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and money. There 
are in the town, four attorneys, two doctors, and not a priest 
of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabi- 
tants, and was beginning to discuss measures for a separation 
from Virginia. A land office was opened at Louisville, and 
measures were adopted to take defensive precaution against 
the Indians, who were yet, in some instances, incited to deeds 
of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, 
although no entries were recorded until 1787. The Indian 
title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished, they held 
large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Con- 
gress adopted means for treaties with the original owners 
and provided for the surveys of the lands gained thereby, as 
well as for those north of the Ohio, now in its possession. 
On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made with the Wabash 
Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made in 
1781, that at Fort Mcintosh in 178.5, and through theso 
vast tracts of land were gained. The Wabash Indians, how- 
ever, afterwards refused to compi)' with the provisions of 
the treaty made with them, and in order to compel their 
adherence to its provisions, force was used. 

During the year 1786, the free navigation of the !Mis 
sissippi came up in Congress, and caused various discussions, 
which resulted in no defiait^p anion, only serving to excite 
speculation in regard to the Western lands. Congress had 
promised bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, 
but owing to the unsettled condition of affairs along the 
Mississippi respecting its navigation, and the trade of the 
Northwest, that body, had in 1783 declared its inability to 
fulfill those promises until a treaty could be coucluded be- 
tween the two governments. Before the close of the year, 
17SG, however, it was able, through the treaties with the 
Indians, to allow some grants and settlements thereon, and 
on the 14th of September Connecticut ceded to the general 
government the tract of land known as the '' Connecticut 
Reserve," and before the close of the year a_ large tract of 
land was sold to a company, who at once took measures to 
settle it. Bv the provisions of this grant, the company were to 
pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a de- 



ductiiui of one-third fur bad lands and other contingencies, 
they received 750,000 acres bounded on the south by the 
Ohio, on the east by the Seventh range of townships, on the 
west by the Sixteenth range, and on the north by a line so 
drawn as to make the grant complete without the reservation. 
lu addition to this Congress afterward granted 100,000 acres 
to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under 
the resolutions of 17.S9 and 1790. While Dr. Cutler, one of 
the agents of the company, was pressing its claims before 
Congress, that body \va3 bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. 
"When the cession was made by Virginia, 1784, a plan was 
offered, but rejected. A motion had been made to strike from 
the proposed plan the prohibition of slavery, which prevail- 
ed. The plan was then discussed and altered, and finally 
passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition tlie Territory was to have been divided 
into ten States by parallels and meridian lines. There were, 
however, serious objections to this plan ; the root of the diffi- 
culty was in 'the resolution of Congress passed in October, 
17S0, which fixed the boundaries of the ceded lands to be. 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles square. 
These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts they desired a change, and in July 
1786, the subjeat was taken up in Congress and changed to 
favor a division into not more than five S.'ates, and not less 
than three; this was approved by the Legislature of Virginia. 
The subject was again taken up by Congress in 17S6, and 
discussed throughout that year, and until July 1787 when 
the famous " compact of 1787 " was passed, and the founda- 
tion of the government of the Northwest laid. This compact 
is fully discussed and explained in the sketch on Illinois in 
this book, and to it the reader is referred. The passage of this 
act and the grant to the New England Company was soon 
followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of land between the 
Miamis. This gentleman had visited these lands soon after 
the treaty of 1786, and being greatly pleased with them, 
offered similar terms to those given to the New England 
Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury Board 
with power to act, and a contract was concluded the follow- 
ing year. During the autumn the directors of the New 
England Company were preparing to occupy their grant 
the following spring, and upon the 23d of November made 
arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, under the 
superintendency of General Rufus Putnam, to set forward. 
Six boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of 
January the surveyors and their assistant?, twenty-six in 
number, were to meet at Hartford and proceed on their 
journey westward, the remainder to follow as soon as possi- 
ble. Congress in the meantime, upon the 3d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western 
settlers, and to prevent unauthorized intrusions, and two 
days later appointed Arthur St. Clair Governor of the Ter- 
ritory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of tlie Northwest Territory was 
now complete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of In- 

dian affairs, settlers from the east began to come into the 
country rapidly. The New England Company sent their 
men during the winter of 1787-8, pressing on over the Alle- 
ghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national 
turnpike from Cumberland, westward. Through the weary 
winter days they toiled on, and by April were all gathered 
on the Youghiogheny, where boats had been built, and a 
once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived on the 
7th of that mouth, and unless the ^Moravian missionaries be 
regarded as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly 
claim that honor. 

General St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the North 
west not having yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, writ- 
ten out, and published by being nailed to a tree in the 
embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed to administer 
them. Washington in writing of this, the first American 
settlement in the Northwest said : " No colony in America 
was ever settled under such favorable auspices as that which 
has just commenced at Muskingum. I know many of its set- 
tlers personally, and there were never men better calculated 
to promote the welfare of such a community." On the 2d 
of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held on 
the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpo e of naming 
the new born city and its squares." As yet the settlement 
was known as the " ]\Iuskingum," but was afterwards changed 
to the name. Marietta, in honor of Mario Antoinette. 
Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Var- 
uum, who with S. II. Parsons and John Armstrong had been 
appointed to the judicial bench of the territory on the IGth 
of October 1787. On July 9, Governor St. Clair arrived, 
and the colony began to assume form. The act of 1787 pro- 
vided two distinct grades of government for the Northwest, 
under the first of which the whole power was invested in the 
hands of a governor and three district judges. This was 
immediately formed on the governor's arrival, and the first, 
laws of the colony passed on the 25th of July: these provid- 
ed for the organization of the militia, and on the next day 
appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that 
country that had been ceded by the Indians east of the 
Scioto River into the county of Washington. From that 
time forward, notwithstanding the doubts yet existing as to 
the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the second of 
September the first court was held with imposing ceremonies. 
The emigration westward at this time was very great. 
The commander at Fort Ilarmer, at the mouth of the Musk- 
ingum reported four thousand five hundred persons as having 
passed that post between February and June 17S8, many of 
whom would have purchased of the " Associates," as the 
New England Company was called, had they been ready to 
receive them. On the 2Gth of November 1787 Symmes 
issued a pamphlet stating the terms of his contract and the 
plan of sale he intended to adopt. In January 1788, Mat- 
thias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest in 
Svmmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sec- 
tions upon which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one- 
third of this locality, he sold the other two-thirds to Robert 
Patterson and John Filson, and the three about August 

EiticLY OF BAynoLnr, MoynoE axd PEnnr counties, Illinois. 


commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which was desig- 
nated as being Licking River, to the mouth of whicli thcy 
proposed to have a road cut from Lexington ; these settle- 
ments prospered but suffered greatly from the flood of 1780. 
On the 4th of March 1789, the Constitution of the United 
States went into operation, and on April 30th, George 
AVashington was inaugurated President, and during the next 
summer an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north 
of the Ohio. The President at first used pacific means but 
these failing, he sent General Ilarmer against the hostile 
tribes. He destroyed several villages, but was defeated in 
two battles, near the present city of Fort Wayne, Indiana 
From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events 
were the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 179(5, 
General St. Clair was appointed in command, and marched 
against the Indians ; but while he was encamped on a stream, 
the 8t Mary, a branch of the Maumee, he was attacked and 
defeated with a loss of six hundred men. General "Wayne 
was then sent against the savages. In August, 1794, he met 
them near the rapids of the JIaumee, and gained a cumpkte 
victorv. This success, followed by vigorous measures, com- 
pelled the Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, 
the following year, the treaty cf Greenville was signed by 
the principal chiefs, by which a large tract of country was 
ceded to the United States. Before proceeding in our nar- 
rative, we will pause to notice Fort "Washington, erected in 
the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. Nearly 
all the great cities of the North-west, and indeed of the whole 
countrv, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer struc- 
tures, k:iown as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, 
Washington, Ponchartrain, mark the original sites of the 
now proud cities of Chicago, Cincinnati and Detroit. So of 
most of the flourishing cities ea^t and wcstof the Mississippi. 
Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a rude 
but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a num- 
ber of strong' y-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for 
soldiers' barracks were a story and a half high, while those 
composing the officers' quarters were more imposing and more 
conveniently arranged and furnished. The whole was so 
placed as to form a hollow .square, enclosing about an acre 
of grirtin<l, with a block house at each of the four angles. 
Fort Washington was for some time the headquarters of both 
the Civil ancl Military governments of the North-western 
Territory. Following the consummation of the treaty vari- 
ous giLrantic land speculations were entered into by different 
persons, who hoped to obtain from the Indians in ^Michigan 
and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. These were 
•'cncrally discovered in time to prevent the schemes from 
beincr carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October '27, 179.5, the treaty between the United States 
and Spain was signed, whereby the free navigation of the 
^lississippi was secured. No sooner had the treaty of 179.5 
been ratified than settlers began to pour rapidly into the 
west. The great event of the year 1790, was the occupa'ion 
of that part of the North-west including Jlichigan, which 
was this v?:ir, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated 
bv the I3riti^h forces. The United States owing to certain 
conditions, did not feel justified in addressing the authorities 

in Canada in relation to Detroit and otlier tVontier posts. 
When at last the British authorities were called upon to give 
them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and 
who before the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, 
transferred his headcjuarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, 
where a county named after him was formed, which included 
the north-west of Ohio, all of Jlichigan, and the north-cast 
of Indiana. During this same year settlements were formed 
at the present city of Chillicothe, along the Miami from 
Middletown to Pi(iua, while in the more distant West, settlers 
and speculators began to appear in great numbers. In Sep- 
tember the city of Cleveland was laid out, and during the 
summer and autumn, Samuel Jackson and Jonathan Sharj)- 
less, erected the first nianufiictory of p;iper — the " Iledttone 
Paper Mills" — in the West. St- Louis contained some 
seventy houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along 
the river, contiguous to it, were more than three thousand 
inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, Indians and half- 
breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that part 
of the North-west. The election of representatives for the 
territory had taken place, and on the 4th of February, 1799, 
they convened at Losantiville— now known as Cincinnati, 
having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and considered the 
capital of the territory, — to nominate persons from whom the 
members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance 
with a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, 
the Assembly adjourned until the IGh of the following Sep- 
tember. From those named the President selected as mem- 
bers of the council, Henry ■\'andenburg, of Vinceunes, Eobcrt 
Oliver, of Marietta, James Findley, and Jacob Burnett, of 
Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. Ou the IGth 
of September, the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 
24th, the two houses were duly organized, Henry Vanden- 
burg being elected President of the Council. The mes.-age 
of Gov. St. Clair, was addressed to the Legislature Septem- 
ber 20th, and on October 13th, that body elected as a dele- 
gate to Congress, General Wm. Henry Harrison, who re- 
ceived eleven of the votes cast, being a majority of one over 
his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of General St. Clair. 
The whole number of acts passed at this session and approved 
by the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were 
passed but received his veto. The most important of those 
p-issed related to the militia, to the administration, and to 
taxation. On the 19th of December this protracted session 
of the first Legislature in the West closed, and on the SOtli 
of December the President nominated Charles Willing Byid, 
to the office of secretary of the Territory, vice Wm. Henry 
Harrison, elected to Congress. The Senate confirmed his 
nomination the next day. 


The increased emigration to the north-west, and extent of 
the domain, made it very difficult to conduct the ordinary 
operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible ; to i-emedy this it was deemed 
advisable to divide the territory for civil purposes. Con- 



gress, in 1800, appointed a committee to examine the ques- 
tion and report some means for its solution. 

This committee on the 3d of March reported : " In the 
■western countries there had been but one court having cog- 
nizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which 
offenders experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile 
and abandoned criminals, and at the same time deters useful 
citizens from making settlements in such society. The 
extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assistance is 
experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * 
To remedy this evil it is expedient to the committee that a 
division of said territory into two distinct and separate 
governments should be made, and that such division be 
made by beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami river, 
running directly north until it intersects the boundary 
between the United States and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance 
■with its suggestions, that body passed an act extinguishing 
the north-west territory, which act was approved May 7th. 
Among its pro-visions were these : 

"That from and after July 4 next all that part of the 
territory of the United States north-west of the Ohio river, 
■which lies to the westward of a line beginning at a point 
opposite the mouth of the Kentucky river, and running 
thence to Fort Kecovery, and thence North until it shall 
intersect the territorial line Ijetween the United States and 
Canada, shall for the purpose of temporary government, 
constitute a separate territory and be called the Indian 

Gen. Harrison (afterwards President), was appointed 
governor of the Indiana Territory, and during his residence 
at Vincennes, he made several important treaties with the 
Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of land. The next 
year is memorable in the history of the west for the purchase 
of Louisiana from France by the United States for 8 1 5,000,- 
000. Thus by a peaceful manner the domain of the United 
States was extended over a large tract of country west of 
the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction of 
the north-western government. The next year Gen. Harri- 
son obtained additional grants of land from the various 
Indian nations in Indiana and the present limits of Illinois, 
and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at St. 
Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of land were obtained. 
1 During this year, Congress granted a township of land 
for the support of a college and began to offer inducements 
for settlers in these wilds, and the country now comprising 
the state of Jlichigan began to fill rapidly ■^vith settlers 
along its southern borders. This same year a law was 
passed organizing the south-west territory, dividing it into 
two portions, — the territory of New Orleans, which city was 
made the seat of government, and the district of Louisiana, 
which was annexed to the domain by General Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the territory of Michigan 
was formed, and Wm. Hull appointed governor, with head- 
quarters at Detroit, the change to take effect June 30th. 
On the lllh of that month, a fire occurred at Detroit, which 
destroyed most every building in the place. When the 
officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it 

in ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the coun- 
try. Rebuilding, however, was commenced at once. While 
this was being done, Indiana passed to the second grade of 
government. In 1809, Indiana territory was divided, and 
the territory of Illinois was formed, the seat of government 
being fixed at Kaskaskia, and through her General Assem- 
bly had obtained large tracts of laud from the Indian tribes. 
To all this the celebrated Indian Tecumthe, or Tecumseh, 
vigorously protested,* and it was the main cause of his 
attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with 
the settlers. He visited the principal tribes, and succeeded 
in forming an alliance with most of the tribes, and then 
joined the cause of the British in the memorable war of 1812. 
Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the Thames. Tecum- 
seh was, in many respects, a noble character, — frank and 
honest in his with General Harrison and the 
settlers ; in war, brave and chivalrous. His treatment of 
prisoners was humane. In the summer of 1812, Perry's vic- 
tory on Lake Erie occurred, and shortly after, active pre- 
parations were made to capture Fort Jlalden. On the 27th 
of September, the American army under command of 
General Harrison, set sail for the shores of Canada, and, in 
a few hours, stood around the ruins of Maiden, from which 
the British army under Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, 
intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the 
valley of the Thames. On the 29th, General Harrison was 
at Sandwich, and General McArtliur took possession of 
Detroit and the territory of Michigan. On the 2d of Octo- 
ber following, the American army began their pursuit of 
Proctor, whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of 
the Thames followed. The victory was decisive, and practi- 
cally closed the war in the north-west. In 1806, occurred 
Burr's insurrection. He took possession of an island in the 
Ohio, and was charged with treasonable intentions against 
the Federal government. His capture was eifected by 
General Wilkinson, acting under instruction of President 
JeffL-rson. Burr was brought to trial on a charge of treason, 
and, after a prolonged, during which he defended him- 
self with great ability, he was acquittcd.of the charge of 
treason. His subsequent career was obscure, and he died 
in 1836. Had his scheme succeeded, it would be interesting 
to know what effect it would have had on the north-we tern 
territory. The battle of tlie Thames was fought October 
6th, 1813. It effectually closed hostilities in the north-west, 
although peace was not restored until July 22d, 1814, when 
a treaty was made at Greenville, by General Harrison, be- 
tween the United States and the Indian tribes. On the 24th 
of December, the treaty of Ghent was signed by the repre- 
sentatives of England and the United States. This treaty 
was followed the next year by treaties with various Indian 
tribes throughout the north-west, and quiet was again 


In former chapters we have traced briefly the discoveries, 
settlements, wars, and most important events which have 
occurred in the large area of country denominated the 

* A;iurican State Papers 



north-west, and we now turn to the contemplation of its 
growth and prosperity. Its people are among the most 
intelligent and cnterpiising in the Union. Tlie population 
is steadily increasing, the arts and sciences are gaining a 
stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is becoming 
daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked com- 
muniries on the seaboard, dependent wholly on foreign com- 
merce or domestic manufacture. Agriculture is the leading 
feature in our industries. This vast domain has a sort of 
natural geographical border, save where it melts away to 
the southward in the cattle- raising districts of the south- 
west. The leading interests will be the growth of the food 
of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival will be the fertile fields of 
Kansas, Kobra^ka, Colorado, Texas and Now Mexico. 

To attempt to give statistics of grain productions for 1880 
would require more .space than our work would permit of. 
Manufacturing has now attained in the chief cities a foot- 
hold that bids fair to render the north-west independent of 
the outside world. Nearly our whole region has a distribu- 
tion of coal measure which will in time support the manu- 
factures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As to 
transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles 
except food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and 
our fac'.litics are yearly increasing beyond those of any 
other region. 

The principal tradeand manufacturing centres of the great 
north-west are Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, 
Detroit, Clev-^land and Toledo, with any number of minor 
cities and towns doing a large and growing business. The 
intelligence and enterprise of its people ; the great wealth of 
its soil and minerals; its vast inland seas and navigable 
rivers ; its magnificent railroad .system ; its patriotism and 
love of country will render it ever loyal in the future as in 
the past. The people of the Mississippi Valley are the key- 
stone of the national union and national prosperity. 


BRIEF msroniCAL sketch of ILLINOIS. 

^ EGINNING the history of this great State 
wo direct attention briefly to the discovery 
nnd exploration of the MUilnnippi. Hernando 
Ue Soto, cutting his way through the wilder- 
ness from Florida, had discovered the Missis- 
sippi in the year 1.542. Wasted with disease 
and privation, he only reached the stream 
to die upon its banks, and the remains of 
the ambitious and iron-willed Spaniard found 
a fitting resting-place beneath the waters of the great river. 
The chief incitement to Spanish discoveries in America was 
a thirst for gold and treasure. The discovery and settle- 
ment of the Mississippi Valley on the part of the French 

must, on the other hand, be ascribed to religious zeal. 
Jesuit missionaries, from the French settlements on the St. 
Lawrence, early penetrated to the region of Lake Huron. 
It was from the tribes of Indians living iu the West, that 
intelligence came of a noble river flowing south. Marquette, 
who had visited the Chippewas in 16G8, and established 
the mission of Sault Ste. Marie, now the oldest settlement 
within the present commonwealth of Michigan, formed the 
purpose of its exploration. 

The following year he moved to La Poiute, in Lake 
Superior, where he instructed a branch of the Hurons till 
1G70, when he removed south and founded the mission at 
St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. In company with 
Joliet, a fur-trader of Quebec, who had been designated by 
M. Talon, Intendcnt of Canada, as chieftain of the explor- 
ing party, and five French voyageurs, Marquette, on the 
10th of June, 1073, set out on the expedition. Crossing 
the water-shed dividing the Fox from the Wisconsin rivers, 
their two canoes were soon launched on the waters of the 
latter. Seven days after, ou the 17th of June, they joy- 
fully entered the broad current of the Mississippi. Stopping 
six days on the western bank, near the mouth of the Des 
Moines River, to enjoy the hospitalities of the Illinois 
Indians, the voyage was resumed, and after passing the 
perpendicular rocks above Alton, on whose lofty limestone 
front were painted frightful representations of monsters, 
they suddenly come upon the mouth of the Missouri, known 
by its Algonquin name of Pekitanoni, whose swift and 
turbid current threatened to engulf their frail canoes. The 
site of St. Louis was an unbroken forest, and further down 
the fertile plain bordering the river reposed in peaceful 
solitude, as, early in July, the adventurers glided past it. 
They continued their voyage to a point some distance below 
the mouth of the Arkansas, and then retraced their course 
up the river, arriving at their Jesuit Mission at the head of 
Green Bay, late in September. 

Robert Cavalier de La Salle, whose illustrious name is 
more intimately connected with the exploration of the 
Mississippi than that of any other, was the next to descend 
the river, in the early part of the year 1082. La Salle was a 
man of remarkable genius, possessing the power of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment 
capable of carrying them to successful results. Had ample 
facilities been placed by the king of France at his disposal, 
the result of the colonization of this continent might have 
been far different from what we now behold. He was born 
in Rouen, France, in 1043, of wealthy parentage, but he 
renounced his patrimony on entering a college of the Jesuits 
from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man 
in 1G6G. The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a 
brother, were then the proprietors of Montreal, the nucleuii 
of which was a seminary or convent founded by tiiat order. 
The Superior granted to La Salle a large tract of laud at 
La Chine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his 
competitors in exploits of travel and commerce with the 
Indians. In 1009 he visited the headquarters of the great 
Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the heart of New 



York, anil obtaining guides, explored tlic Ohio River to the 
falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the intrepid genius of La Salle, 
it must be remembered that for many years prior to his 
time the missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
■way to the North west by the Ottaway River (of Canada), 
on account of tho fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the 
lower lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this 
latter route to the Upper Lakes. They carried on their 
commerce chiefly by canvas, paddling them through the 
Ottaway to Lake Nipissiug, carrying them across the port- 
age to French River, and descending that to Luke Huron. 
Tills being the route by which they reached the North-west, 
accounts for the foct that all the earliest Jesuit missions 
were established in the neighborhood of the Upper Lakes. 
La Salle conceived the grand idea of opening the route by 
Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the 
Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water coramuni- 
catiou from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. 
This truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to 
have auiniated him iu all his wonderful achievements and 
the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. 

As the fir^t step in the accomplishment of this object he 
established himself on Lake Ontario, and built and gar- 
risoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present city of 
Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of land from 
tho French crown and a body of troops by which he beat 
back the invading Iroquois and cleared the passage to 
Niagara Falls. Having by this masterly stroke made it 
safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his next step 
as we have seen, was to advance to the falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He 
was successful iu this undertaking, though his ultimate pur- 
prise was defeated by a strange combination of untoward 
circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated La Salle and 
plotted against him, because he had abandoned them and 
co-operatcJ with a rival order. The fur traders were also 
jealous of his superior success iu opening new channels of 
commerce. At La Chine ho had taken the trade of Lake 
Ontario, which but for his presence there would have gone 
to Quebec While they were plodding with their bark 
canoes through tho Ottaway he was constructing vessels to 
command the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These 
great plans excited the jealousy and envy of the small 
traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of his 
own companions, and finally led to the foul assassination by 
which his great achievements were prematurely ended. In 
1G82, La Sallo, having completed his vessel at Peoria, 
descended the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of 
Mexico. At its mouth he erected a column, and decorating 
it with the arms of France, placed upon it the following 
inscription : 


Thus France, by right of discovery, lay claim to the 
Mississippi Valley, the fairest portion of the globe, an 

empire iu extent, stretching from the Gulf to the Lakes, 
and from the farthest sources of the Ohio to where the head 
waters of the Missouri are lost iu the wild solitudes of the 
Rocky Mountains. La Salle bestowed upon the territory 
the name of Louisiana, in honor of the King of France, 
Louis XIV. 

The assertion has been made that on La Salle's return up 
the river, in tlie summer of 1682, a portion of the party 
were left behind, who founded the village of Kaskaskia aud 
Cahokia, but the statement rests ou no substantial foun- 


The gentle and pious Marquette, devoted to his purpose 
of carrying the gospel to the Indians, had established a 
mission among the Illinois, in 1675, at their principal town 
on the river which still bear stheir name. This was at the 
present town of Utica, in La Salle County. In the presence 
of the whole tribe, by whom, it is recorded, he was received 
as a celestial visitor, he displayed the sacred pictures of the 
Virgin Mary, raised an altar, and said mass. Oa Easter 
Sunday, after celebrating the mystery of the Eucharist, he 
took possession of the land in the name of the Saviour of 
the world, and founded the "Mission of the Immaculate 
Conception." The town was called Kaskaskia, a name 
afterwards transferred to another locality. The founding 
of this mission was the last act of Marquette's life. He 
died in Michigan, on his way back to Green Bay, May 18, 

La Salle, while making preparations to descend tho 
Mississippi, built a fort, on the Illinois River, below the 
Lake of Peoria, iu February, 1680, aud iu commemoration 
of his misfortunes, bestowed upon it the name of Crevecocio; 
" broken-hearted." Traces of its embankments are yet dis- 
cernible. This was the first military occupation of Illinois. 
There is no evidence, however, that settlement was begun 
there at that early date. 

On La Salle's return from this exploration of the ]Missis- 
sippi, in 1682, he fortified " Starved Rock," whose military 
advantages had previously attracted his- attention. From 
its summit, which rises 125 feet above the waters of the 
river, tho valley of the Illinois speeds out before the eye in 
landscape of rarest beauty. From three sides it is inacces- 
sible. This stronghold received the name of the Fort of 
St. Louis. Twenty thousand allied Indians gathered round 
it on the fertile plains. The fort seems to have been aban- 
doned soon after the year 1700. 

Marquette's mission (1675), Crevecoeur (_\68Q), and the 
Fort of St. Louij (1682), embrace, so far, all the attempts 
made towards eflecting anything like a permanent settle- 
ment in the Illinois country. Of the second few traces 
remain. A line of fortifications may be faintly traced, and 
that is all. The seed of civilization planted by the Jesuit, 
Marquette, among the Illinois Indians, was destined to pro- 
duce more enduring fruit. It was the germ of Kaskaskia, 
during the succeeding years of the French occupation— the 
metropolis of the Mississippi Valley. The southern Kas- 
kaskia is merely the northern one transplanted. The 
Mbbion of the Immaculate Conception is the fame. 




On the doatli of Marquette, he was succeeded by Alloiicz, 
aud he by Father Gravicr, who respectively had charge of 
the Jliition on the Illinois River Gravicr is said to have 
been the first to reduce the principles of the Illinois lan- 
guage to rules. It was also he who succeeded in trans- 
ferring Marquette's Jlission from the banks of the Illinois 
south to the spot where stands the modern town of Kas- 
kaskia, and where it was destined to endure. The exact 
date is not known, but the removal was accomplished some 
time prior to the year 1G85, though probably not earlier 
than li;S2. 

Father Gravier was subsequently recalled to JIackinaw, 
and his place was supplied by Binetcau aud Pinet. Pinet 
proved an eloquent aud successful minister, and his chapel 
was often insufficient to hold the crowds of savages who 
L^^thcrod to hear his words. Binetcau met with a fate 
similar to that which befell many another devoted priest iu 
his heroic labors for the conversion of the savages. He 
accompanied the Kaskaskias on one of their annual hunts 
to the upper jMississi]ipi, that his pastoral relations might 
not suifir intermission. His frame was poarly fitttd to 
stand the exposure. Parched by day on the burning 
prairie, chilled by heavy dews at night, now panting with 
thirst and agiin aching with cold, he at length fell a 
victim to a violent fever, and " left his bones on the wilder- 
ness range of the buffaloes." Pinet .shortly after followed 
his comrade. 

Father Gabriel Jlorrcst had previously arrived at Kus- 
kaskia. He was a Jesuit. He had carried the emblem of 
bis faith to the frozen regions of Hudson's Bay, and had 
been taken prisoner by the English, and upon his liberation 
returned to America, and joined the Kaskaskia Mission. 
After the deaths of Bincteau and Piaet, he had sole charge 
until joined by Father Mermet shortly after the opening of 
the eighteenth century. 

The devotion an<l piety of Mermet fully equalled those of 
his companion. lie had assisted in collecting a village of 
Indians and Canadians, and had thus founded the first 
French port on the Ohio, or, as the lower pare of the river 
was then called, the At the Kaskaskia Mission 
his gentle virtues and fervid eloquence seem not to have been 
without their influence. " At early dawn his pupils came 
to church dressed neatly and modestly, each in a large deer- 
skin, or in a robe stitched together from several skins. 
After receiving lessons they chanted canticles; mass was 
then said in presence of all the Christians in the place, the 
French and the converts — the women on one side and the 
men on the other. From prayer and instruction the mis- 
sionaries proceeded to visit the sick aud administer medicine, 
and their skill as physicians did more than all the rest to 
win confidence. In the afternoon the catechism was taught 
iu the presence of the young and the old, when every one, 
without distinction of rank or age, answered the questions of 
the missionary. At evening all would assemble at the 
chapel for instruction, for prayer, and to chant the hymns 
of the church. On Sundays and festivals, even after vespers 
a homily was pronounced ; at the close of the day parties 

would meet in houses to recite the chaplct in alternate 
choirs, and sing psalms until late at night. These psalms 
were often homilies with words set to familiar tunes. Satur- 
day and Sunday were days appointed for confession and 
communion, and evcrj' convert confessed once in a fortnight- 
The success of the mission was such that marriages of 
French immigrants were sometimes solemnized with the 
daughters of the Illinois according to the rites of the 
Catholic Church. The occupation of the country was a 
cantonment of Europeans among the native proprietors of 
the forests and the prairies.* A court of law was unknown 
for nearly a century, aud up to the time of B jisbriant there 
was no local government. The priests possessed the entire 
confidence of the community, and their authority happily 
settled, without the tardy delays and vexations of the courts, 
the minor difficulties which threatened the peace of the 
settlement. Of the families which formed part of the 
French population iu the early history of Kaskaskia, there 
is some uncertainty. There is, however, authority for 
believing that the following were among the principal 
settlers: Bazyl La Chapelle, ]\Iichael Derousc, (called St. 
Pierre), Jeau Baptiste St. Gemme Beauvais, Jlon- 
treal, Boucher do Montbrun, Charles Danie, Francois 
Charlesville, Antoinc Bienvenu, Louis Bruyat, Alexis Doza, 
Joseph Paget, Prix Pagi, Michael Autoyen, Lauglois Do 
Lisle, La aud XovaL 


The settlements of Illinois had been a separate depend- 
ency of Canada. In 1711, together with the settlements on 
the Lower Mississippi, which had been f.)unded by D' Iber- 
ville and Bienville, they becanij united in a single province 
under the name of Louisiana, with the capital at Mobile. 

The exclusive control of the commerce of this region, 
whose boundless resources, it was believed, were to enrich 
France, was granted to Anthony Crozat, a merchant of 
great wealth. "We permit him," says the king in his 
letters patent, " to search, open, and dig all mines, veins, 
minerals, precious stones and pearls, and to transport the 
proceeds thereof into any i)art of France for fif^.'cn years." 
La Motte Cadillac, who had now become royal Governor of 
Louisiana, was his partner. Hopes of obtaining great 
quantities of gold and silver animated the proprietors, as 
well as agitated France. Two pieces of silver ore, left at 
Kaskaskia by a traveler from Mexico, were exliibiied to 
Cadillac as the pro.luce of a mine in Illinois. Elated by 
this prospect of wealth, the Governor hurried up the river 
to find his anticipations fade away iu disappointment. Iron 
ore and the purest lead were discovered iu large quantiti.'s 
in Missouri, but of gold, and silver, and precious stones not 
a trace was found. After Crozat had expended 42-J,000 
livrcs, and realized only 330,000, he, in 1717, petitioueil the 
king for the revocation of his charter. Tiio white popula- 
tion had slowly increased ; and at the time of his departure 
it was estimated that the families comprising the lilin.ns 
settlements, now including those on the Vv'abash, numbered 
three hundred and twenty souls. 

* Eancroft. 



The commerce of Louisiana was next transferred to the 
Mississippi Company, iustitutod under the auspices of the 
notorious John Law. The wild excitement and visionary 
schemes which agitated France during Law's connection 
with the Company of the West, and while at the head of 
the Bank of France, form the most curious chapter in the 
annals of commercial speculations. These delusive dreams 
of wealth were based mainly upon the reports of the fabu- 
lous riches of the Mississippi Valley. Attempts to colonize 
the couatry were conducted with careless prodigality. 
Three ships landed eight hundred emigrants in August, 
1718, near Mobile, whence they were to make their way 
overland to the Mississippi. Bienville, on the banks of that 
river, had already selected the spot for the Capital of the 
new Empire, which, after the Regent of France, was named 
New Orleans. From among the emigrants, eighty convicts 
from the prisons of France were sent to clear away the 
coppices which thickly studded the site. Three years after 
in 1721, the place was yet a wilderness, overgrown with 
canebrakes, among which two hundred persons had en- 

Phillip Renault was created Director-General of the 
mines of the new country, and an expedition was organized 
to work them. Renault left France, in 1719, with two 
hundred mechanics and laborers. Touching at San Domingo 
he bought five hundred negro slaves for working the mines. 
On reaching the Mississippi, he sailed to Illinois, the region 
in which gold and silver were supposed to abound. A few 
miles from Kaskaskia, in \fhat is now the south-west corner 
of Monroe County, was the seat of his colony. The village 
which he founded received the name of St. Phillip's. From 
this point various expeditions were sent out in search of the 
precious metals. Drewry's Creek, in Jackson County, was 
explored ; St. Mary's, in Randolph ; Silver Creek, in 
Monroe; and various parts of St. Clair County, and other 
districts of Illinois. On Silver Creek, tradition has it that 
considerable quantities of silver were discovered and sent to 
France, and from this the stream has its name. By the 
retrocession of the territory to the crown, Renault was left 
to prosecute the business of mining without means. His 
operations proved a disastrous failure. 


Meanwhile war had sprung up between France and Spain 
and to protect the Illinois settlements from incursions of 
Spanish cavalry across the Great Desert, it was thought 
advisable to establish a fort in the neighborhood of Kas- 
kaskia. A Spanish expedition had, indeed, been fitted out 
at Santa Fe, but their guides, leading it by mistake to the 
Missouri Indians, instead of the O^ages, enemies instead of 
friends, the whole party was massacred, with the exception 
of a priest who escaped to relate the fate of his unfortunate 
comrades. Previous to this La Salle, on the occasion of his 
visit to Paris, had shown the necessity of building a chain 
of forts from Canada to the Gulf, in order to secure the 
territory to the crown of France. In 1718, Boisbriant was 
despatched to Illinois. He began the building of Fort 
Chartres, long the strongest fortress on the Western Conti- 

nent, and of wide celebrity in the subsequent history of 

Fort Chartres stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, 
seventeen miles north-west of Kaskaskia, and between three 
and four miles from the location of the present village of 
Prairie du Rocher. The Company of the West finally built 
their warehouses here. In 1721, on the division of Louisi- 
ana into seven districts, it became the headquarters of Bois- 
briant, the first local Governor of Illinois. Fort Chartres 
was the seat of the Government of Illinois, not only while 
the French retained possession of the country, but after it 
passed under English control. When the fort was built, it 
stood about one mile distant from the river. In the year 1724 
an inundation of the Mississippi washed away a portion of 
bank in front of the fort. 

Captain Philip Pitman visited Illinois in 1766. He was 
an engineer in the British army, and was sent to Illinois to 
make a survey of the forts, and report the condition of the 
country, which had recently passed under British control. 
He published in London, in 1770, a work entitled, " The 
present State of the European Settlements on the Missis- 
sippi," in which he gives an accurate description of Fort 
Chartres : 

" Fort Chartres, when it belonged to France, was the seat 
of the government of the Illinois. The headquarters of the 
English commanding officer is now here, who, in fact, is the 
arbitrary governor of the country. The fort is an irregular 
quadrangle. The sides of the exterior polygon are four hun- 
dred and ninety feet. It is built of stone, and plastered over, 
and is only designed for defence against the Indians. The 
walls are two feet two inches thick, and are pierced with 
loopholes at regular distances, and with two port holes for 
cannon in the facies, and two in the flanks of each bastion. 
The ditch has never been finished. The entrance to the fort 
is through a very handsome rustic gate. Within the walls 
is a banquette raised three feet, for the men to stand on when 
they fire through the loopholes. The buildings within the 
fort are, a commandant's and a commissary's house, the 
magazine of stores, corps de garde, and two barracks., ,These 
occupy the square. Within the gorges of the bastion are a 
powder-magazine, a bake-house, and a prison, in the floor of 
which are four dungeons, and in the upper, two rooms and 
an out-house belonging to the commandant. The command- 
ant's house is thirty-two yards long and ten broad, and con- 
tains a kitchen, a dining-room, a bed-chamber, one small 
room, five closets for servants, and a cellar. The commis- 
sary's house is built on the same line as this, and its propor- 
tion and the distribution of its apartments are the same. 
Opposite these are the store-house, and the guard- house, each 
thirty yards long and eight broad. The former consists of 
two large store rooms, (under which is a large vaulted cellar), 
a large room, a bed-chamber, and a closet for the storekeeper. 
The latter of a soldiers' and officers' guard-room, a chapel, 
a bed-chamber, a closet for the chaplain, and an artillery 
store-room. The lines of barracks have never been finished. 
They at present consist of two rooms each for oflicers, and 
three for soldiers. They are each twenty-five feet square, 
and have betwixt a small passage." 



Such was Fort Chartres, believed at the lime to be tlie 
most convenient and best built stronghold in North America ! 
Just before the French surrender, forty families lived in the 
neighboring village, in which stood a parish church, under 
the care of a Franciscan friar, and dedicated to St. Anne. 
At the time of the surrender to the English, all, with the 
exception of three or four families, abandoned their homes, 
and removed to the west bank of the Mississippi, preferring 
the government of La Belle France to the hated English 
rule, ignorant that by secret treaty the territory west 
of the Mississippi had been ceded to Spiin, even before 
the transfer of the region eastward was made to the 

But the glnry of the old fortress soon departed! In 17.56 
nearly lialf a mile intervened between Fort Chartres and the 
bank of the Mississippi. A sand bar, however, was forming 
opposite, to which the river was fordable. Ten years later 
the current had cut the bank away to within eighty yards of 
the fort. The sand-bar had become an island, covered with 
a thick growth of cottonwoods. The channel between it 
and the eastern bank was forty feet in depih. In the great 
freshet .'■ix years, in 1772, in which the American B(it- 
tora was inundated, the west walls and two of the bastions 
were swept away in the ilood. It was abandoned by the 
British garrison, which took up its quarters in Fort Gage, 
on the bluff opposite Kaskaskia, which then became the seat 
of government. From this date its demolition proceeded 
rapidly. In 1820 the south-east angle was still remaining. 
Only vestiges of the old Fortress can now ba traced. Much 
of the stone was carried away, and used for building pur- 
po?es elsewhere. Trees of stately growth cover the founda- 
tions. The river has retreated to its original channel, and 
is now a mile distant from the ruins. A growth of timber 
covers the intervening land, where less than a century ago 
swept the mighty current of the Father of Waters. 


During the few years immediately succeeding the comple- 
tion of Fort Chartres, prosperity preyailed in the settlements 
between the Kaskaskia and the Miss'ssippi rivers. Prairie 
du Rocher, founded about the year 1722, received consider- 
able accessions to its population. Among the earliest French 
settlers to make their homes here were Etienne Langlois, 
Jean Baptiste Blais, Jean Baptiste Barbeaux, Antoine 
Louvier, acd the La Ccmipte and other families, whose de- 
scendants are still found in that locality. New settlements 
sprang up, and the ohler ones increased in population. At 
Kaskaskia, the Jesuits established a monastery, and founded 
a college. lu 1723 the village became an incorporated town, 
and the king, Louis XV., granted the inhabitants a com- 
mons. The Bottom land, extending upward along the !Mis- 
sissippi, unsurpassed for the richness of its soil, was in the 
process of being rapidly settled by the larger number of new 
arrivals in the colony. Fort Chartres, the seat of govern- 
ment and the headquarters of the commandment of L^pper 
Louisiana, attracted a wealthy, and for Illinois, a fashionable 

After having been fourteen years under the government 

of the Western Company, in April, 17^2, the king issued a 
proclamation by which Louisiana was declared free to all his 
subjects, and all restrictions on commerce were removed. 
At this time many flourishing settlements had sprung up in 
Illinois, centering about Kaskaskia,and the inhabitants were 
said to be more exclusively devoted to agriculture than in 
any other of the French settlements in the West. 

M. D'Artaguette, in 17o2, became commandant of Fort 
Chartres, and Governor of Upper Louisiana. Between New 
Orleans and Kaskaskia the country was yet a wilderness. 
Communication by way of the Mississippi was interrupted 
by tlie Chickasaws, allies of the English and enemies of 
France, whose cedar barks shooting boldly out into the cur- 
rent of the Mississippi, cut off the connection between the 
two colonies. It was in an attempt to subdue these that 
JI. D'Artaguette, the commandant, lost h's life. An officer 
arrived at Fort Chartres from M. Prcrricr, GovornorGencral 
at New Orleans, in the year 1736, .summoning IM. D'Arta- 
guette, '.vith his French soldiei's, and all the Indians whom 
he could induce to join him, to xznite in an expedition against 
the enemy. With an army of fifty Fronchmrn, and more 
than one thojsand Indians accompanied by Father Senat 
and the gallant Vincennes, commandant of the post on the 
Wabash, where now stands the city bearing his name, 
D'Artaguette stole cautiously in the Chickasaw country. 
His Indian allies were impatient, and the commander con- 
sented, against his better judgment, to an immediate attack. 
One fort was carried — another — and then in making the as- 
sault on the third, the young and intrepid D'Artaguette fell 
at the head of his forces, pierced with wounds. The Indian 
allies made this reverse the signal for their flight. The 
Jesuit Senat might have fled, Vincennes might have saved 
his life, but both preferred to share the fate of their leader. 
The captives afterward met death at the stake under the shnv 
torments of fire. 

La Buissoniere succeeded as commau<iant at Fort Chartres. 
In 1739 a second expedition was undertakcu against the 
(" lickasaw country. L:i Buissoniere joined Bienville, then 
Governor-General of Louijiana, with a force of two hun<lred 
Frenchmen and three hundred Indians. The whole force 
under Bienville was twelve hundred French and five hun- 
dred Indians and negroes. His men suffered greatly from 
malarial fevers and famine, and returned the following 
spring without conquering the Chickasaws, with whom after- 
ward, however, amicable relations were established. 

The period from 1740 to 1750 was one of great prosperity 
fir the colonies. Cotton was introduced and cuhivated. 
Regular cargoes of pirk, fljur, bacon, tallow, hides and 
leather, were fl )ated d )wu the Mississippi, and exported 
thence to France. French emigrants p)urad rapidly into 
the settlements. Canadians exchanged the cold rigors of 
their climate for the sunny atmosphere and rich .soil of the 
new country. Peace and plenty blessed the settlements. 

La Buissoniere was followed, in 1750, by Chevalier Ma- 
carty as Governor of Upper Louisiana, and Commandant of 
Fort Chartres. Peace wis soon to be broken. The French 
and English war, which terminated in 1759 with the defeat 
of Montcalm on the plains of Abraham, and the capture of 



Quebec, began with a struggle for the territory on the Upper 
Ohio. Fort Chartres was the clegot of supplies and the place 
of rendezvous for the united forces of Louisiana, and several 
expeditions were fitted out and dispatched to the scene of con- 
flict on the b;irJer between the French and English settle- 
ments. But France was vanquished in the struggle, and its 
result deprived her of her princely possessions east of the 


Til'! early French inhabitants were well adapted by their 
peculiar traits of character for intercourse with their savage 
neighbors of the f )rest, with whom th:!y lived on terms of 
peace and friendship. For this reason, the French colonists 
almost entirely escaped the Indian hostilities by which the 
English settlements were repressed and weakened. The 
freest communication existed between the two races. They 
stood on a footing of equality. The Indian was cordially 
received in the French village, and the Frenchman found a 
safe resting-place in the lodg 3 of the savaga. In see les of 
social pleasure, in expeditions to remote rivers and distant 
forests, in the ceremonies and exercises of the church, the 
red men were treated as brothers, and the accident of race 
and color was made as little a mark of distinction as possi- 
ble. Frequent intermarriages of the French with the In- 
dians strongly cemented this union. For nearly a hundred 
years the French colonists enjoyed continual peace, while the 
English settlements on the Atlantic coast were in a state of 
almost constant danger from savage depredations. 

It was doubtless greatly owing to the peculiar facility with 
which the French temperament adapted itself to surround- 
ings, and the address with which Frenchmen ingra- 
tiated themselves in the favor of the savages, that this happy 
condition of affairs exi.-ted. But something must be ascribed 
to the differences of character between the French and Eng- 
lish in regard to their aggressiveness. The English colonists 
excited the jealousy and fear of the Indians by their rapid 
occupation of the country. New settlements were constantly 
being projected, and the white population pushed farther 
and farther into the wilderness. When the Indians saw 
their favorite haunts broken up, and their hunting grounds 
invaded, a natural feeling of distrust and jealousy led them 
to warfare against the English. With the French it was 
diffijrent. There but little disposition to found new 
settlements, or occupy the wilderness. They were essentially 
a social people, and the solitary life of a pioneer in the forest 
was repugnant to their disposition. They lived in compact 
villages. Their houses were in close proximity. With 
abundant room for spacious streets, they yet made them so 
narrow that the merry villagers could converse with ease 
across the street, each from his own cottage. Hunting was 
a favorite pursuit, and the chief means of support. With 
this mode of life the French were content. Ambition failed 
to incite them to conquer the wilderness, and push their set- 
tlements to unknown regions, and avarice was wanting to 
lead them to grasp after great possessions. The development 
of the "territorial paradise," as La Salle had called the re- 
gion through which he passed on his first voyage down the 
Mississippi, was to be accomplished by another race. 


By the treaty of Fountainbleau, 1702, the vast possessions 
of Franco, east of the ^Mississippi, with the exception of the 
island of New Orleans, passed under British control. Fort 
Chartres and the other Illinois posts were surrounded by an 
impenetrable barrier of hostile savages, friends to the French 
and enemies to the English, and the French officers were 
authorized to retain command until it was found possible for 
the Englisli to take possession. M. Neyon de Villiers was 
commandant of Fort Chartres, and upon his retiring iu 17G4, 
St. Ange d'Bsllerive took upon himself the duties of that 
position. It was the time of Pontiac's conspiracy, when the 
Indian tribes, inflamed by the savage spirit of that warrior, 
were precipitating themselves on the English settlements 
from Canada to Carolina. Tlie French commandant of Fort 
Chartres was besieged for arras and ammunition to be used 
against the English. The French flag was st'll flying over 
the Fort, and the fact of the territory having been ceded to 
Great Britain was not generally known except to those iu 
authority. The commandant was visited by embassies from 
the Illinois, the Delawares, Shawnees and Miarais, and 
finally Poutiac himself, at tlie head of fmr hundred warriors, 
entered the council hall. St. Ang3 d Bellcrive, unable to 
furnish arm?, offered instead his good will. The reply was 
received with dissatisfaction. The Indians pitched their 
lodges about the Fort, and for a time an attack was seriously 
apprehended. Finally Poutiao dispatched a chosen band of 
warriors to New Orleans to obtain from the Governor there 
the assistance St. Ange refused to grant. 

Poutiac was killed a few years after. Disappointed by 
the failure of his plans against the English, he retired to the 
solitude of the forests. In the year 1763, he suddenly made 
his appearance in the neigiiborhood of St. Louis. Arrayed 
in the French uniform given him by the JIarquis Jlontcalm 
a short time previous to the latter's death on the Plains of 
Abraham, he visited St. Ange d'Bellerive, who at that time 
had removed from Fort Chartres to St. Louis, where he had 
become one of the principal inhabitants and commandant of 
the Spanish garrison. While at St. Louis, he cro.=sed the 
Mississippi to attend a social gathering of Indians at Cahokia. 
Becoming intoxicated he started to the neighboring woods, 
when an Indian of the Ivaskaskia tribe, bribed by an Eng- 
lish trader with a barrel of whiskey, stole up behind hira and 
buried a tomahawk in the brain of the renowned warrior. 
St. Ange procured the body, and buried it with all the honors 
of war near the fort under his command in St. Louis. The 
tramp of a great city now sweeps over his grave. 

Two attempts, on the part of the English, to take posses- 
sion of Illinois and Fort Chartres, had been made by way of 
the Jlississippi, but hostile Indians on the banks of the river 
had driven back the expeditions. Meantime a hundred 
Highlanders of the Forty-second Regiment, those veterans 
" whose battle cry had echoed over the bloodiest fields of 
America," had left Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg, and descending 
the Ohio, appeared before Fort Chartres while the forests 
were yet rich with the varied hues of autumn. St. Ange 
yielded up the citadel. It was on the tenth day of October, 
1765, that the ensign of France on the ramparts of the Fort 



gave place to the flag of Great Britain. Kaskaskia had now 
been founded ra re than three-fourths of a century. 

On the surrender of Fort Chartres, St. Ange with his gar- 
rison of twenty-one soldiers retired from the country, and 
became commandant at St. Louis, an infant settlement just 
founded. A large number of the French residents of Kas- 
kaskia and other settlements refused to live under English 
rule. Many of the wealthiest families left the country ; some 
removed across the Mississippi, to the small village of Ste. 
Genevieve, under the impression ihatou the west bank of the 
Jlississippi they would still find a home under the govern- 
ment of France, while in truth that territory had been ceJed 
to Spain by a secret treaty in 1762. Others joined in found- 
ing the city of St. Louis. The French settlements in Illinois, 
at a period immediately preceding this date, were at the 
z-^nith of their prosperity. From that ilay the French in- 
habitants have declined in numbers and influence. lu 1765, 
the population of the Illinois settlements was computed as 
follows: White men able to bear arms, seven hundred; white 
women, five hundred ; white children, eight hundred and 
fifty; negroes, nine hundred; total, two thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty. One-third of the whites, and a still larger 
proportion of the blacks, removed on the British taking pos- 
session. A population of less than two thousand remained. 
Few English, or Americans, with the exception of the British 
troops, were in the country. 

Captain Stirling, who now had command of the Fort, issued 
a proelamalicin guaranteeing the inhabitants the liberty of 
the Catholic faith, permission to retire from the country, and 
enjoyment of their full rights and privileges, only requiring 
an oath of fidelity and obedience to His JIajesty, the English 
King. Captain Stirling died some three months after his 
arrival. In the period that elapsed before the coming of his 
successor, St. Ange d'Bollerive returned from St. Louis, and 
discharged the duties of commandant. JIajor Frazier, from 
Fort Pitt, exercised fir a time an arbitrary power, and his 
successor. Col. Reed, proved still worse. lie held the office 
eighteen months, and during that time aroused the hatred of 
the settlements by his oppressive measures. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Wilkins assumed command in 17G8. 

Captain Pitman, to whose book on " The Present State of 
the European Settlements on the Mississippi" reference has 
already been made, gives the following description of Kas- 
kaskia, as it appeared in 1766. 

The vi'lage of Notre Dame dc Cascasquias is bv far the 
most considerable settlement in the country of the I linois, 
as well from its number of inhabitants as i"rom its advan- 
tageous situation. 

" Slons. Paget was the first who introduced wat/^r mills in 
this country, and he constructed a very fine one on the river 
Cascasquias, which was both for grinding corn and sawing 
boards. It lies about one mile from the village. The mill 
proved fatal to him, being killed as he was working 
it, with two negroes, by a party of Chcrokccs, in the 
year 1764. 

" The principal buildings arj the church and the Jesuits' 
house, which has a small chapel adjoining it; these, as well 
as £omo of the other houses in the village, arc built of stone. 

and, considering this part of the world, make a very g )od 
appearance. The Jesuits' plantation consisted of 240 arpcnts 
(an arpent is 83-100 of an acre) of cultivated land, a very 
good stock of cattle, and a brewery which was sold by the 
French commandant, after the country was ceded to the 
Engli.-h, for the crown, in consequence of the supprcsiion of 
the order. 

" Muns. Beauvais wa- t'lr' purchaser, who is the richest of 
the English subjects in this country; he keeps eighty slaves; 
he furnishes 86,000 weight of flour to the King's magazine, 
which was only part of the harvest he reaped in one year. 
Sixty-five families reside in this village, besides merchants, 
other casual people, and slaves. The fort which was burnt 
down in October, 1766, stood on the summit of a high rock 
opposite the village and on the opposite side of the river. 
It was an oblong quadrangle, of which the extreme polygon 
measured 290 by 2')\ feet. It was built of very thick square 
timber, and dove-tailed at the angles. An officer and twenty 
soldiers are quartered in the village. The ofliecr governs 
the inhabitants under the direction of the commandant at 
Fort Chartres. Here are also two companies of mililia." 

Of Prairie du Ilocher, Pi:raan writes that " it is a small 
village, consisting of twenty-two dwelling-houses, all of which 
are inhabited by as many families. Hire is a little chapel, 
formerly a chapel of ease to the church at Fort Chartres. 
The inhabitants are very industrious, and raise a great deal 
of corn and ever)' kind of stock. The village is two miles 
from Fort Chartres. It takes its name from its situation, 
being built under a rock that runs par.allel with the Miisi-s- 
sijjpi river at a league distance, fjr forty miles up. Here \i 
a company of militia, the captain of which regulates the 
police of the village." 

In describing the distance from Fort Cliaitres, the author, 
doubtless, rcfjrs to Little Village, which was a mile, or mora 
nearer than Prairie du Rocher. The writer goes on to do- 
scribe "Saint Philippe" as a "small village about five miles 
from Fort Chartres on the road to Kaoquias. There are 
about si.^teen houses and a small church standing ; all of the 
inhabitants, except the captain of the militia, deserted in 
176.3, and went to the French side (Missouri ) The captain 
of the militia has about twenty slaves, a good stock of cattle, 
and a water mill for corn and planks. The village stands 
on a very fine raeadow about one mile from the Mis- 

From the same authority we leara that the soil of tha 
country is in general rich and luxuriant. It was favorably 
adapted to the production of all kin Is of European grains 
which grew side by side wit'a hops, hemp, fl.ix, cotton and 
tobacco. European fruits arrived to great perfection. Of 
the wild grapes a wine was made, vcrj' inebriating, and in 
color and taste much like the red wine of Provence. In the 
late wars, Xew Orleans and the lower parts of Louisiana 
were supplied with flour, bsef, wines, hams, and other pro- 
visions, from this country. At present, its commerce is 
mostly confined to the peltry and furs which are got in traf- 
fic from the Indiana ; for which are received in turn such 
European commodities as are necessary to carry on that com- 
merce and the support of its inhabitants." 




On tlie breaking out of the AVar of the Revolution, it is 
pfobiiblo tiiat the British garrison f removed iu 1'7'2 from 
Fort Chartrcs to Fort Gage, opposite Kaskaskia,) liad been 
withdrawn. Illinois was remote from the theatre of action, 
and the colonists were little disturbed by the rumors of war 
which came from the Atlantic coast. Tlie French inhabitants 
were rather in sympathy with the Americans than the Eiig- 
liirli, but probably understood little of the nature of the 
struggle. Illinois belonged to the jurisdiction of Virginia. 
George Rogers Clarke, who visited Kentucky in 1775, seems 
to have been the first to comprehend the advantages which 
would result from the occupation of Illinois by the Ameri- 
cans. He visited Virginia, where he laid his plans before 
Patrick Henry, the Governor of the State. Clarke received 
his instructions, January, 177S, and the following mouth set 
out for Pittsburg His instructions were to raise seven com- 
panies of men, but he could only succeed in enlisting four 
commanded by Captains Montgomery, Bowman, Helm, and 
Harrod. On Corn Island, opposite Louisville, on the Ohio, 
Clarke announced his destination to the men. At the mouth 
of the Tennessee, a man named John Duff was encountered, 
with a party of hunters, who had recently visited Kaskaskia, 
and also brought the intelligence that one Rocheblave, a 
French Canadian, was in command at that point, that he 
kept the militia well drilled, and that sentinels were posted 
to watch for the " Long Knives," as the Virginians wei'e 
called, of whom the inhabitants were in terror. Securing his 
boats near Fort Massacre (or Massac,) Clarke undertook the 
journey across the country, one hundred and twenty miles, 
to Kaskaskia. It was accomplished with difficulty. On the 
afternoon of the fourth of July, 1778, the exhausted band of 
invaders came to the vicinity of Kaskaskia, and concealed 
themselves in the hills to the east of the town. After dark 
Clarke proceeded to the old ferry-house, three-fourths of a 
mile above the village, and at midnight addressed his troops 
on the banks of the river. He divided his force into three 
parties. Two were to to the west side of the river, and 
enter the town from different quarters. The third, under the 
direction of Clarke himself, was to capture the fort on the 
east side. Kaskaskia at that time was a village of about two 
hundred and fifty houses. The British commander last in 
charge had instilled in the raindi of the people the impres- 
sion that the Virginians, otherwise the " Long Knives," were 
a ferocious band of murderers, plundering houses, slaughter- 
ing women and children, and committing acts of great atro- 
city. Clarke determined to take advantage of this, and so 
surprise the inhabitants by fear as to induce them to submit 
without resistance. Clarke effected an entrance to the fort 
without difficulty. The other parties at a given signal en- 
tered Kaskaskia at tiie opposite extremities, and with terri- 
ble outcries and hideous noises, aroused the terrified inhabi- 
tants, who shrieked in their alarm, "The Long Knives!' 
"The Long Knives are here!" Tlie panic stricken towns- 
men delivered up their arms, and the victory was accom- 
plished without the shedding of a drop of blood. M. Roche- 
blave, the British commandant, was unconscious of the pres- 
ence of the enemy, till an officer of the detachment entered 

his bed-chamber, and claimed him as a prisoner In accord- 
ance with his original plan of conquering the inhabitants by 
terror, and then afterward winning their regard and grati- 
tude by his clemency, Clarke, the next day, withdrew his 
forces from the town, and sternly forbade all communication 
between it and his soldiers. Some of the principal militia 
officers, citizens of the town, were next put in irons- The 
terror now reached its height. The priest, and a deputation 
of five or six elderly men of the village, called on Clarke, 
and humbly requested permission to assemble in t! e church, 
to take leave of each other and commend their future lives 
to the protection of a msrciful God, since they expected to 
be separated, perhaps never to meet again. Clarke gruffly 
granted the privilege. The whole population convened at 
the church, and after remaining together a long time, the 
priest and a few others again waited upon the commander of 
the American forces, presenting thanks for the privilege they 
had enjoyed, and desiring to know what fate awaited 

Clarke now determined to lift them from their despair, and 
win their gratitude by a show of mercy. " What!" said he; 
" do you take us for savages ? Do you think Americans will 
strip women and children, and take bread from their mouths? 
My countrymen disdain to make war on helpless innocents." 
He further reminded them that the King of France, their 
former ruler, was an ally of the Americans, and now fighting 
their cause. He told them to embrace the side they deemed 
best, and they should be respected in the enjoyment of their 
liberty and the rights of property. 

The revulsi m of feeling was complete. The good news 
spread throughout the village. The church-bell rang a 
merry peal, and the delighted inhabitants gathered at the 
chapel, where thanks were offered to God for their happy 
and unexpected deliverance. The loyalty of the inhabitants 
was assured, and ever after they remained fiiithful to the 
American cause. The French inhabitants of Kaskaskia 
were readily reconciled to a change of government. In 
October, 1778, the Virginia Assembly erected the conquered 
territory into the County of Illinois. ■ This County embraced 
all the region north-west of Ohio, and five large states have 
since been formed from it. Colonel Clarke was appointed 
military commander of all the western territory north and 
south of the Ohio, and Colonel John Todd, one of Clarke's 
soldiers, who next to Clarke had been tiie first man to enter 
Fort Gage, was appointed lieutenant-commander of Illinois. 
In the spring of 1779, Colonel Todd visited Kaskaskia, and 
made arrangements for the orga^nization of a temporary 
government. Many of the French inhabitants of Kaskaskia, 
Prairie du Rocher, and the other settlements, readily took 
the oath of allegiance to Virginia. Colonel Todd was killed 
at the famous battle of Blue Licks, in Kentucky, August, 
1782, and Timothy deMontbrun, a Frenchman, succeeded 
him as commandant of Illinois County. Of his administra- 
tion but little is known. 

THE "compact of 1787." 

In 1682 Illinois became a possession of the French crown, 
a dependency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 17G5 
the English flag was run up on old Fort Chartres, and 



Illinois was counted among the treasures of Great Britain. 
In 1779 it was taken from tlie English by Col. George 
Rogers Clark : this man was resolute in nature, wise in coun- 
cil, prudent in policy, bold in action, and heroic in danger. 
Few men who have figured in the early history of America 
are more deserving than he. Nothing short of first-class 
ability could have rescued " Vincins"and all Illinois from 
the English, and it is not possible to over-estimate the in- 
fluence of this achievement upon the republic. In 1779, 
Illinois became a part of Virginia. It was soon known as 
Illinois county. In 1784 Virginia ceded all this territory 
to the general government to be cut into states, to be republi- 
can in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom 
and independence as the other states." 

In 1787 it was tiie object of the wisest and ablest legisla- 
tion found in any merely human records. No man can 
study the secret history of The Compact of 1787 and not 
fool that Providence was guiding with sleepless eyes tho.-e 
unborn states. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally 
became the incorporating act, has a most marvelous histury. 
Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the north-western territory. He was an emancipationist 
of tliat day, and favored the exclusion of slavery from the 
territory Virginia had ceded to the general governnuiit, 
but the south voted him down as often as it came up. In 
1787, as late as July 10, an orgauizing act without the 
anti-slavery clause was pending. This concession to the south 
was expected to carry it Congress was in session in New- 
York city. 1 July '), Rev. Dr. Manassch Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the north- 
western territory. Everything seemed to fiiU into his hands. 
Events were ripe : the state of the public credit, the growing of 
southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, his personal 
character, all combined to complete oncoftliosc sudden and 
marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five 
or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a remarkable man ; a 
graduate of Ynh, he had studied and taken degrees in the 
three learned professions, law, clivinity ;iiid medicine, ILir- 
vnrd had given him his A. M., and Y<ilr li;iil honored herself 
by adding his D. D. He harl thus America's best literary 
indorsement. He had published a scientific examination of 
the plants of New England. His name stood second only to 
that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly 
gentleman of tlie old style, a man of coramauding presence, 
and of inviting face. Thesouthern members were captivated 
by his genial manners, rare and profound abilities. He 
came representing a company that desired to purchase a 
tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of plant- 
ing a colony. Government money was worth eighteen cents 
on the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other specu- 
lators in New York made Dr. Cutler their agent; on the 
12th he represented a demand for 5,500,000 acres. This 
would reduce the national debt. Jefferson and Virginia 
were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the 
public credit, and this was a good opportunity to do some- 

thing. Massachusetts then owned the tfrritory of JIaine, 
which she was crowding on the market. She was opposed 
to opening the north-western region. This fired the zeal of 
Virginia. The South caught the inspiration, and all exalted 
Dr. Cutler. The English Mini.ster invited him to dine with 
some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the centre of in- 
terest; the entire South rallied around him. Ma.ssachusetts 
could not vote against him, many of the constituents' 
of her members were interested personally in the western 
speculation ; thus Cutler, making friends with the south, and 
(hmbtless using all the arts of the lobby, was enabled to 
command the situation. True to deeper conviction, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of 
wise statesmanship that ever adorned any human law book ; 
he borrowed from Jelf'erson the term " Articles of Compact," 
which preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most 
saered character. He then followed very closely the constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts, adopted three years before, — its most 
marked points were : 

l.~t. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

lid. Provision for public schools, giving one townsliip for 
a seminary, and every section numbered 16 in each town- 
sliip ; that is, one thirty -sixth of all the land for public 

3d. A provision prohibiting tlie adoption of any consti- 
tution, or the enactment of any law that should nullify 
jire-existing contracts. 

]>e it fir( ver remembered that this compact declared 
that " Itcligiou, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good governmont and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and means of education shall always be encouraged." Dr. 
Cutler planted himself on this platfirm and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing 
— that unless they cimid make the land desirable they did 
not want it — ho took his horse and gig and started for the 
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. On July 13, 
1787, the bill was put upon its pas.sage, and was unanimously 
adopted, every Southern member voting fnr it, and only one 
man, ^Ir. Yates of New York, voting against it, but as the 
States voted as States, Yates lost his vote, and the conijiact 
was put beyond repeal. Then the great States of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Michigan, and 'Wisconsin — a vast empire, 
the heart of the great valley — were consecrated to freedom, 
intelligence, and honesty. In the light of these ninety-five 
years, it is evident to all that this act was the salvation of 
the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon the south 
saw their great blunder, and tried to repeal the compact. 
In 1803 (Congress referred it to a committee, of which John 
Randolph was chairnum. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock 
in the way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. With all this 
timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and protracted 
struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It 
was the natural battle field for tlie irrepressible conflict. In 
the southern cud of the State slavery preceded the compact. 
It existed among the old French settlers, and was hard to 
eradicate. The southern part of the State was settled from 
the slave States; and this population brought their laws, 



customs, and institutions with them. A stream of popula- 
tion from the Nortli poured into the northern part of the 
State , These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
perfectly- The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skin- 
ning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the country 
with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The 
Northerner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy 
creature, burrowing in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt 
and ignorance. These causes aided in making the struggle 
long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy with slavery 
that in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and iu spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French 
settlers to retain their sl.avos. Planters from the slave 
States might bring their slaves, if they would give them a 
chance to choose freedom, or years of service and bondage 
for their children till they should become thirty years of age. 
If they chose freedom they must leave the State iu sixty 
days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for 
offences for which white men are fined ; each lash jsaid forty 
cents of the fine. A negro ten miles from home without a 
pass was whipped. These famous laws were imjiorted from 
the slave States, just as they imported laws for the inspec- 
tion of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 
These black laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was 
made to protect .slavery iu the State Constitution of 1818 ; it 
barely failed. It was renewed in 1826, when a convention 
was asked to make a new constitution. After a hard fight the 
convention was defeated ; but slaves did not disappear from 
the census of the State until 18.50. There were mobs and 
murders in the interest of slavery. Lovcjoy was added to 
the list of martyrs — a sort of first fruits of that long line of 
immortal heroes who saw freedom aa tiie one supreme desire 
of their souls, and were so enamored of her that they pre- 
ferred to dis rather than survive her. 


The early French settlers held the possession of their land 
in common. A tract of land was fixed upon for a Common 
Field, in which all the inhabitants were interested. 

Besides the Common Field, another tract of land was laid 
off on the Commons. All the villagers had free access to 
this as a place of pasturage for their stock. From this they 
also drew their supply of fuel. 

Individual grants were likewise made. Under the French 
system, the lands were granted without any equivalent con- 
sideration in the way of money, the individuals satisfying 
the authorities that the lands were wanted for actual settle- 
ment, or for a purpose likely to benefit the community. The 
first grant of land, which is preserved, is that made to Charles 
Danie, May lOlli, 1722. The French grants at Kaskaskia 
extended from river to river, and at other places in the Bot- 
tom they commonly extended from river to bluff. Grants of 
land were made for almost all the American Bottom, from 
the upper limits of the Common Field of St. Phillip's to 
the lower line of the Kaskaskia Common Field, a distance 
of nearly thirty miles. 

The British commandants, who assumed the government 
on the cession of the territory by France, exercised the pri- 

vilege of making grants, subject to the approval of his Ma- 
jesty, the King. Colonel Wilkins granted to some merchants 
of Philadelphia a magnificent domain of thirty thousand 
acres lying between the village of Kaskaskia and Prairie du 
Rocher, much of it already covered by French grants pre- 
viously made. For the better carrying out their plans, the 
British officers, and perhaps their grantees, destroyed, to 
some extent, the records of the ancient French grants at 
Kaskaskia, by which the regular claim of titles and convey- 
ances was partly broken. This British grant of thirty 
thousand acres, which had been assigned to John Edgar, 
was afterward patented by Governor St. Clair to Edgar and 
John Murray St. Clair, the Governor's son, to whom Edgar 
had previously conveyed a moiety by deed. Although much 
fault was found with the transaction, a confirmation of the 
grant was secured from the United States government. 

When Virginia ceded Illinois, it was stipulated that the 
French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers, who 
had professed allegiance to Virginia, should have their 
titles confirmed to them. Congress afterwards authorized 
the Governor to confirm the possessions and titles of the 
French to their lands. In accordance with this agreement. 
Governor St. Clair, in 1790, issued a proclamation directing 
the inhabitants to exhibit their titles and claims of the lands 
which they held, in order to be confirmed in their possession. 
Where the instruments were found to be authentic, orders of 
survey were issued, the expense of which was borne by the 
parties who claimed ownership. The French inhabitants 
were in such poverty at this time that they were really una- 
ble to pay the exjicnses of the surveys, and a memorial 
signed by P. Gibault, the priest at Kaskaskia, and eighty- 
seven others, was presented to Governor St. Clair, praying 
him to petition Congress for relief in the matter. In 1791, 
Congress directed that four hundred acres of land should be 
granted to the head of every family which had made improve- 
ments in Illinois prior to the year 1788. Congress had also 
directed that a donation be given to each of the families then 
living at either of the villages of Kaskaskia, Prairie du 
Rocher, Cahukia, Fort Chartres, or St. Phillips. These were 
known as the " bead-right " claims. 

At an early date, speculation became active in the land 
claims of different kinds; bead -rights, improvement rights, 
militia right', and fraudulent claims were produced in greU 
numbers. The French claims were partly unconfirmed, 
owing to the poverty of that people, and these were forced 
on the market with the others. Tfie official report of the 
commissioners at Kaskaskia, made in 1810, shows that eight 
hundred and ninety land claims were rejected as being ille- 
gal or fraudulent. Three hundred and seventy were 
reported as being supported by perjury, and a considerable 
number were forged. There are fourteen names given of 
persons, both English and French, who made it a regular 
business to furnish sworu certificates, professing an intimate 
knowledge, in every case, of the settlers who had made cer- 
tain improvements upon which claims were predicated and 
when and where they were located. A Frenchman, clerk 
of the parish of Prairie du Rocher, " without property and 
fond of liquor," after having given .some two hundred depo- 



sitions ia favor of three land claimant speculators, " was 
induced,' in the bnguage of the report, " either by compen- 
sation, fear, or the impossibility of obtaining absolution on 
any O'ther terms, to declare on oath that the said depositions 
were false, and that in giving them he had a regard for 
something beyond tlie truth." 

The report of the commissioners raised many doubts in 
regard to the validity and propriety of a number of confir- 
mations by the Governors, and much dissatisfaction among 
the claimants; and in consequence. Congress in 1812, passed 
an act for the revision of these land claims ia the Kaskaskia 
district. The commissioners under this law were Michael 
Jones, John Caldwell, and Thomas Sloo. Facts damaging 
to persons who occupied positions of high respectability in 
the community, were disclosed. They reported that tlie 
English claim of thirty thousand acres confirmed by Gover- 
nor St. Clair to John Edgar and the Governor's son, John 
Murray St. Clair, was founded in neither law or equity ; that 
the patent was issued after the Governor's power ceased to 
exist, and the claim ought not to be confirmed. Congress, 
however, confirmed it. 

For a period of .several years, emigration was considerably 
retarded by the delay in adjusting land titles. The act of 
Congress passed in 1813, granting the right of pre-emption 
to settlers, was influential in bringing the public lands into 
market. Emigrants poured into the country, and improve- 
ments were rapid'y made. 


Ia area the State has 55,410 square miles of territ iry. It 
is about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in 
latitude from JIaine to North Carolina. It embraces wide 
variety of climate. It is tempered on the north by the great 
inland, saltless, tidelcss sea, which helps the thermometer 
from either extreme. Being a table-land, from 690 to 1,G00 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the 
health maps, prepared by the general government, an almost 
clean and perfect record. In freedom from fever and mala- 
rial diseases and consumptions, the three deadly enemies of 
the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, stands without a 
superior. She furnishes one of the essential con<litions of a 
great people — sound bodies; we suspect that this fact lies 
back of that old Delaware word, Illini, superior men. The 
great battles of history havebeen determinative; dynasties and 
destinies have been strategical battles, chielly the question of 
position ; Thermopyho has been the war-cry of freemen f )r 
twenty-four centuries. It only tells how much there may be 
in position. All this advantage belong to Illinois. It is in 
the heart of the greatest valley in the world, the vast region 
between the mountains — a valley that could feed mankind 
for a thousand years. It is well on toward the centre of the 
continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which have 
beenf)und nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. 
It has sixty-five miles of frontage on the head of Lake Michi- 
gan. With the Jlississippi forming the western and south- 
ern boundary, with the Ohio running along the south-eastern 
line, with the Illinois river and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower IMississippi, and with 
the Rock and Wabash rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 

miles of water-front, connecting with, and running through, 
in all about 12,000 miles of navigable water. But this is 
not all. These waters are made most available by the fact 
that the lake and the State lie on the ridge running into the 
great valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake 
the water runs away from the lake to the gulf The lake 
now empties at both ends, one into the Atlantic and one into 
the Gulf of ^lexieo. The lake thus seems to hang over the 
land. This makes the dockage most .serviceable; there arc 
no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. The climate varies from Portland to Richmond. 
It favors every product of the continent including the tropics, 
with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces every 
great nutriment of the world except bananas and rice. It 
is hardly too much to .say that it is the most productive spot 
known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the 
earth full of minerals; with au upper surfiiceof food and an 
under layer of fuel; with perfect natural drainage, and 
abundant springs and streams and navigable rivers; half 
way between the forests of the North and the fruits of the 
South; withiu a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, 
copper, lead and zinc: containing and controlling the great 
grain, cattle, pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. This 
advantage has been supplemented by the character of the 
population. In the early days when Illinois was first admit- 
ted to the union, her population were chiefly from Kentucky 
and Virginia. But, in the conflict of ideas concerning sla- 
very, a strong tide of immigration came in frori tlie East, ami 
soon changed this composition. In 1880, her now native 
poj)ulation were from colder soils. New York had furnislied 
143,290: Ohio gave 172,023: Pennsylvania 108,352: the 
entire South gave us only 210,734. In all her cities, and in 
all her German and Scandinavian and other foreign colonics, 
Illiiiiiis has only about one-filth of her people of fureigu 

]'R()c:r.Ess OF r)i:vi:i.<iFMi:NT. 

Que of the grcat:ist d::velopments in the early history 
of Illinois, is the Illinois and Michigan c.uial, connecting tin; 
Illinois a:id ;\Iississippi rivers with the lakes. It was of the 
utmost importance to the State. It was recommended by 
Governor Bund, the first governor, in his first message. Two 
bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost 
at 8000,000 or 8700,000. It finally cost 88,000,000. In 
1825, a law was passed to incorporate the canal company, 
hut no stock was s Id. In 1826, upon the soli^'itation of 
Daniel P. Cook, congress gave 800,000 acres of land on the 
line of the work. In 1828, another law-commissioner was 
appointed, and work commenced with new survey and new 
estimates. In 1831-35, George Farquar nuide an able 
report on the whole matter. This was, doubtless, the 
ablest rejiort ever made to a western legislature, and it be- 
came the model for subsequent reports and action. From 
this the work went on until it was finished in 1848. It co.-t 
tlie State a large amount of money ; but it gave to the indus- 
tries of tlio State an impetus that pushed it up into the fir-t 
rank of greatness. It was not built as a sprruhuinu. But 
it has paid into the Treasury of the State an average annual 



nett sum of over 111,000. Pending the construction of the 
canal, the land and town-lot fever broke out in the state, in 
1834-35. It took on the malignant type in Chicago, lifting 
the town up into a city. The disease spread over the entire 
State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up 
men's farms without regard to locality, and cut up the purses 
of the purchasers without regard to consequences. There 
was no lack of buyei-s ; speculators and money swarmed into 
the country. This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 
1836-37, and left not one to tell the tale. They enacted a 
system of internal improvement without a parallel in the 
gjandeur of its conception. Tliey ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or 
river or canal, and those were to be comforted and compen- 
sated by the free distribution of S'200,000 among them. To 
inflate this balloon beyond credence it was ordered that work 
should be commenced on both ends of each of these railroads 
and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
The appropriations for the vast improvements were over 
$12,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow 
money on the credit of the State. Remember that all this was 
in the early days of railroading, when railroads were luxu- 
ries ; that the State had whole counties with scarcely a 
cabin, and that the population of the State was less than 
400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with 
which these brave men undertook the work of making a 
great State. In the light of history it appears that this was 
only a premature throb of the power that actually slumbered 
in the soil of the State. It was Hercules in the cradle. At 
this juncture the State bank loaned its funds largely to 
Godfrey Oilman & Co., and other leading houses for the 
purpose of drawing trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon 
they failed, and took down the bank with them. In 1840, 
all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were load- 
ed with a debt of 814,000,000. It had only six small cities, 
really only towns, namely: Chicago, Alton, Springfield, 
Qiiincy, Galena and Nauvoo. This debt was to be cared 
for when there was not a dollar in the treasury, and when 
the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the 
people to pay the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet 
in the presence of all these difficulties the young State 
steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. Ford took hold of the 
problem and solved it, bringing the State through in trium])h. 
Having touched lightly upon some of the most distinctive 
points in the history of Illinois, let us next briefly consider 


It is substantially a garden four hundred miles long and 
one hundred and fifty wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy 
loam, varying from six inches to six feet thick. On the 
American Bottoms it has been cultivated for over one hun- 
dred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it, has yielded corn for a century and a half without 
rest or help. It produces nearly everything green in the tem- 
perate and tropical zones ; she leads any of the other Statf s 

in the number of acres actually under plow. Her products 
from 2.5,000,000 acresare incalculable. Her mineral wealth 
is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, 
iron, lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, 
fire clay, cuma clay, common brick and tile clay, sands of 
all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, everything needed for a 
high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an 
appreciative handling in figures. We can handle itin gene- 
ral terms, like algebraical signs but long before we get up 
into the millions and billions, the human mind drops down 
from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. Nearly 
four-fifths of the entire State is underlaid with a deposit of 
coal more than forty feet thick on the average, including all 
strata (now estimated by recent surveys, at seventy feet 
thick). You can get some idea of its amount, as you do of the 
amount of the national debt. There it is, 41,000 square 
miles, one vast mine into which you could bury scores of 
European and ancient empires, and have room enough 
all round to work without knowing that they had been 
sepulchered there. Put this vast coal-bed down by the 
ather great coal deposits of the world, and its importance 
becomes manifest. Great Britain, has 12,000 square miles 
of coal; Spain 3,000; France 1,71'J; Belgium .578; Illi- 
nois about twice as many square miles as all combined. 
Virginia has 20,000 square miles; Pennsylvania, 10,000; 
Ohio, 12,000 ; Illinois has 31,000 square miles ; one-seventh 
of all the known coal on this continent is in Illinois. 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh 
of one cent a ton it would pay the national debt. Great 
Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give each 
man, woman and child in the kingdom the help and service 
of nineteen untiring servants. Ko wonder she has leisure 
and luxuries. No wonder the home of the common artisan 
has in it more luxuries than could be found in the palace of 
good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive of it, of 
the vastarmy of servants that slumber in Illinois, impatient- 
ly awaiting the call of genius to come forth to minister to 
our comfort. At the present rate of consumption England's 
coal supply will be exhausted in 2o0 years. At the same 
rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) tho deposit 
of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. L?t us now turn 
from this reserve power to tlio 


of the State. We shall not bo humiliated in this field. Here 
we strike the secret of our national credit. Nature provides 
a market in the ^Constant appetite of the race. For several 
years past the production of wheat in Illinois has 
exceeded 30,000,000. That is more wheat than was raised 
by any other State in the Union ; with corn, she comes for- 
ward with 140,000,000 bushels, twice as much as any other 
State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in the Uuited 
States. She harvested 2,707,000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of all the hay in the Republic. It is not generally 
appreciated, but it is true, that the hay crop of the country 
is worth more than the cotton crop ; the hay of Illinois equals 
the cotton of Louisiana. 



The valuation of her farm implements is 8230,000,000, 
and the value of her livestock, is only second to the great 
State of New York. She raises from 25,000,000 to 30,000,- 
000 hogs annually, and according to the last census packed 
about one half of all that were packed in the United States. 
This Ls no insiiruifieant item. Pork is a growing demand of 
the old world. Illinois marked St>4,000,000 worth of 
slaughtered animals ; more than any other State, and one- 
seventh of all the States. 

Illinois is a grand and wonderful State, peerless in the fer- 
tility of her soil, and inexhaustible resources. She is fast 
marching on towards her predestined place asjirst among the 

We subjoin a list of the things in which Illinois excels all 
other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; 
acres of improved land ; large farms — number of farmers ; 
amount of wheat, corn oats, and honey produced ; value of 
animals for slaughter; number of hogs; amount of pork; 
and number of horses. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in 
miles of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, 
and in the amount of lumber sold in her markets. She pays 
a larger amount of internal revenue to the general govern- 
ment than any other state. 

Illinois is only second in manv important matters. Tliis 
sample list comprises a few of the more important: 

Permanent school fund (good for a young State) ; total 
income for educational purposes; number of publishers of 
books, maps, papers, etc. ; value of farm products and im- 
plements, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to Xew York. Out 
of one port during the business hours of the season of navi- 
gation she sends forth a vessel every ten minutes. This does 
not include canal boats, which go one every five minutes. 
No wonder she is only second in number of bankers and 
brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools ; cattle, lead, 
hay, flax, sorghum, and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population ; in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes, and carriages. 

She is fifth iu value of real and personal propert)', in theo- 
logical seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in 
milk sold, and in boots and shoes manufactured, and iu book- 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is 
the twelfth in area. She now has much more wood and 
growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She man- 
ufactures 8210,000,000 worth of goods, which place her 
nearly equal to New York and Pennsylvania. 

In the number of copies of commercial and financial news- 
papers issued, she is only second to New York, and in her 
miles of railroads she leads all other States. Jlore than two- 
thirds of her land is within five miles of a railroad and less 
than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The Eeligion and Morals of the State keep step ivith her 
productions and growth. She was born of the missionary 

spirit. It was a minister who secured her the ordinance of 
1787, by which she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, 
and dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congre- 
gation in Eandojph County, petitioned the Constitutional 
Convention of 1818 to recognize Jesus Christ as King, aud 
the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and book of law. 
The Convention did not act in the case, and the old cove- 
nanters refused to accept citiztii.*hip. They never voted 
until 1824, when the slavery question was submitted to the 
people. But little mob violence has ever been felt in the 
State. In 1817 the regulators disposed of a band of horse 
thieves that infested the territory. The Mormon indignities 
finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also the scene of a 
pro-slaver)' mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law 
supreme, and gives the State unruffled peace. With about 
823,000,000 in church property, and 4,321 church organiza- 
tions, the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of 
moral ideas, that alone is able to secure perfect safety. Con- 
science takes the knife from the assassin's hand aud the blud- 
geon from the grasp of the highwayman. We sleep in safety 
not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only de- 
fend the innocent ; not because a lone ofiicer sleeps on a 
distant corner of the street; not because a sheriff may call 
his posse from a remote part of the county ; but because con- 
science guards the very portals of the air and stirs iu the 
deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues within 
the State 9,-500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and 
receives still more from without. Thus the crime of the 
State is only one-fourth that of New York and one-half that 
of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. 
In Belleville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Ben- 
nett arranged to vindicate injured honor. The seconds 
agreed to make it a sham, and make them shoot blanks. 
Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted something, 
and, unob.servcd, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed 
Stewart. He then fled the State. After two years he was 
caught, tried, convicted, and, in spite of friends and political 
aid, was hung. This fixed the code of honor on a Christian 
basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. The early preachers 
were generally ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. Gov. Ford .saj's, 
"Nevertheless these first preachers were of incalculable ben- 
efit to the country. They inculcated justice and morality. 
To them are we indebted for the first Christian character of 
the Protestant portion of the people." 

Jn£(fuca</on, Illinois surpasses her material resources. The 
ordinance of 1787 consecrated one thirty-sixth of her soil to 
common schools, and the law of 1318, the first law that went 
upon her statutes, gave three per cent, of all the rest to Educa- 
tion. The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its 
yoking together morality and intelligence it precludes the 
legal interference with the Bible in the public schools. With 
such a start it is natural that we should have about 11,500 
schools, aud that our ilitcracy should be less than New York 
or Pennsylvania, and about one-half of Massachusetts. What 
a grand showing for so young a State. These public schools 



snon made culleges inevitable. The first college, still flour- 
i^liing, was started in Lebanon in lS-8, hv he M. E. Church, 
ai.d named after Bishop ilcKcudree. Illinois college at 
Jacksonville followed in 1830, snjiported by the Presbyterians. 
In 1832 the Baptists built Shurtleff college at Alton, and 
Knox college at Galesburg fullowed in 1833, and Jubilee 
college at Peoria in 1847, and the good Catholic missionaries 
long prior to this had e tablished in various parts of the State, 
colleges, seminaries and parochial schools. After these earl v 
years colleges have rained down. A settler could hardly 
encamp on the prairie but a college would spring up by liis 
wagoa. The State now has one very well endowed and 
eijuipped university, namely the North-western University, 
at Evanston, with six colleges, ninety instructors, over one 
thousand students, and Sl,.")00,000 endowment. Eev. J. M. 
Peck was the first educated Protestant minister in the State. 
lie settled at Rock Spring, St. Clair County, about 1820, and 
has left his impress on the State. He was a large contribu- 
tor to the literature of that day in this State ; about 1837 he 
published a GartWeer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, 
of BlulTdale, published essays and tales showing genius. 
Judge James Hall published the Illinois Monthhj Magazine 
with great ability, and an annual called Tlie Western Sou- 
venir, which gave him an enviable fame all over the United 
States. From these beginnings, Illinois has gone on till she 
has more volumes in public libraries even than Massachu- 
setts, and of the 44.500,000 volumes in all the public libra- 
ries of the United Siates, she has one-thirteenth. 

In 18G0 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries ; in 1870 
she had eighty. 

That is a grand advance for the war decade. Her growth 
in the last ten years has been equally marvellous. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in any age. 


We hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or 
what. to say, as we can at best give only a broken synopsis 
of her gallant deeds. Her sons have always been foremost 
on fields of danger. In the war of 1812 she aided in main- 
taining national sovereignty. In 1831-32, at the call of 
Grov. Reynolds, her sons drove Blackhawk over the Missis- 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men 
ofiered themselves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The 
fields of Buena Vista, Chapultepec and Vera Cruz, and the 
storming of Cerro Gordo, will perpetuate the bravery and 
the glory of the Illinois soldier. But it was reserved till 
our day for her sons to find a field and a cause and a foe- 
man that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. 
Illinois put into her own regiments for the United States 
government 256,000 men, and into the army through other 
states enough to swell the number to 290,000. This far ex- 
ceeds all the soldiers of the federal government in all the 
■war of the revolution. Her total years of service were 
600,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five 
years of age when the law of Congress in 1864 — the test 
time — only asked for those from twenty to fortv-five. Her 
enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted to 

go and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. 
Thus the basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then 
the quota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. Thus the demand on some counties, as 
Monroe, for example, took every able-bodied man in the 
county, and then did not have enough to fill the quota. 
Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 men for ninety or one hundred 
days, for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's 
attention was called to the inequality of the quota compared 
with other states, he replied, " The country needs the sacri- 
fice. We must put the whip on the free horse." In spite 
of these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 73,000 
years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenlh of 
the population of the loyal States, she sent regularly one- 
tenth of all the soldiers, and in the peril of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she then sent one- 
eighth of all that were called for by her loved and honored 
son in the White House. Her mothers and daughters went 
into the fields to raise the grain and keep the children to- 
gether, while the fathers and older sons went to the harvest 
fields of the world. What a glorious record there is treas- 
ured up in the hi,story of this great country for the patriotic 
Illinois soldier. Her military record during the Rebellion 
stands peerless among the other States. Ask any soldier 
with a good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, 
and he will tell you that the Illinois men went in to win. 
It is common history that the greater victories were won in 
the West. When everything else was dark, Illinois was gain- 
ing victories all down the river, and dividing tiie confederacy, 
Sherman took with him on his great march forty-five regi, 
ments of Illinois infantry, throe companies of arliller}', and 
one company of calvary. He could not avoid goinej to the 
sea. Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with 
" It is impossible; there is a mighty sight of fight in 100,- 
OOO Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 300 
battle-flags. The first United States fl.ig that floated over 
Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and 
nurses to every field and hospital, to care for her sick and 
wounded sons. When individuals had given all, then cities 
and towns came forward with their credit to the extent of 
many millions, to aid these men and their families. Illinois 
gave the country the great general of the war — Ulysses S. 
Grant — since honored with two terms of the Presidency of 
the United States. 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, 
embalmed in all hearts, that must have the supreme place 
in this story of our glory and of our nation's honor : that 
name is Abiaham Lincoln, of Illinois. The anal3'sis of Mr. 
Lincoln's character is difficult on account of its symmetry. 
In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising 
honesty, ."^.nd well we may, for this saved us thousands 
throughout the length and breadth of our country who knew 
him only as "Honest Old Abe," and voted for him on that 
account ; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could 
have carried us through the fearful night of the war. 
When his plans were too vast for our comprehension and 
his faith in the cause too sublime for our participation, 
when it was all night about us, and all dread before us, 



and all sad and desolate behind us : when not one ray shone 
upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant 
at the south, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; 
when the loyal men here seemed almost in the minority ; 
when the stoutest heart quailed, when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractors were leeching out 
the very heart's blood of the prostrate republic : when 
everything else had failed us, we looked at this calm, patient. 
man standing like a rock in the storm and said, " Mr. Lin- 
coln is honest, and we will trust him sail." Holding to this 
single point with the energy of faith and despair we held 
together, and, under God, he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all laada. 
With such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their 
ultimate eflects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed 
almost prophetic. He is radiant with all the great virtues, 
and his memory shall shed a glory upon this age that shall 
fill the eyes of nicu as they look into history. Other men 
have excelled him in some points, but taken at all points, all 
in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man 
of six thousand years. An administrator, ha served the 
nation in the perils of unparalleled civil war. A statesman, 
he ju^tified his measures by their success. A philanthropist, 
he gave liberty to one race and salvation to another. A 
moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he 
exercised mercy under the most absolute obedieace to law. 
A leader, he was no partizan. A commander, he was un- 
tainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, he wns 
unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of pas- 
sion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of 
jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Tiius perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into 
these troubled years to adorn and embellish a!l tluit is good 
and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all 
coming time the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
Ilepublic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when 
the great war itself shall have faded out in the distance like 
a mist on the horizon ; and when the Anglo-Sax ju language 
shall be spoken only by the tongue of the stranger, then the 
generation locking this way shall see the great President as 
the supreme figure in this vortox of hi.^t ry. 


The history of Illinois has been traced while a possession 
of France, and when under the British government ; and 
the formation of Illinois as a County of Virginia has boon 
noted. The several States afterwards agreed on the adop- 
tion of Articles of the Confederation, to cede their claims to 
the western land to the General government. Virginia 
executed her deed of cession JIarch 1st, 1784. For several 
years after, there was an imperfect admistration of the law 
in Illinois. The French customs partly held force, and 
affairs were partly governed by the promulgations of the 
British commandants issued from Fort Chartros, and bv the 
regulations which had subsei|ueutly been i isued bv the Vir- 
gicia authorities. 

By the ordinance of 1787, all the territory north-west of 
the Ohio was constituted into one district, the laws to be 
administered by a governor and secretary ; a court was insti- 
tuted of three judges. A general assembly was provided 
for, the members to be chosen by the people. General 
Arthur St. Clair was selected by Congress, as Governor of 
the north-western territory. The seat of government was at 
Marietta, Ohio. 

In the year 1795, Governor St. Clair divided St. Clair 
County. All south of a line running through the New 
Design settlement (in the present County of Monroe) was 
erected into the County of Randolph. In honor of Edmund 
Randolph of Virginia, the new county received its name. 

Shadrach Bond, afterwards the first Governor, was elected 
from Illinois, a member of the Territorial Legislature which 
convened at Ciucinnati, ia January, 1799. In 1800 the 
Territory of Indiana was formed, of which Illinois consti- 
tuted a part, with the seat of government at Vincennes. 
About 1803, among otlier places in the West, Aaron Burr 
visited Kaskaskia in an endeavor to enlist men for his 
treasonable scheme ag.iinst the government. In 1.S0.5, 
George Fisher was elected from Randolph County a mem- 
ber of the Territorial Legislature, and Pierre Menard was 
chosen member of the Legislative Council. 

By act of Congress, 1809, the Territory of Illinois wu< 
constituted. Xinian Edwards was appointed Governor of 
the newly organized Tcrritorv, and the seat of government 
established at Kaskaskia. N.ithaniel Pope, a relative of 
Edwards, received the appointment of Secretary. 

For nearly four years afcc-r the organization of the Terri- 
torial Government no legislature existed in Illinois. An 
election for representatives was held on th.e eighth, ninth, 
and tenth of October, 1812. Shadrach B md, then a resi- 
dent of St. Clair County, was elected the first Delegate to 
Congress from Illinois. Pierre Slenard was chosen from 
Randolph County member of the Legislative Council, and 
George Fisher of the House of Representatives. The Legis- 
lature convened at Kaskaskia ou the twenty-fifth of Xovem- 
ber, 1812. 

In April, 1818, a bill providing fur the;sion of Illi- 
nois into the Union as a sovereign Siato was j)assei liy Con- 
gress. A Convention to fiame a Constitution a-.somble 1 at 
Kaskaskia in the following July. The first election under 
the Constitution was held in September, 1818, and .'^iiadrach 
Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard, Lieutenant 
Governor Illinois was now declared by Congress admitted 
to the Union as on an equal footing in all respects with the 
original States. The Legislature again met at Ka-kaskia in 
January, 1S19. Tiiis was the last session ever held at Kas- 
ka^kia. Vaudalia, the same year, was selected as the Capital 
of the State. It was stipulated that Vandalia was to be the 
Capital for twenty years. At the end of that period it was 
changed to Springfield. Below we give list of g )vernora 
and staff officers of Illinois. 

Illinois was constituted a separate Territory by act of Con- 
gress February 3d, 1S09. The boundaries w-jre described 
as follows : 



FROM 1809, 

TO 1882. 

* " That from ami after the first day of March next, all 
that part of the IiKUana Territory which lies west of the 
Wabash river and a direct liuedrawn from the said Wabash 
river and Post Yincennes due north to the territorial line 
between the United States and Canada, shall for the purpose 
of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and 
be called ' Illinois.' " 

The seat of government was fixed at Kaskaskia. 

The territorial government was continued under the first 
grade from 1809 until 1812, when by a vote of the people 
the second grade was adopted. 

Under the first grade, the Governor and Judges, who 
received their appointment from the President, constituted 
the Legislative Council, and enacted laws for the govern- 
ment of the people. The Governor possessed almost un- 
limited power in the appointment of officers ; the Secretary 
of the Territory being the only officer, not appointed by the 

Lender the second grade, the people elected the Legisla- 
ture, which was composed of a Legislative Council and a 
House of Representatives. The Legislative Council was 
composed of five members, and the House of Kepreseutatives 
of seven members. 

The Legislature enacted the laws for the government of 
the people, but the Governor was possessed of the absolute 
veto power, and was therefore in position to dictate the laws, 
if he chose to exercise the power. 

The people also elected the Delegate to Congress by popu- 
lar vote. 

Ttrrltoilnl Officers. 

The following is a complete roster of territorial officers 
from 1S09 until the organization of the State government 
in 1818: 


•Toli.i R.vl.^ :M;ir.'li7,lsnti, Poi-liiicl. 

>iiium EUivanls \Iiril:;l, Isiio, to DecijmburC, ISIS. 

Tlio term oftho Governor's h,:. im n i,r a.k two yc.->rs. Governor Ertwarrls 
was rc-appoiutoil from timo ti. tiiii., :i^ Ins I, rm expired, and served through 
the entire territorial government. 


K.-ilhanicl Pope IVI.ireh 7, ISnn, to DeeemV.rr IT, ISH',. 

J.istph Phillips December 17, 1S16, to Oelober c, 1S18. 


IT. II. Maxwell 1S12 to I.SIG. 

Daniel P. Cook January V.\, 181G, to April, 

B.-ihert Blaelcwell April .^i, 1S17, to August, 1317. 

Elijah C. Berry August 28, 1317, toOctober 9, ISIS. 


Benjamin 11. Dovle i " ■ .'l, 1 ■ ", to December, 1809. 

•lohn J. Crittenden I'- i"'" r ■'•", 1809, to April, lalo. 

Th.jmas T. ('rittenden iiril 7. |s|ii, to Oetoher, Isln. 

Benjamin M. Piatt I i,.t,,l,.r •-'9, isin, to June, 1S13. 

William Mears Iune23, 1813, to February 17, ISIS. 

• From Le.jislativc Directory, published 1881. 

1S1-2 10 1818. 


Sb.adraeh Bond Iir, rnibrr, 1S12, to 1S14. 

lleniamin Slepheuson September -l-J, ISH, to 1817. 

Naliianiel Pope 1»17 to Isls. 


March 7, 1809. 

Jbu-eh 7, 1SH9. Resigned. 

Obadiah Jones, 


1 M<- 

Jeptlia Hardm. (Eastern elrcuil.).. 

Elias I),.ot,M- Mnv :; |s 


Elias l:. . I..; .. . 
Wui. Akxande 

, 1M4 

First Territorial Legislature— 1813. 

Convened at KaslcasUia on the 2.5th dav of November, A. D. 1812. Adjourned 
the -'etli dav of December, 1S12. .Second session convened and adjourned 
November s' A. D. 1S13. 


President Pierre Menard. 

Si-crclnrii lohn Thomas. 

Duorkeeper Thomas Van Swcaringen. 


Pierre Menard Randolph. Ramnel Jud.v Madison. 

lienjamui Talbott (iallatin. Tlionias Ferguson Julinsou. 

William Biggs St. Clair. 


n li FRs. 




.George Fisher, 
-.William C, GrCi 

Reorse Fisher 

Alexand'T WiN..u 
Phillip Trallirnel , 


..Randolpli. .Toshua Oclesbv St. Clair, 

....(iallatni. Jaeob Short SI. I'l.iir, 

... (inllatin. William Jones Madison 


Second Territorial I.e*f;islatu 



r-i-Meni Pierre Menard. 

Srcrr.lnTv John Thomas. 

Luurkceper Phomas Stuart. 


Pierre Menard Randolph. S:imuel ,Iudy Madison. 

William Biggs st. riair. Thomas Ferguson Johnson. 

Benjamin Talbott (iallatin. 


Snrakcr Ri.sdon Moore. 

Clerk William Mears. 

Duurileper Tliomas Stuart 


Fisdnn iT.inr.- St. Clair. Phillip Trammel Gallatin. 

\V;lh,un l.oi Madison. Thomas C. Browne (iallatin. 

Jam..- I'M, St, Clair. Owen Evans Johnson. 

Jaiiu- < .i:i . 'II. Randolph. 

Seeond Territorial I^eglslature— 1815. 

Convened pursuant to adjournment, the 4th day of December, A. D. ISl.i. 
Adjourned January 11, A, D, 1810. 


President Pierre Menard. 

,Verretarii .Jolin Ihomas. 

Enrolnnn and Eagromng Clerk Wm. C. Greenup. 

jjoorkecper Ezra Ctwen. 


Pierre Menard R.andolph. William Biggs St. Clair. 

Samuel Judy Madison. Thomas Ferguson Johnson. 

Benjamin Talbott Gallatin. 

» Expelled. 



. C.Greenup. 





Enrolting and Engrossing Ciirk 


Ri«don Moore St Clnir. .Ii'liti n. Lodon Mndh 

Phillip Trammel Gallatin. William l!alil>. 

Tlioma.« C. Browne liallatin. James Lemon 

Jarvis Hazelton Kaadoliili. 

Third TerHtorlal I/eglslatiire— 1816-IT. 
Convened at Ka=kaskia the 2d da.v of December. A. D. ISIG. Adjourned 
January 14, \. D. ISIT. 



President Pierre Menard. 

Hrrrelar,, ;',"',?P,r '^"""'K'- 

Enntllimi and Enqro.siuj Clerk H. K.MoLaughlm. 

DoorkecJHr ! Ezra Owen. 


"icrre Menard Randolph. .Mm Grammar Johnson. 

,Iohn G. Lofton Madison. TliomM C. Browne Oall.ilin. 

Abraham .\mos St. Clair. 


Speaker "T"'-?'; J'^^*"",' 

0frk Daniel P. Cook. 

Enroi}ni!i''and'Bn'qrt>5Sinn Ocrk R. K. McLaUKhlin. 

Doorkeeper '. Ezra Owen. 


Georce Fi.«her R.andolph. Joseph Palmer Johnson. 

C. R. M.alhenv ^^t. Clair. S.'th Card Edwards. 

\Vm. H. Brad'sby S^t. Clair. Samuel Omelveny Pope. 

^'athan Davis Jackson. 

Third Territorial ieglslatnre— 1S17-18. 
Convened .\t Ka.skaskia the Ist day of Docember, A. D. 1817. Adjourned 
Januarv li A. D. 1818. 



President Pierre Menard. 

Seerctnr,! !,°''fP''.F'',""''-^L-,- 

Enre^inganAEagroaing CUrk R. KJ»IcLaughIir 



Pierre Menard Randolph. 

Abraham .\mo9 Monroe. 

John Grimmar Johnson. 


Speeika- g^ilS? F'sh". 

(jlffrk Daniel P. Cook. 

Enrouimaiui'iiii^nTsing'cierk. R- K. McLaughlii 

Doorkeeper '.... - Ezra Owen. 

..Ezra Owen. 

George Fisher Randolph 

Cha«. R. Matheny St. Clair. 

Willis Hargiaves White. 

Wm. H. Bradsby St. Clair 

Joseph Palmy J,.hnson 

M. S. Davenport Gallatin 

First Constitutional Convention. 

As.'serabled at Kaska-skia, July — , 1818. Adjourned August 26, 
1818. Thirtv-three delegate,^. One member from Wa-shington county 
died during the .sitting of tlie convention ; name unknown. Constitu- 
tion adopted in convention without being submitted to a vote of the 
people. Approved by Congress, December 3, 1818. 

President -Tes-se B.Thomas. 

Secretary William C. Greenup. 


St. Cfctr— Jesse B. Thomas, John Messinger, James Lemen, Jr. 
Bandolph— George Fisher, Elias Kent Kane. 

Jl/adtscm— Benjamin Stephenson, Joseph Borough, .Abraham Pric- 

GaZZo/iTv— Michael Jones, Leonard White, Adolphus F. Hubbard. 

Johnson — Hezekiah West, Wm. McFatridge. 

Edward.i Seth Gard, Levi Compton. 

irAt<<:— Willis Ilargrave, Wm McHenry. 

.AToTiroe— Caldwell Cams, Enoch Moore, 

Pope — Samuel Omelveny, Hamlet Ferguson. 

Jncfoon— Conrad Will, .lames Hall, Jr. 

Oau/orrf -Joseph Kitchell, Edward X. CiiUom. 

Bai!<i— Thoma-sKirkpatrick, Samuel G. Morse. 

ITnion—Vf iWi&m Echols, John Whiteaker. 

Washington — .\ndrew Bankaon. 

Franklin— Ishum Harrison, Thomas Roberts. 


Under the constitution of 1818 the elective ofBcers were the Gover- 
nor and Lieutenant-Governor, who held office for four years. The 
election returns were transmitted by the returning otficers, directed to 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, whose duty it was to 
open and publish them in the presence of a majority of each house of 
the General .\ssembly. In case of a tie, the choice was made by a 
joint ballot of both houses. The first election for Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor was lield on the third Thursday of September, 
A. D. 1S18. Thereader the elections were held every four years 
on the first Monday of August. 

The Secretary of State was appointed hy the Governor, with the 
advice and consent of the Senate. 

The .Vudilor of Public Accounts, Treasurer and Attorney-General 
were elected by the General Assembly, and held office for two years 

By the constitution of 1S4S, all these officers were made elective by 
the people, except the Attorney-General, which office was abolished. 
The term of office for each was four years, except the Treasn n r, 
which was two years. 

The office of .Attorney-General was again created by law, in 1867, 
and the term fixed at two years. The office was first filled by 
appointment by the Governor, and at the expiration of the term by 
election by the people. 

The constitution of 1870 provides that the Executive Department 
shall consist of-a Governor, Lieutenanl-Ciovernor, Secretary of State, 
Auditor of Public Accounts, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, and Attorney-General, who shall eacli, with the exception 
of the Treasurer, hold office for four years from the second Monday in 
January next after election. The Treasurer holds office for two years, 
and is ineligible for re-election until the expiration of two years next 
after the end of his term. The first election under the constitution of 
1870 was held Novembers, A. D. 1872. 

By a law passed in 1849 the Secretary of State was made ez-officia 
State Superintendent of Public Schools. In 18.54 the law establish- 
ing a system of free schools created the office of State Superintendent, 
and provided for the appointment by the Governor, upon the taking 
effect of the law, of some person to hold office until the election in 
1855, when a State Superintendent should be elected, and every two 
years thereafter. 

The offices of Adjutant-General, State Geologist, and Entomolo- 
gist, are created by law, and filled by appointment of the Governor. 


Shailraeh Bond 'Oct. 

Ktiw..>rd Coles IDeC. 

Nmian Kd wards Dec. 

Jotm Reynolds Dec. 

Wm. L. D. Ewing INov. 

Joseph Duncan Dec. 

Thomas Carlin ' Dec. 

Thomas Ford Dec. 

Augustus C. French Dec, 

Augustus C. French |Jan. 

6, 1818.... 
6, 1822... 
6, 182C.. 
9, 1830... 

17, 1834. 

3, 1834 

7, 1838.... 

8, 1842 

!1, 1846 

8, 1849... 

.St. Clair 

. Madison.... 
.'St. Clair 




Joel A. Mfttteson Jan., 

Wm. U. Bissell Jan. 

John Wood Mar. 

.Ian. 14,18f.l. 
Jan. 16, 1865.., 
Jan. 11, 1869., 
Jan. 13, 1873., 

John L. Beveridge Jan 23, 1873 

Richard Yates 

Richard J.OKlesby.. 

John M. Palmer 

Richard J. Oglesby-. 

21, I860.. 

Resigned Nov. 17, 1834. 

Elected Ren. to Congress. 
Vice Reynolds. * 

Shelby M. Cullom Jan. 8,1877.. 

Shelby M. Cullom 'Jan. 10, 1881.. 

Monroe Died March 15. 1860. 

Adams jSueceededto the office vic« 




Macoupin . 

Resigned Jan. 23, 187S. 

Elected U.S. Sen*or. 
Succeeded to office, t1c« 

Oglesby resigned. 




Pierre Menard Oct. 6, 1818.. 

Adolphus F. Hubbard..' Dec. 5,1822., 
William Kinney., "' " 

Stinson H. .^nrter: 

John M'viri- 

Joseph n. Wolls... 
Wm. McM.irtry... 
Gustavua KcErner, 
John Wood 

3 A. Marshall.. 
I \. Hoffman.. 

Dec. 7, 1838., 
Dec. 8. 1S42., 
Dec. 9, 1846. 
Jan. 8, 1849. 
12, 1857. 

St. Claii 

Rock Isia 

Jan. 14, 1861., 

Jan. li;, 1805., 

„ Jan. 11, 1869., 

John L. Beveridge 'Jan. 13, 1873., 

John Early Jan. 23, 1873., 

Archibald A. Glenn Jan. 8, 1875. 





Resienc-d March 1. 18.33 
Pre.sident of Senate and Act- 
ing Lieut-Governor. 

Presidentof Senate and Act- 
g Ijieut-Governor 

Succeeded to office 
vice Bissell dec'd ^ 

President of Senate a 

ing Lieut-Gnvernc 

Succeeded to office of Gov. 

vice Oglesby elec'd U. S Sen 

Presidentof Senate and Act- 
ing Lieut-Governor. 

President of Senate and Act- 
ing Lieut-Gc 

Secretaries of State. 

Elias Kent Kane 1 1, t r. l-l- 

Samucl n, L.,ckwood 1 in ■ I -, ■ - 
David Bl-vkn-r-ll \]'ril J. ' 

Morri" P.pklu-.'k M,,t 1,1- I 

Georrr l,',,-|r ,r ,1 ,:, I,, I ' 

Alex^ui i, , ]■ I I, !,i I' , ,1, I - 

Stepli.-n \ h ,i|,-i,i. \,,> ,,.■, I- h 

Lyman '1 i '-ill .. I-I' -T, IMI 

Thompson r.inipbcll, , -Mar. 4, 1,<4:!„ 

Horaces. Cooley [Dec. 23, ls4r...| 

Horaces. Cooley 'Jan. 8,1849..' 

David L. Greggs \i.nn". !,■<." 

Alexander -Starne ' m l ■, i ,, 

Ozins M. Hatcli 1 n I ., 1 : 

OziasM. Hatch ,l:.n, II, l 

Sharon Tyndale ,,ian, P , I 

Edward Rummel 'Jan. 11. i 

George H. Harrow Jan. 1:1, 1 

George H. Harrow Jan. ,'-. 1 ,, 

Henry C. Dement Ijan. 10, l,.^l,. 

lAppointed hy Gov. French. 
Elected under Constitution 
I of 1848. Died April 2, 1850. 

Auditors of Public Accounts. 

, 27, ls:n. 


James T. B. Stapp 

Levi Davis 

James Shields 

Wm. D. L. EwinK_. 
Thomas H. Campbel 
Thomas H. Campbel 

Jesse K. Dubois 

Jesse K. Dubois 

Orlin H. Miner Deo. li, 1864.. Sang; 

rhailcs E. Lippincott..]Jan. 11, 18C9.. Cass 

Charles E. Lippincott.. l.i, 187,3,, " 

Thomas B. Needles .fan. 8, 1877.. Washington 

Charles P. Swigert Wan. 10, 1881.. Kankakee... 

? Ewing, deceased. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Ninian W. Edwards Mch. 24, 1854. 

Wm. H. Powell Jan'y 12, 1857. 

Newton Bateman |Jan'y 1,1859. 

Newton B.iteniaii iJan'y 4, W61. 

John P. Brooks Jan'y 12, 1863. 

Newton Bateman Jan'y lu, 1805. 

Newton Bateman IJan'y — , 1867. 

Newton Bateman 'Jan'y-, 1871. 

Sam'l K. Etter iJan'y 11, 1876. 

Jattes P. Slade Ijan'y 13, 1879. 


Appointed by the Governor 

State Treasurers. 

John Tho 
R. K. Jlc I 


Resigned Dee, 3, 1,V10. 


George W. Smith... 
Erastus N. Bates... 
Erastus N. Bates... 

Edward Ruiz 

Thos. S. Ridgeway.. 

Edward Rutz 

John C. Smith 

Edward Rutz 

,l;m. 12, 1,S63„ 

.Ian. 9, 1865. 

Jan. 10, 1807. 

Jan. 11, 1869., 

Nov. 8, 1870. 

Jan. 13, 1873. 

Jan. 11, 1875. 

Jan. 8, 1877. 

Jan. 13, 1879. 

Jan. 10, 1881. 




St. Clair 


St. Clair 

JoDaviess . 



Resigned Sept. 3, 1859. 





Daniel Pope Cook 

WHliam Mcars 

Sam'l D. Lockvvood..,. 

James Turncy 

James Turney 

George Forquer 

James Semple 

Ninian W. Edw.ards.. 
Ninian W. Edwards... 
.Jesse li. Thomas, Jr. 

Walter B. Scates 

Usher F. binder 

I W. Olney 

.'Mch. 6, 1819.. Randolph ... Resigned March 5, 1819. 

.'Dec. 14, 1819.. St Clair I 

Feb. 20, 1821,.!Madison Resigned Deo. 28, 1822. 

. laii'yll, 1^2:1 Washington Resigned Jan'y 7, IS'25. 

1, l.>,.4„ 
ly 111, 1811, 

James A. Meli, 
David H, CiiLi] 
Kobeiti., Ill-- ■ 

iFeb." 12, 183.5. .'Madison. I,' I : -, 

.Llan'ylS, 1830.,'JefTerson I,, .i , 1 ,■ - , 

IFeti, 4. isn C,-.|p.i.,. 1:, ;-ii, ,l ,l;ii,' II, I ,;■<. 

.1,1, ix;- M-,,!,^,,,,, R, .,L',i.-,| Feti-y 1, 1,h:.19. 

; Jl, h ,,!-,, ( ■ i,u,,|,| 1;, .|,_'iie,l Kov.19, 1S40. 

I-!', J.; I-'- !■,'', ','■",, .\pi...inledby(..ov. I ' 
I ,:, X I I. !■; , I ,- il,, - 

. Janv. ,11 1S77„, " : 

.^Jan'y.lO, I881..lWayne 1 - - 

State Geolo^Bts. 

When I From what 

appointed, i county. 

Joseph Norwood 

H. A. rlffers 

Amos H. Worthen.... 

L.-op.jld Riiditer 

Henrv Engolraann.. 
William Billington.. 

!.luly 21, 1R,51 ,'s,3neamon.-.. Act of Feb. 17, 1S51. 

■\], 1, ■' 1- 11 ■(, , 1: \ !',,• >or%vood. 

1,,, 1,1 ,, " i -,M. 
, .\|„,1 r., I-., I -' ' I,..: 
,:Apnli:o, l.,„l„-.;n;4.m.,...-.. 

State Entomologists. 

When |From what 
appointed. ] county. 


Wm. LeBarron. 
Cyrus Thomas.. 

.June- 11, lsn7..!Rock IslandlDicd. 

.April 2, 1870..lK.ane iDied. 

.lApril 13, 1876..iJackson I 


Wm. Alexander 

Elijah C. Berry 

James W. Berry.... 
Moses K. Anderso 
Simon B. Buckner 
Wm. C. Kcnney.... 
I'homas S. Mather 

Allen C. Fuller 

Isham N. Haynie.. 
Edward P. Nlles.... 

Hubert Dilger 

Edwin L. Higgins 
Edwin L. Higgins 

Hiram Hilliard 

Hiram Hilliard 

When From what 

appointed. county. 

April ! 
June 1 
Dec. 1 
Dec. 1 
Oct. 2 
Nov. 1 
Jan'y 1 

Jan'y 2 

, 1839. 
, 1857. 
, 1858. 
, 1801. 
, 1866. 

, 1873. 
, 1874. 
, 1875. 
, 1877. 



St. Clair 






Resigned Nov. 11, 

Resigned Nov. 7, 1857. 


Vice Kinney, deceased. 




i by Counties, ujordiag t> the United States census, from the year ISCk) to the year 1380, and dale 

1800. i 1810. ; 1820. 1 

I'^Ml. I ISfiO. 









Champaign ... 















..| 4,822 







],878l 3, 20:!! 
7, 4V1 9, ."■32 

111,2111 1 43,3S.V 

4, 707 
11, 078 
25, 420 
.1, 141 
14, 029 
10, 492 
9, .^3^, 
14, 203 
144, 9."i4 
10, .S2n 
7 8IC1 
33, .l;).'?! 



29, 001 i 


1 1 1' 

■-, 1-1; 


I ■.■• 



1_ ...,l 

11. Till! 

r., 9.37 
-., 5SS 
19, 22s 
in, .-.73 





13, rcii 

20. ISO 




7. i21 1 




7, 01.-. 





4, 090 








S, 133i 

0, S2."i 


2. -.14 

8 92.'. 

s. 3111 


20, 000! 

..; 4,.^r.: 

7, 3.54i 

12, 0.51 : 

1 0, liSM 



i;| 3,, 


9, 342; 

.. 0, 5111 

10, 703, 

30. 0fi2i 
1.5. 4121 


7 73 ; 


4; 7,010 

1:1. 279i 

2.<, 0031 

,- 7,0,-,4! 



..' 9, 3 IS 

17. SI.5I 


.•* 7,0921 



2, 03-.: 

r., 292: 


.1 7.59 ■ 



22, 112' 

22, SSsi 

30, 001 1 
0, 127 

.5, .587 


9, 331 

32, 274 

14, CS4 
9, 0(i9l 

21, 470, 
7, 3131 


12, 2131 
12, 403 

15, 71)71 

SO, 302 
10, .564 
13 152 
12, 942 



When organized. 

12, 0521 
S-'S, 2911 
20, -277 

27, 820 
24, .352] 
1-2, .399 

27, 171 : 
31 , 471 
2!, 0.531 
20, 181 ; 

10, .5nO 
10, 751 
f 1,01a, 
27. 903 I 
8, .« 11 
23. 174 
17, .599 

£7. .503; 

17,. 3-29 
29, .3011 
IS, 95G' 

59, 148 .Tanuary 13, 18-25.. 

14, 809>Ittrt-h 4, 1S19 

14,873 J;inii:ir-.- 1. I«1T.. 
11,527 Mi: ■': I, 1- ,^ .- 
13,014 !■■■ I 1 . I i- .' 
33. ISO F- ',- ■ , V J. 1 ■ :T 



18,924 r,-lMiiiuyl5, lb:ii 
23,213 Fohmarv 14, 1821 
15 105 Februarv.l7, 1.S.59 
111, l.-Llnnuiu-V-'. isl.'^... 

: . J 1 ■ ■ 

•.-S, ISJl.. 
-.-11. 1825.. 

■:. IS39 

i'V 211, 1S41... 

r,n1 .l:ini 
457 Feb 
.50S .lam 

5; 5 F.-b, 

u-vl :. K2.5... 
uary -20, 18.33 

ary 10, isio... 
n;n-vl5, 1S31 

27; 491 1- ■','-.• ■--, i- :i 
3s.,|5'i F,' 1 :; 11 V --7. 1^1: 
2.5,041 Fel.|ll:u-\' 1 ., 1S:|9..., 

30,071 .laiiiia'-y I'l, Isii 

37,705.1aniiarvl7, 1820 

.50.141 S-ptc-nibor 14, 1SI2.. 

1,,. 11^ 1'. :.i;; ,:;.-s, lvl:l. ... 

iliflU .lannary 10,' ls3il 

00,115 Dci-embfr 2.5, 1S30.. 
13. 02s Febrnarvl5, 1.S.39.... 

19, ,5111 .l:innnr%' 1:1. \---5 

13,6.12 I::- ■ 1, I-' 

2S, (iSii 1 

31,51:. I 

13,^111 |- 1 . ' 

.33,701 .biiiuiuv 111. l.^Jl.. 
13,2.5c:Al.iil I, Isio 

9, .507 51;>rch.3, 1843 

S.555 .Taniinrv 13. !S-25.. 

16, 2l'i la 

1 -, 1125 

745 February 10, 1839.... 

.3o;2S2 .lanuarv 23, 1S27 

11,209 March 2,1839 

Cl,SjO April 28. 1809 

31,970 March 4,1837 

29, 079 .January .31, 18-27 

18, 1(«t .lannary 2. 1818 , 

41, 000 .lannai-v 18, 1320 

9, 91.5 Dcnen)ber27, 1824.. 

22,940 .lannary 13, 1325 

21,117 January 2, 1818 

21, -297 Mareh20. 1819 

23, II.S9 nceembcr 9, I815... 

30, SM January 10, 1S:10 , 

53, 424 January 1-2, 1830 , 

19.320 Fcbruarv 23, 1839... 

30, 518 January 16. 18.36 

21, 630 February 27, 1841... 

County Seats. 





Ml. Sterling 

I'l in. --("M... 


M.-ir.sliall .'.'.'.'.'.'..'..'. 




, Chicago 


.:Majority Point 

'. lilliogliaMKiim..!.! 

. Van.lali.a 


. Benton 

. Lewistown 

. Shawneetown 

. Carrollton 

. Morris 

. Mel.eansboro 

. Carthage 

. Elizabethtown 

. Oquawka 

. C.mbridge 

. Watseka 

. Murphvsboro. 

. Xewtoii 

. Mt. Vernon 

. Jerseyville 

. Galena 

. Vienna 

. Kankakee City 


. Galesbnrg 

. Wn.lkfgan 

I .V, :. ..-viiiel'Z! 

' l.ine,!in..!3!"!".l 

- Deratni- 

. Carlinville 

. F.hvardsville 

. Slu-lhyvill. 

. Touion 

. nellcville. 
. Freeport. 



. 851,4701 1,711.951 2,.5.39.89ll 3,1 

:, 030 

as organized April 27th, 1790, by Arthur Pt. Clair, then Gnve 
' rc^organized after lUinoiei had been established as a Terril 

or and Commnnde 
y, April 23tli,18iiO. 

ritory of the United Slate 





1 George Washington April 30, ITS'i 

.•^ '' Mar. 4, nm 

2 John Adams Mar. 4, IT.i? 

S Thomas .Icrtersou Mar 4, isin 

" " Mar. 4, 18llj 

4 James Madison Mar. 4,1800 

•« " Ma**, 4, 181-i 

5 James Monroe Mar. 4, 1M7 

C John Qiiiiicy .K'\Muf .... .M^r. 4, 1»25 

7 .Andrew Jaclcso,, Mar. 4, ip 4, 1833 

8 Martin Van Bnron Mar. 4, 1837 

Wm. Honrv Harrison.... Mar. 4, 1841 

10 John Tvler April n, 1841 

11 James K. l' Mar. 4, 184,5 

in f<, 1S4') 

13 Millard FiHni"r^ Inly 1", LS^" 

14 FranUliii I'l ivr Mir. 4, IsVt 

Ir, James Bu.'i,.„,:,n M:ir 4, 1H.-.7 

16 Abraham Li.icohi Mir. 4, 1.%1 

" .Mar. 4, 180.5 

17 Andrew Johnson April 15, 18b5 

18 Ulvsses S. Grant Mar. 4, 1809 

Mar. 4, 1873 

10 Rutherford B. Hayes Mar. 6, 1877 

ao James A. Garfield Mar. 4, 1881 

21 Chester A. Arthur Sept. 20, 1881 


Secretaries of State. 

2 Thomai .leffi- 

3 Aaron Burr 

4 George Clinft 

4, 1707 
4, 1801 
4, 1805 
4, 1809 

6 Eldlidu-e Gerrv 

..Mar. 4, 1813 

..Nov. 2.5, 1814 

G Daniel D. Tompkins... 

..Mar. 4, 1817 

..Mar. 6, 18^1 

7 John C.Calhoun 

..Mar. 4, 18i5 

8 Martin Van Hiin-n 

..Mar. 4, 1833 

9 Ricli:i! 1 M .1- :hi-.ii .. 

..Mar. 4, 1837 

...Mar. 4, 1841 

•Saiir.. 1 - . . .;.l 

.Anril 1-., 1841 

..May 31, 1842 

11 lifMru- M PaMi. 

..Mar. 4, 1845 

Vi Miliar.; I'llli. 1,11.1 

..Mar. .5, 1840 

•William li KiiiK 

...July 11, 1850 

13 William K. Kiiii; 4, 1853 

•Iiavrl R, Atrhison.... 

..April 18, 18.53 

•Jesse D. Brieht 

..Dee. 6, 1854 

..Mar. 4, 18.57 

1.5 Hannibal Hamlin 

.Mar. 4, ISfil 

16 Andrew 
»I,.afaveite ^ 1 
•Benjamin 1' v 

17 Schuyler ('nil iv 

18 Henry WiN,.n 
♦Thomas W. Fe 

il 15, 1 

2, 18G7 
I 4, 1800 
r. 4, 1873 


17 John C.Calhoun Mar. 6, 1814 

18 James Buchanan Mar. li, ls4o 

19 John M. Clayton Mar. 8, 18i0 

Daniel Webster July 22, 1850 

20 Edward Everelt Nov. B, 18.52 

21 William L. Marcy Mar. 7, 1853 

"lewisCass Mar. 6, 1857 

2:j Jeremiah 8. Black Dec. 17, I8C0 

24 William H. Seward Mar. 6, 1861 

Mar. 4, 1865 

April 15, 1865 

25 E. B. Washburne Mar. .5, 1809 

26 Hamilton Fish Mar. 11, 1860 

" Mar. 4, 1873 

27 William M.Evarts Mar. 12, 1877 

28 James G. Blaine Mar. 4, 18S1 

29 Frelinghuysen, F. T Dec, 1881 

Secretaries of tlie Treasury. 

1 Alex. Hamilton Sept. II, 17S0 

Mar. 4, 1703 

2 Oliver Wolcott Feb. 2, 1705 

Mar. 4, 1797 

3 Samual Dexter Jan. 1, ISol 

4 Albert Gallatin May 14, 1801 

" " Mar. 4, 1800 

Mar. 4, 1813 

5 Geo. W. Campbell Feb. 9, 1814 

6 Alexander J. Dallas Oct. 0, 1814 

7 Wm. H. Crawford Oct. 22, 1816 

Mar. 5, 1817 

" " Mar. 5, 1821 

8 Richard Rush Mar. 7, 1825 

9 Samuel D. Ingham Mar. 6, 1820 

10 Louis McLane Aug. 2, 1831 

11 William J. Duano May 20, 1833 

12 Roger B. Taney Sept. 23, 1833 

13 Levi Woodbury June 27, 1834 

Mar. 4, 1S37 

14 Thomas Ewiug Mar. 5, 1841 

" April 6, 1841 

..Sept. 13, 1841 
..Mar. 3, 1843 
.June 1,5, 1844 
...Mar. 0, 1845 
8, 1849 

Secretaries of AVar. 


i William L. Marcy Mar. 6, 1845 

23 George vv. Crawford.. . Mar. 8,1849 

24 Charles M. Conrad Aug. 15, 1850 

25 Jerter.ion Davis Mar. ,5, 1853 

20 John B. Floyd Mar. 6. 18.7 

27 Joseph Holt Jan. 18, 1801 

28 Simon Cameron Mar. 5,1861 

29 Edwin M. Stanton Ian. 1.5, 1862 

Mar. 4, 1865 

" " April 16, 1805 

U. S. Grant, ad in(erim...Aug. 12, 1867 

L Thomas, " " ...Feb. 21,1808 

30 John M. Schofield May 28, 1868 

31 John A. Rawlin,! Mar. 11, 1809 

32 Wm. W. Belknap Out. 25, 1869 

Mar. 4, 1873 

33 AlphonsoTaft Mar. 8, 1876 

34 James D. Cameron May 22, 1.876 

35 Geo. W. McCrary Mar. 12, 1877 

36 Alexander Ramsey Dec. In, 1879 

37 Robert T. Uncoln Mar. 4, 1881 

Secretaries of tHe Navy. 

1 Benjamin Stoddert May 21, 1708 

Mar. 4, 1801 

2. RobertSmilh July 15, 1801 

3. J. Crowninshield M 

4 Paul Hamilton M 

5 WiiliamJou 

15 Walter Forward.. 

16 John C. Spencer.. 

17 George M. Bibb . 

18 Robert J. Walk 
M. M 

I Th. 


21 James Onlhrie 

■>i Howell Cohb 

23 Philip F. Thomas ., 

24 John A. Dix 

25 S.almon P.Cha,se 

20 Wm. Pilt Fesscnde 
27 Hugh McCulloch... 


23, IS, 

7, ls-,3 

. 6, 18,57 

, 12, 1861 1 

11, 1SI,1 


29 George S. Boutwell 

29 Wm. A Richardson M 

30 Benj. H. Bristow 
^1 Lot M. Morrill... 

32 John Sherman... 

.April 15, IS 
.M ■■ " 

11, 1: 

17, 1 

4, 1874 

luly 7, 1876 

Mar. 8, 1877 

..Mar. 4, IRSl 



20 Chester A Arthur Mar. 4, 1881 

21 David Davis Oct. 13, 1881 

*Aeting Viee-Presidcnt £ 
pro tern of the Senate. 

Secretaries of State. 

Secretaries of \Vi 

4 Samuel Den 

5 Roger Grisv 
G Henry Dea 

8 John Quincy Adams Mar. 

Henry Clfiy 

1 1 Martin Van Bur 
U Edward Divines 

12 Louis McLane . 

13 John Forsyth 

14 Daniel Web=tei 

..Sept. 26, 1789 
..Mar. 4, 1793 
...Ian. 2, 1794 
..Dec. 10, 1795 
.Mar. 4, 1707 
.. May 13, 1800 
...Mar. 5, 1801 
...Mar. 4, 1805 
..Mar. 6, 1809 
.April 2, 1811 11 George Graham 
' 12 John C. Cal'ioun 

13 James Barbour.. 

14 Peter B. P,)rter. 

15 John H. Eaton... 
10 Lewis Cass 

.Sept. 12, 17S0 
..Mar. 4, 1793 
.Jan. 2, 1705 
..Jan, 27, 1796 
..Mar. 4, 1797 
..May 13, 1800 
. K. b. n, 1801 
...Mar. 6, 1801 
..Mar. 4, 1805 
...Mar. 7, 1809 
...Jan. 13, 1813 
4, 1813 
27, 1814 
1, 1815 
,.ad interim 


6 B. W. Crowninshield Dec. 


7 Smith Thompson Nov. 

8 Samuel L. Southard Sept 


9 John Branch... 
10 Levi Woodbury, 

11 Mahlon Dicke 

14 Abel P. Upshur.... 

15 David Henshaw ... 
10 Thomas W. Gi.mei 

17 John Y. Mason 

18 Geo'gelianeroft,... 
John Y. Mason 

19 William B. Piesto 
ill William A. Graliar 

21 John P. Kennedy. 

22 James C. Dobbin . 

23 l.saac Toucey 

24 Gideon Welles 

3, 1805 
7, 1809 

12, 1813 

4, 1813 
19, 1814 

9, 1S18 

5, 1821 
16, 1823 

4, 182.1 
9, ISill 

May 23, 1831 
Mar. 4, 1833 
June 30, 1834 
.Mar. 4, 1837 
June 25, 1838 
Mar. 5, 1841 
0, 1841 

13, 1841 
July 24, 1843 

15, 1844 

14, 1844 
111, 1845 

9, 1846 

5, 1849 

July 22', 1852 

Mar. 7, 1853 

Mar. C, 1857 

Mar. 5,1801 

Mar. 4, 1865 

April 15, 1865 

5, 1869 




. Mar. 




26 Geo. M. Robeson June 


27 Rich. W.Thompson Mar. 

28 Nathan Goff, Jr Jan. 

29 W. H. Hunt Mar. 

30 W. E. Chandler April, 

25, 1869 
4 1673 

12, 1877 
4, 1881 

Secretaries of tile Interior. 



-,Mar. 7, 1825 
.Mar. 6, 1S29 
..May 24, 1831 

...Mai'. .5, 1841 
.. April 6, 1841 

Hugh S. Leeare May 21, 184;) 

Abel P. Upshur July 24, 1843 



19 John C. Spencer Oct. 

20 James M. Po-ter Mar. 

21 William ftilkina Feb. 


5, 1821 
7, 1825 

20, 1823 
9, 1829 
4, 1833 
7, 1837 
,5, 1841 

6, 1841 
12, 1841 

iEwing Mar, 

1 Thi 

2 Alex, H. Stu; 

3 Robert McClelland .Mar. 

4 JacobTh'impson Mar. 

5 Caleb B. Smith Mar. 

John P. Usher Jan. 

" Mar. 

8, 1849 

Sept. 12, 1850 

7, 1853 

4 Gideon Gi-auger Nov. 28, 1801 

Mar. 4,180,5 

" Mar. 4,1809 

5 Reluru J. Meigs, Jr Wai-. 17, 1814 

" Mar. 4. 1817 

" Mar. 5,1821 

6 John McLean June 20,1823 

" Mar. 4,1825 

7 William T. Barry Mar. 9, 1829 

•■ Mar. 4,1833 

8 Amos Kendall May 1,18:15 

Mar. 4, 1837 

9 John M. Niles May 25, 18Jl> 

10 Francis Granger iMar 6. 1841 

Apiil 6,1841 

11 Chas. A. Wickliflo Sept. 13, 1S41 

12 Cave Johnson .Mar. 6, 181,5 

13 Jacob Collamer Mar. 8 1K49 

14 Nathan K. Hall July 23, 18.50 

15 Sam'l D. Hubbard Aug. 31, 18.52 

16 James Campbell Mar 5, lR5:i 

17 Aaron V. Brown Msr. 6, 18.57 

18 Joseph Holt .Mar. 14,1659 

19 Horalio King Feb. 12, 1861 

20 Mnnteoniery Blair Mar. 5, iROl 

21 William Dennison Sept. 24, 1864 

Mar. 4, 186.5 

" " Apiil 15, 1K65 

22 Alex. W. Randall July 2.5, 1866 

23 John A. J. Cresswell Mai'. 5, 1869 

Mar. 4. 1S73 

24 Marshall Jewell Aug. 24, 1874 

25 James N. Tyner July 12, 1n70 

2C David McK Key Mar. 12, 1877 

27 Horace Maynard June 2, 18'!) 

28 Thomas L James Mar. 4, issl 

29 Timothy O.Howe Dec, 1881 

Attorneys-General . 

7 James Hailan 

8 O. H. Browning 

9 Jacob I'. Cox 

10 Columbus Delano . 

11 Zachariah Chandh 

UCarl Schurz Mar. 

13 Samuel J. Kirkwood Mar. 

14 Henry M.Teller April, 

6, 1867 
5, 1801 
8, 1863 
4, I8O0 
April 16, 1865 
May 15, 1865 
July 27, 1806 
Mar. 5, 1809 
Nov. 1, 1870 
.Mar. 4, 1S73 
19. 1875 
12, 1877 
4, 1881 

. Oct. 


3 Joseph Habersham F b. 

26, 1789 
12. 1791 
4, 1793 
25, 1795 

I Edmund Randolph... 


26, 1789 
4, 1703 

2 William Bradford 


27, 1704 

3 Charles Lee 


10, 1795 


4, 1797 

4 Theophilus Parsons... 


211, 1801 

5 Levi Lincoln 


6, 1801 

6 Robert Smith 


3, 180.5 

7 John Breckiniidge.... 


7, 1805 

SCicsar A. Rodney 

28, 1807 


4, 1809 

9 William Plnkney 




4, 1813 

10 Richard Rush 


10, 1814 

" •' 


4, 1817 

11 William Wirt 


1.3, 1817 


5 1821 


4, 1825 

12 John M. Berrien 

.. Mar 

9, 1820 

13 Roger B. Taney 


1.0, 1831 

4, 1833 

14 Benjamin F. Butler... 


1.5. 1833 

. Mar. 

4, 1837 

15 Felix Grundy 


5, 1838 

10 Henry D. Gilpin 

11, 184(1 

17 John J. Cnllenden.... 

6, 1841 


6, 1841 

18 Hugh S. Legate 


13, 1841 

19 John Nelson 

1, 1843 

20 John Y. Mason 


0, 1845 

21 Nathan Clifford 


17, 1840 

22 Isaac Toucey 


21, 1848 

23 Reverdy Jonnson .... 

. .Mar. 

8, 1849 

John J Crittenden... 


22, 1850 

24 Caleb Cn>hing 


7, 1853 


6, 1857 

26 Edwin M. Slanton.... 

.. .Dec. 

20, 1860 

27 Kdward Bates 


5, 1861 


28 James Speed 


2, 1864 


4, 1865 

a .1 

.. Apri 

15. 1865 

29 Henry Stanbery 


23. 1866 

30 William M Evarts... 


16, 1868 

31 E. Rockwo'^d Hoa-... 

.. Mar. 

6, 1809 

32 Amos T. Akerman .. 


23, 1870 

33 George H. Williams. 


14, 1871 

" ' 

... Mar. 

4. 1873 

34 Edward Pi-rrepont. 


26, 1875 

35 Alphonso Tnft 


22, 1870 

36 Charles Devena 


12, 1877 

37 Wayne MacVeagh.... 


4 1881 

38 Benj. Harris Brewster...Dec. 




Joseph B. Varnii 
Henry Clay 

John W. Taylor.... 
Philip P. Barbour 

Henry Clay 

John W. Taylor... 
Andrew Stevenson. 

New Jersey... 


New York, 2d Session.. 



Robert M. T. Hunlcr 

John White 

John W. Jones 

John W. Davis 

Robert C. Winthrop. 

Howell Cohb 

Linn Boyd 


Tennessee, 2d Sesp 









niel P. Banks 

.Unies L. Orr 

Wm. Pennington 

lialu.iha A. Orow , 

Schuyler Colfar 

. Ma.«sachusel 
jriouth Carol 
.iNew Jer.oey. 

i G. Blaine Maine.. 



IstC'ngress April I, IT.y', t.i 4, 

2d Congress 'ii.;tober lit. IT'l. t'. Mm I 

3d Congress Decerntxr j, 17'.';. lu M:in 

«h Congress iL-i-emli. r :, IT'i:., <■■ -Mm. 

5th Congress. M iv r.. r; '7, i M .i 'i ■', 

6th Congress. i '' .mt-i .17', 'iMit 

1th Con.nrei.8 l •. . mi., r 7, l i , !'• M .i 

.*tth Congress -i, < .i„ ,17 l : . Mu I 

nth Congress ••■>'■> '-■' i.M.n 

lOth Cot.gress >• '<' 1 1 7, . Mu 

Uth Congress M .- ^- 11 . ■■ ' 

12th Congress ^ ■ ' ^11 1 '"• '' 

lath Congress. "^I 'v 71, 11 ;. 1 1 u..i,u\ 

lUth Congl-ess hinumy Id, IMI, t.. .Man- 

llthCongies.s Uerember 4, Isl.->, to Mar 

15th Congress li,ecember 1, 1S17, to Mar 

lilth Congress Iiecember G, l^l'.i, to Miij 

llith Congress \,,i, mb. r 1,7. l-j", i.. M:l 

17th Congress Ii. ..,nl..r 1, l-jl, 1. 11, ,t 

l.slhCongress I <••''• 1 1 i-: '•■ M:u 

I'Jth Congress I'"" 1 • 1-7,1.. Mm 

20th Congress 1 1. . .'liil...! ., I-J7, i.i iM;ii 

21st Congress I ">'- ' ~. '^'-•. <" Mm 

2'.'d Congl-ess 1'. ..nil- r 7, IMI, to M«v 

■2nd Congress ' mi.- r 7, 1^.1 1, In .1.11,1 

■2;Jd Congress i.:... 7, 1- .1, t.. "M;,.. i. 1, 

24th Congrtss i. . ... . ;,i- . \i 

2.'tth (!ontireps >. . ■. 1 ■ 7i 

26th Congress 1 :, 

*27th Congress ^' .^ ii n 7i 

z«th Congress Iiec.n.i- 11 • ■ 71 

2ath Congress pecenil. ; ,1 '. 1 

llnth Congress iDeceiril. 1 .1 ;: i . 

:11st Congress .Dt-.-einl. 1 7, : |. ' ^l.. 

.32d Congress |i,..i,.i 1 1 - 1 -.7],, 

H3d Congress I ' ' ■ iM .: 

34th Congress 1 ;... 71 . . ,7L,i. 

:J5th Congress I '■ . 1 ' 1 . 71 . 

36th Congress I '■■■ -'-'• ' '''• 

37th Cf ngress ' . 1. ' 7; 1 

38th Congress I ■: t : 1. 

39th Congress I" . i 'i- 



44lh Cngrt-ss lle.-emb.T 1, I.s7.:, 1.. Miir.b 4, 157: 

.'4.ith Consress jOotober 15, 1K77, to March 4, 1879... 

.i4illh Congress JMarch 18, 1S7.J, to 





States aud Territories. 1790. I ISOO. I 1810. 1820. 1830. I 1840. I 18S0. ! 1860. 1870. 1880. 

The United State 


25243.3 I 341)985 
12282 651 02 

24520 I 147178 



M .ss< 



New Hampshire- 
New Jersey 

>'ew York 

North Carolina.... 


Oregon , 


Rhode Island 

South Carolina 



The States 









09139 i 




214460 ' 
215502 I 
2.30760 1 



1372! 11 
o;)88 9 



1348233 I 
























1-25015 1 


■^n. '■■■■'. 

1268521) I 
K1S579 I 
330551 i 
















9600783 1-28»)86S nol!i641 ' 2.3067262 I 31183744 : .38115041 49369.i95 


Disti-ict of Columbia.. 



New Mexico 




The Territories 

Total Population.. 

.5308483 72398SI 9033,^22 12.8. 00-20 


124614 I 






65 05 


77 67 






OKOaUArilY, AinUrri.TVllAL llKSOUncnS AXD nAlL- 





HIS county is situaud on the 
.'uiitlivctt borders of tlie 
slate, and bisected at riglit 
angles by the 38th degree oi' 
north latitude, and the 90th 
degree of longitude west from 
Gr(en\\icli. It is an irregular 
district of country, triangular 
ill outline, and bounded on 
the north by Monroe, St. 
(.'lair and Wabliingtuii coun- 
ties, on the by Perry and Jackson counties, and on the 
south and wejt by the Mississippi river and Monroe county.- 
It embraces an area of about si.Kteen congressional townships, 
or upwards of five hundred square miles. The Kaskaskia 
enters the county from the north in Baldwin precinct, flows 
ill a soutiierly course, and discharges its waters into the 
Mis.-issippi river about ten miles above the south line of the 
eiiuutv. The ea.-^t is traversed in the same direction by 
Mary's river, which enters the Mi-s^issippi about four miles 
below the mouth of the Kaskaskia. lu addition to these. 
Horse creek, and Nine Mile creek, tributaries of the Kas- 
kaskia, flow through the northern portion of the county; 
and the Little Mary, a tributary of Mary's river. The>e, 
taken together, furnish an excellent waterway i'ov all sections 
of the county. Besides the a'oove, there are streams of lesser 
note, which form auxiliaries to complete almost a perfect 
surface drainage. 

Toporjrapluj. — The features of the county topographically 
are somewhat varied. About one-third of its surface, com- 
prising the northeastern portion, is comparatively of a level 
or rolling surface, sufficient for good natural drainage. The 
prairie tracts are very small and limited, and possess a loamy 
Soil of lightish color, with a yellow clay sub-soil. These 
prairie lands, although not possessing the deep bl.ick soil 
peculiar to the central and northern part of the state, are 
nevertheless, very productive yielding abundant crops of 
corn, wheat, oats, and grasses, and this without very much 
effort' on the part of the husbandman. The jirairie region 
is restricted, maiuly, to that portion of the county underlaid 
by the coal fields. 

Soil and At/iiciilture. — Between this prairie region and 
the bottom lands on the Kaskaskia and Mississippi rivers, 
there is a bjlt of country underlaid by sandstone and lime- 
stone, which is ipiite broken and hilly, rising at some points 
to quite prominent bluffs. Originally this portion of the 
country was covered with heavy timber, and a considerable 
portion of its surface is still occupied by the natural forests. 

The soil upon these broken lands is somewhat shallower than 
that of the prairie.", yet its productive qualities seem to be 
about equal to the adjacent lands, and where the surface is 
sufficiently level for agricultural purposes, good crops are 
usually realized. The yellow clay sub-soil of this region 
appears to possess all the essential elements of a good soil, 
and when brought to the surface and subjected to atmos- 
pheric agencies, it becomes most productive. Hence, sub- 
soiling will be found largely advantageous to those soils 
that, from long and injudicious cultivation, have been par- 
tially exhausted. These broken lands are especially adapted 
to the growth of every kind of fruit peculiar to the temperate 
zones, and the smaller fruits may be successfully cultivated 
even where the lands are too undulating for the raising of 
cereals. Some of the enterprising German farmers have 
already commenced the culture of the grape, and the manu- 
facture of native wine by them has proven quite a success. 
It is a matter of experiment as yet, whether the Catawba 
will succeed as well here as in a more northern climate. Yet 
there are other varieties, if it should fail to be valuable, that 
can be successfully cultivated. The Delaware and Concord 
varieties have proven valuable and productive in all por- 
tions of the temperate zone, rather than in a comparatively 
mild one ; hen'-e its cultivation in Southern Illinois has gen- 
erally proved a partial failure, while in localities further 
north it has been comparatively successful. The Catawba 
seems to be less liable to be affected by mildew or rut in a 
climate as cold as it can stand without protection. It is no 
longer a doubtful problem that the broken and liilly lauds 
along the principal streams, e.^peciall)' the bluffs of the Mis- 
si^sijipi, where tlie marly deposit known as ''loess " has been 
<lep(i-iied, and is more or less intermingled with the soil, are 
admirably ailapted to the growth of the vine. The labors of 
the intelligent agric ilturist have already (Lnionstrated the 
fact that Illinois is cajiable of jiroducing, not "uly all the 
native wines re<iuiied for home consunipiinii, but a surplus 
for the supply ot less favored regions. 

The most important and productive pai-t of the county is 
probably found in the American Bottom, It forms a belt of 
rich alluvial soil about twenty miles in length, and an 
avirage width of four miles. It is exceedingly productive, 
and were it not for ihe periodical overflows to which it is 
subjected from the high waters of the Mississippi, it would 
be esteemed as the most valuable land in the county. The 
soil is quite sandy, but is intermingled with vegetable mould 
and clay from the sediment of the river, forming a rich, 
warm soil, which is unsurpassed by any in the state for the 
production of maize and the cereals generally. Tlie upianils 
comprise a series of brown and yellow clays, intermingled 
locally with gravel and small pebbles, and specially adapted 
to the culture of wheat. There have really been three eras 
in the county of what might be considered the staple pro- 
ducts that have engaged the attention of the agriculturist. 
In an early day, Indian corn was the principal product. 
Later, the castor bean was largely cultivated, and was con- 
sidered a most profitable crop. About twenty-five or thirty 
years ago, wheat became largely planted, and to this time is 
the grand staple of the county. 



The general elevation of the uplands above the Missiwippi 
is from three to four hundred feet. Tlie principal varieties of 
timber upon the land are black oak, white oak, shell-bark 
and pig-nut hickory, sugar maple, linden, black gum, pir- 
sinimou, red, slippery and white elm, black ash, rcd-l)ud, 
dogwood and sassafras. On the bottom lands are found the 
Cottonwood, svcamore, honey-locust, hackberry, box-elder, 
sweet gum, white ash, swamp oak, burr oak, white and black 
walnut, pecan and white maple. Plenty of good timber is 
yet left for all the wants of the people ibr fuel and building 

Chester. — The capital of the county is situated in the 
southwestern part, located on the bluff overlooking the 
Mississippi, about seventy-five miles below St. Louis, and 
contains a population of nearly three thousand inhabitants. 
The southern penitentiary is located here, and there are 
many fine business houses in the city, and it is at this writ- 
ing in a prosperous and growing condition. 

I'opu/iition. — The population is composed mainly of Eng- 
lish, German, French and Irish nationalities, and, according 
to the census of 1880, was as follows : 


J, MO 

Central and BInir 



Hocl<wooil .... 
Slcols .Mills ;in.nVi 


Tilden iiiul Coullei- 


This county comprises an irregular-shaped triangular area 
on the southwestern borders of the state, embracing about 
three hundred and eighty square miles, and is bounded on 
the north and east by St. Clair and Randolph counties and 
the Kaska-skia river, and on the south and west by Ran- 
dolph county and the Mississippi river. 

Waterloo, the capital of the county, is situated on the 
St. Louis and Cairo railway, in the northeastern part of the 
county, and is one of the substantial inland towns of the 
state, and contains a population of about two thousand in- 
habitants. It is located on a high, rolling site of ground 
that overlooks a large scope of beautifully cultivated larming 

Popnhtiiiii. — The population of the county is mainly com- 
posed of a thrifty German nationality, which constitutes 
about three-fourths of the inhabitants of the county. The 
other fourth is a mixture of various nationalities, principally 
of English, Irish and French descent. The Irish settle- 
ments are in the center and south. According to the census 
of 1880 the population by precincts was as follows : 

Walcvloo Pieoinrl lim-lndinK eit.v) :t,l(r) 

(•olunil)i;>,inaNen Hanover l'.sIO 

.Moredork 061 

Mitchic. Blufl; and llairisonville 2,:i77 

Konault 1,(188 

New Design l,47ii 

Prairie dn Long 1.480 

The census of 1860 was Li 8.".?; of 1870, 12,982. The 
population of the town of Waterloo in 1870 was 1,537; in 
.880, 1,822. 

Topor/iiij/lii/. — The surface is considerably diversified, the 
region adjacent to the river bluHs being quite hilly and 
broken, while the eastern portion of the county is compara- 
tively level, and affords an area of excellent farming lands. 
In that portion of the county underlaid by the St. Louis 
limestone, in the central and southwestern uplands, there 
are numerous " sink-holes," which render the land nearly 
valueless for agricultural purposes. These depressions are 
funnel-shaped, and lead down to crevices or caverns below, 
through which the water that falls upon the surface finds an 
outlet into the adjacent streams. Occasionalh' the crevice 
at the bottom becomes filled up with the sediment that 
washes into it, and small ponds of water arc found, some of 
which, in the vicinity of Waterloo, cover an area of several 
acres, and are bountifully supplied with fish. 

ILjiIrof/riiphii. — The natural drainage of the county is 
almost complete, the Mississippi extending ali;ng the entire 
western boundary, and the Kaskaskia partially on the east. 
The principal interior streams are Fountain creek, Horse 
creek, and Prairie du Long creek. The former rises in the 
highlands south of Waterloo, and extends in a north- 
westerly course until it enters the American Bottom, and 
from thence southwesterly, emptying into the Mississippi 
near Harrisonville. Horse creek, which intersects the 
southern portion of the county, and Prairie du Long creek, 
which waters the eastern portion, both discharge their waters 
into the Kaskaskia. In the western part of the county there 
are several fine lakes, among which are Jloredock, Kidd, 
and the Grand Coule lakes, with some others of lesser note. 
Some of these are fed mainly by subterranean stream.?, which 
find their way through the fissures and caverns of the lime- 
stones underlying the adjacent highlauds. These lakes are 
well supplied with fish, and are favorite resorts for the 
sportsman, both for hunting and fishing. 

Resources, Soil and Ayricidttirc. — As a budy, Monroe 
county was originally heavily timbered, there being but 
three or four small prairies in the eastern portion, the larger 
of which arc Xew Design jjrairie, Prairie du Long, and 
Prairie du Rond, none of which exceed an area of more than 
three or four square miles in extent. The timber of the 
uplands consists mainly of the usual varieties of oak and 
hickory on the broken lands, while on the more level tracts 
in the east, elm, black walnut, hackberry, wild cherry, 
linden and honey-locust are found in abundance. The 
bottom lands are for the most part heavily timbered with 
Cottonwood, sycamore, black and white walnut, ash, elm, 
pecan, soft maple, persimmon, and several other varieties. 
The surface of the highlands is composed of a buft-colored 
sandy loam, often filled with bleached fresh-water and land 


shells, and is underlaid with a variable thickness of drift, 
clays and " loess,' usually ranging from ten to sixty feet, 
and at a few points near thejiver blufls it attains a maxi- 
mum thickness of seventy-five to one hundred feet. The 
western portion of the county, embracing nearly one-fourth 
of its entire area, is included in the American Bottom. The 
average width of this alluvial belt is about four miles, and 
its extent north and south is over thirty miles. These 
bottom lands are exceedingly fertile, and really possess- three 
classes of soil. Probably the richest and most inexhaustible 
is that portion known as the blue-black deposit, and can be 
cultivated only when it is of a proper consistency between 
wet and dry. The other soils are composed of either black 
or light sandy loams. This land is peculiarly adapted to 
the growing of coru, but wheat, grasses and oats are culti- 
vated with success. On the uplands, wheat has been the 
grand staple for twenty-five or thirty years, and the yield 
and quality is unsurpassed by any lands in the state. 

rcrciinial Spriiir/s abound iu various parts of the county 
after rising the bluff. They are of pure cold water, and are 
auxiliary to the comfort of both man and beast. Many of 
these gush forth in sufficient quantities to form brooks of 
ever-running water. 


lies immediately north of Jackson county, which forms its 
southern boundary, and is bounded on the north by Wash- 
ington, on the west by Randolph, and on the east by Frank- 
lin and Jefferson counties. It embraces a superficial area of 
twelve congressional townships, or about 276,480 acres of 
land, three-fourths of which was originally covered with 
timber. It is divided into eight political divisions or pre- 
cincts as follows : Grand Cote, Beaucoup, Taraaroa, Cutler, 
Pinckneyville, South Western, Du Quoin and Paradise. 

Pliickiift/rille, the seat of justice, is situated on the west 
side of Big Beaucoup creek, and near the geographical 
center of the count}- in section twenty-four, five south, three 
west, at the head of Four-JIile prairie. At this writing it 
contains a population of about 1.500 inhabitants. In 1837, 
according to Peck, it contained four stores, one tavern, 
one grocery, and fifteen or twenty families, and was sur- 
rounded with a .settlement of industrious farmers. 

Popiilation. — The first settlers were principally American 
born, and emigrants from the south. The present popula. 
tion is composed of various nationalities, English, German, 
Irish, Negroes and Poles ; the former probably being in the 
ascendancy. According to the official census of 1880, the 
county contained 16,008 inhabitants. 

Hydrography. — The county is well supplied with water- 
courses suitable for natural drainage. The principal streams 
within its limits are Little Muddy, Beaucoup, and Colombo 
creeks, all of them being northwestern affluents of the Big 
Muddy river. The former constitutes the principal portion 
of the eastern boundary of the county, and, with its tribu- 
taries, furnishes excellent drainage for that part of the 
county. Beaucoup creek flows through the entire county 
from north to south, and nearly equally divides the territory 

in acreage on the east and west, while the Colombo practi- 
cally drains the west and southwest. 

Topography and Soil. — The surface of the country is gene- 
rally rolling, and on some of the streams becomes consider- 
ably broken by low ridges, but not sufficiently abrupt to 
render the land unfit for cultivation ; while some portions 
are quite level, including a few flat prairies and a portion of 
the timbered land known as " Post-Oak F'ats." As stated 
above, Beaucoup creek trends through the center of the 
county, and the prairies occupy mainly the highlands be- 
tween this stream and the Little Muddy on the east, and the 
Colombo on the west, except the Grand Cote prairie, which 
occupies an elevated ridge in the northwest. The prairies 
here, as is usually the case in other parts of the state, form 
the highest part of the ground, yet their relative elevation 
is quite variable, even iu a single county. In Perry, they 
are mostly surrounded by timbered flats, which gradually 
pass into more broken timbered lauds as you approach the 
streams. Their surface is usually flat, or gently undulating, 
passing in places into the broken grassy upland known as 
"barrens." This land consists of low hills and ridges, 
covered with a dense growth of tall grasses, and quite desti- 
tute of timber. The sub-soil of the " barrens " consists of a 
white sandy loam, but the surface configuration afl!brds a 
complete drainage, and therefore sustains a good growth of 
vegetation, which in time has formed a rich soil, highly 
charged with humus. These lands become dry early in the 
spring, and from their excellent surface drainage, resist the 
drouth better than the "flats" on account of the soil being 
more porous, and readily absorb the atmospheric moisture. 
The absence of timber is undoubtedly due to the annual 
fires that sweep over them, fed by the tall grasses that cover 
the surface. Thes.-) "barrens" merge into the oak hills, 
which are similar ridges covered with a heavy growth of 
timber, consisting of post-oak, black oak, hickory, black- 
jack, etc. 

The creek bottoms within the barren region have a soil 
similar to that of the flats, but a little coarser, and contain- 
ing a greater per cent, of vegetable mould, rendering them 
as dark in color as the prairie soils. The timber is tall and 
heavy, and consists principally of the varieties of oak, ash, 
shell-bark hickory, walnut, hazel, and some other classes of 

The " Post-Oak Flats" are comparatively level stretches 
of theuplaud, sparsely timbered with patches of post-oak, and 
interspersed with black-jack and a young growth of post- 
oak. They thus form an open forest, and the light, bleached 
appearing soil is but scantily covered with vegetation. The 
sub-soil comprises a white sandy loam, and reaches to the 
depth of several feet. The surface soil is quite shallow, and 
seems to differ from the sub-soil only by a slight mixture of 
vegetable mould. This soil, like that of the prairies, is so 
finely comminuted as to render it almost impenetrable to 
water, which remains in depression upon the surface until it 
slowly disappears by evaporation. A potent remedy for 
this would be by clovering frequently, or top dressing with 
a copious supply of well-rotted compost. These flats extend 
around the prairies, forming a narrow belt between them 



and the more broken timbered lands adjacent, and also from 
the highes: portions of the broad flat ridges between the 
streams where no pr.iiries occur. The prairie soil differs 
from the flau only in being more fully charged with vege- 
table humus, and a somewhat deeper productive surface. Of 
all these varieties of soil, the " Aals " are the most unpro- 
ductive, and require the greatest amount of skill and labor 
to bring them up to a standard that is most valuable to the 
husbandman. This can be effectually and cheaply done by 
deep and frequent plowing, which loosens the soil and aids 
the surface drainage and by topdrissing and plowing under 
green crops to give the required amount of vegetable mould, 
which treatment would undoubtedly insure a steady increase 
in the productive capacities of the soil, until it will equal 
the fertility of the adjacent prairies. 

Agriculture and Horticulture. — This is emphatically a 
wheat county, although large quantities of corn, oats, rye, 
potatoes, etc , are raised. The wheat raised upon the 
timbered land rates among the best in the state. 

The growth and prosperity of a country depends upon its 
agricultural resources; indeed the world could not move if 
it were not for this industry. HoiV true the aphorism, " The 
success of the huabandmau is the salvation of a country I " 
He is the bone and strength of the land, the engine, as it 
were, that drives the whole machinery of mankind — that 
which fosters life, distributes wealth, and creates happiness 
in every Breside in the land. When this industry fails 
famine, misery and tears prevail. Ireland, and other coun- 
tries of Europe, have in times past been striking examples 
of the famine tiend ; but thanks to a kind Providence, in our 
own country, and especially within the fertile fields of the 
grand old prairie slate, never have the people been obliged to 
realize the sufferings of those who were not blessed with the 
necessaries of life. 

The means and facilities for tilling the soil have kept 
pace with other improvements of the age. The old wooden 
muuld-board has given place to the elegant sulky plow, the 
reaping-hook is tran.-forined into the wonderful niechani,-im 
known as the self-binder, and the tramping of the cattle and 
the thud of the flail have yielded to the steam engine 
and the hum of the gigantic thresher. The farmers of this 
county are up with the times, and to a large extent are using 
all the modern farm machinery. Horticulture is given 
considerable attention, but not that notice the soil and cli. 
mate would warrant. Good orchards prevail in most parts 
of the county, and the small fruits and berries are cultivated 
quite largely, but with the natural resources of climate and 
soil of Perry county, with proper attention given to the 
culture of the vine and other fruits, a few acres of land 
might be made to yield as much profit as some of the larger 
farms. This may be a thought worthy the attention of those 
who own but small farms on the lands composed of the 
thinner class of soil. 

Trmisportaiion Facilities. — The early markets and the 

facilities for transportation were as inconvenient as the pro. 

duce to be moved was meager ; all things were in keeping 

and consistent with the times. These counties, especially 


Randolph and Monroe, have enjoyed special early privileges 
in the way of transportation. Long before steam power was 
invented or thought of, the Mississippi and Kaska-^kia rivers 
furnished an outlet for all the products to be moved by the 
people. The early medium was by the means of the old- 
time flat boat, propelled bj- poles or sweeps. Then came 
the steam age, and a new area opened up to the people along 
the Mississippi ; and a little later still, the iron horse became 
an important auxiliary to carry the products to all points of 
the country where the markets might be most conducive to 
the interests of the husbandman. Only about a half century 
ago, a boat propelled by steam on the Mississippi was a 
sight to behold, nhile at this time, the long line of smoke 
from their volcanic furnaces is scarcely lost sight of, and the 
whistles from their hoarse throats are continually resounding 
throughout the American Buttom. Steamboats have navi- 
gated the Kaskaskia as far as Carlyle. The first boat that 
made the trip was the " Bellevue," in the spring of 1S37, 
Capt. Nelson commander and owner. In the same year, the 
steamer " Wild Duck " made a passage up the river to the 
same point, thus opening up a new era to the people along 
the banks of the Kaskaskia. At this writing, boats do not 
pass beyond Evansville on account of the St. Louis and 
Cairo Railroad bridge spanning the river a little above the 
aforesaid town. As already stated, the first navigation of 
the Mississippi was by rafts or flat boats. It was for some 
time a mooted question whether it could, with its swift cur- 
rent, be navigated by steamboats. This doubt was dispelled 
by the landing at St. Louis of the "General Pike," com- 
manded by Capt. James Reed, August 2d, 1817. About 
two years thereafter, a second boat ascended the river. This 
was the " Harriet," from New Orleans, June 'Id, 1819, and 
was commanded by Capt. Arniitage. The trip was made in 
twenty-seven days. This was the beginning of river com- 
munication proper between the marts of New Orleans and 
St. Louis. 

The first locomotive engine was invented by George 
Stephenson, of England, and was first successfully operated 
September 27th, 1825, on a short road from Stockton to 
Darlington, England In 1830, there were but twenty-three 
miles of railroad this side of the Atlantic. The first road 
operated in the States extended from Baltimore to Ellicott's 
Mills, Maryland, a distance of eleven and a-half miles ; this 
was in July of the above year. The cars were drawn by 
horses, the locomotive not then having been introduced on 
this side of the water. The coaches were open vehicles, 
somewhat resembling the carriages of that date. In the 
Baltimore American of July, 1830, an advertisement ap- 
peared of this road, stating that a sufficient number of cars 
had been provided to accommodate the traveling public, 
and that a brigade (train of cars) would leave the depot on 
Pratt Street at G and 10 o'clock a. m., and at 3 and 4 o'clock 
p. M. ; returning, would leave the depot at Ellicott's Mills at 
6 and 8.30 o'clock a. m., and 12.30 and 6 v. m. 

The first road constructed in the Mississippi Valley was 
built from Illinoistown — now East St Louis — to the bluff, a 
distance of about six miles across the American Bottom. 
It was constructed in 1837, under the personal supervision 



of Governor Reynolds, Vital Jarrot, aud a few others. It 
was expressly built for tiie purpose of transporting coal from 
where it cropped out at the bluff to the St. Louis market- 
It had a wooden rail, and the cars were driven by horse- 

The first line of railroad built in the state in which the 
locomotive was utilized was the North Cross Railway, ex- 
tending from (J.uincy to Danville. This was chartered in 
1837, and the first engine placed upon it was in the winter 
of 1838-9, its run being from Meredosia to Jacksonville. 
The track was the primitive ttraprail style. The engine, as 
well as the road, soon became so inipaired that the former 
was abandoned, and the horsepower substituted in its stead. 
To-day, Illinois leads the van, has outstripped all other 
states in this gigantic enterprise, and now modestly bears the 
honors of a well-earned success in its magnitude of internal 

According to official reports of 1880, Illinois had 9,29i 
miles of track, constructed and equipped at a cost of 
8408,745,915, thus surpassing every other s-tate iu the 
Union in miles of railroad. Many miles of track have been 
laid since the above report was made, the Prairie State, as 
usual, taking the lead of all other states. If within less than 
half a century such strides have beeu made in the facilities 
of transportation, what mind can conceive the progress that 
will be reached in the fifty years to come ? 



St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Raihouy Co. — This is 
one of the most important roads traversing Southern Illinois, 
and through its proprietary and leased lines does a very 
large business, having terminal facilities at East St. Louis 
and Eldorado, and an operating contract with the Illinois 
Central R R., by which through trains run to Cairo. The 
most important stations on the line of the road are East St. 
Louis, Belleville, Pinckneyville, Du Quoin, Benton, Gala- 
tia and Eldorado. At East St. Louis and St. Louis it has 
connections with all the roads centering in those important 
commercial marts. At Pinckneyville, connections are made 
with the Wabash, Chester and Western R. R ,and St. Louis 
Coal R. R. ; at Du Quoin with the Illinois Central ; and at 
Eldorado with the Cairo and Vincennes (now a part of the 
Wabash system) and the Louisville and Nashville Rail, 

This company was incorporated June 24th, 1862, under 
an act approved February 28th, 1861, by the purchase of 
the franchises and property of the Terre Haute, Alton, and 
St. Louis R. R. Co., and the Belleville and lUiuoistown 
R. R. Co., Oct. 30th, 1856, under act of the Illinois Legisla- 
ture approved February 28th, 1854. 

The Belleville and Illinoistowu R. R. Co. w as incorporated 
June 21st, 1862. 

The Belleville and Southern Illinois R. R., from Belleville 

to Du Quoin, 56 miles, was leased to this company Oct. 1st, 
1806, for 999 years, and operated from January 1st, 1870. 

By subsequent arrangement of lease, the Belleville and 
Eldorado R. R , another leased line, and an extension of the 
former, from Du Quoin to Eldorado, 50 miles, was leased to 
this Co. July 1st, 1880, for 985 years. The officers of the 
road are : — President, W. Byard Cutting, New York ; Vice- 
President and General Manager, Geo. W. Parker, St. Louis; 
Secretary, Edward F. Leonard, Springfield ; Treasurer, Geo. 
W. Parker, St. Louis; Superintendent, J. L. Hinckley, 
Belleville ; Auditor, H. T. Nash, St. Louis ; General Freight 
and Passenger Agent, H. S. De Pew, St. Louis ; General 
Offices, 104 North 4th St., St. Louis. 

When the main line of the St. Louis, Alton, ami Terre 
Haute R. R. was leased in 1867 to the Indianapolis and St. 
Louis R. R. Co., the lessors retained under their own man- 
agement the Belleville brauch, aud stipulated that a certain 
portion of the equipment should be allotted to the branch 
from the general equipment of the road ; also that the lessors 
should erect a new depot at East St. Luuis, and withiu a 
certain specified time turn over the old depot grounds to the 
" Belleville Branch." The coal traffic along the line be- 
tween East St. Louis aud Belleville had always been au im- 
portant factor in the general butiuess of the road, while the 
trade iu other traffic is also remunerative. The charter of 
the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute R. R. Co. authorized 
an extension of the road from Belleville to Paducah, and 
the question of building the line via Alhtns and Marissa, to 
some point on the Illinois Central Railroad in the direction 
of Cairo had been seriously agitated by the management 
during 1866-67. but it was finally deemed advisable to en- 
trust the construction to some other corporation, and lease 
the road upon its completion. The road, therefore, from 
Belleville south to Du Q,uoin, a distance of fifty-six miles, 
was built under the auspices of the Belleville and Southern 
Illinois R. R. Co., and opened for through traffic in 1870, 
under lease to the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute R. R. 
Co. as aforesaid. As will be observed, this road forms a 
connection with the Illinois Central R. R. The short line 
between St. Louis and Cairo, also all poiiits south reached 
via Cairo, has c intributed materially towards maintaining 
intimate business relations between St. Louis and the Gulf 
States. The management, -ever since the opening of the 
Short Line for through traffic, has been a commercial aud 
financial success ; and if the owners of the St. Louis, Alton 
and Terre Haute R. R. were wise, under the then existing 
circumstances, in leasing their main line on terms which 
guaranteed in perpetuity the interest on nearly all their 
bonded debt, they displayed more wisdom in obtaining a 
southern outlet for the branch which enhances its material 
value, and contributes largely to the amicable net revenue. 
When the Belleville and Southern Illinois R. R. was com- 
pleted and opened for business in 1870, and leased to the St. 
Louis, Alton and Terre Haute R. R. Co. the latter com- 
pany, and the Illinois Central R. R. Co., made an agree- 
ment by the terms of which the road from East St. Louis to 
Du Quoin, aud from Du Quoin to Cairo, should be united 
under a business management, and practically operated as a 


single line. It was then christened, and has since been known 
as the " St. Louis and Cairo Short Line," but popuhirly 
known as the " Cairo Short Line." 

The character and resources of the country between East 
St. Louis, Du Quoin and Eldorado, traversed by the " Cairo 
Short Line," are well known to residents of Southern Illinois 
and St. Louis. The whole country, from East St. Louis to 
Eldorado, is underlaid with coal of a superior quality, from 
which large supplies are annually drawn for public works 
and manufacturing industries It is, also, the finest wheat 
producing section of Southern Illinois, and Belleville and 
other points on the line of road have extensive flouring mills, 
whose brands have acquired deserved reputations both in 
domestic and foreign markets. A few miles southeast of 
Belleville the road enters on the Grand Prairie, which ex- 
tends for twenty-two miles, and is proverbial for its superior 
grain crops. Here, also, a vein of very superior coal is 
found, especially near Coulterville, thirty-two miles from 
Belleville. The quality of the coal seems to improve with 
the increased distance from St. Louis. The celebrated 
" Bryden," or Williamson County coal, finds its way to St. 
Louis over this line of road ; also the Big Muddy coal from 
Jackson County. The present eastern terminus of the 
"Cairo Short Line" is at Eldorado, in Saline County, one 
hundred and twenty one miles from St. Louis. Number of 
miles of road, 121 ; aggregate length of sidings, 19— total 
track mileage, 140 miles; in addition to the branch from 
Belleville to East Carondelet, 16 miles, which will .*oon be 
opened and operated fur the delivery of coal to the manu- 
facturing e.^tablishmentsin Carondelet. 

TJii' St. Loiiix and Cairn R. A'., was chartered February 
l(jth. 186.5, and the entire line completed and put in opera- 
tion J[arch 1st, 187.5. It connects the cities of East St. 
Louis and Cairo, and has an entire line of track of 151 I'V 
miles. It was originally chartered under the name of the 
Cairo and St. Louis Railroad Comj)any, but within the last 
year it was reorganized and adopted the above corporate 
name. At the time of the organization of the company it 
was decided to build a narrow gauge— three feet — road, and 
it was believed that the enterprise would prove a success on 
account of the cheapness of construction and the economy 
of obtainiug the rolling stock. In accordance with these 
views contracts were let, and the management was encour- 
aged by the promises of liberal local aid to push the enter- 
prise to completion ; but the financial panic of 187.3, over- 
took it before it was thoroughly completed. The promised 
local aid failed to be forthcoming, and the company after 
struggling against many difficulties, was compelled at last 
to place the property under the orders of the court, and a 
receiver appointed, under whose management it was operated 
until February 1st, 188'i, when it was transfered to the pre- 
sent company, and is now conducted by them under the 
above name, with its General Office at 411, Olive street, St. 
Louis, Missouri. The following is a list of the officers of 
the road : President. W. F. Whitehouse ; Vice President, 
L. M. Johnson ; General Solicitor, S Corning Judd ; Secre- 
tary, C. Ritchie ; General Superintendent, Chas. Hamilton; 
Auditor, Lewis Enos ; General Freight and Passenger Agt., 

Geo. H. Smith. It utilizes seven miles of the East St. 
Louis and Carondelet RaiUvay, with a third rail from 
St. Louis to East (.'arondelet The road enters Monroe 
county in the extreme northern part in Columbia precinct; 
extends in a south and easterly direction through New Han- 
over, Waterloo, and New Design precincts— clipping the 
southwest corner of Prairie du Long — and crosses the 
boundary line into Randolph county in the extreme north- 
west, in Red Bud precinct ; and extends thence and 
south through Randolph into Perry county, crossing the line 
of the latter in town 6, range 5 ; and thus includes more 
than one-third the length of the entire line of road. 

Witl)a.'ih, Cheder ami Wc-^trrii Railroad Compan;/. — This 
road was chartered March 4th, 1869, and entitled the " Ches- 
ter and Tamaroa Coal and Railroad Company." It was 
put in operation from Tamaroa, in Perry county, to Ches- 
ter, Randol|)h county, in JIarcli 1872. The company 
secured subscriptions to its capital stock from Perry and 
Randolph counties for which stock interest bearing bonds 
were issued. Those of the former county are yet outstand- 
ing and will mature in 1892 ; the interest — seven per cent. — 
is regularly and promptly paid July 24th, 1873, the com- 
pany was consolidated with the Chester and Iron Mountain 
Railway Company of Missouri, under the Iron Mountain, 
Chester and Eastern Rail Road Company. The road passed 
into the hands of a Receiver, and was for some years the sub- 
ject of lively litigation. A sale of the road took place, 
February 28th, 1878. under foreclosure in the United States 
Court, and H. C Cole became the purchaser. 

A company was organized Fel)ruary 20th, 1878, a- the 
" Wabash, Chester and Western Rvilroad Company," and 
began operating the road April 1st, 187S W. G. Barnard 
of Bellaire, Ohio, was President, and Charles B. Cole of 
Chester, Illinois, Treasurer and General Jlanager. This 
management leased the road to the St. Louis Coal Railroad 
Company, March 25th, 1882, for forty-five years. The 
main line — from Tamaroa to Chester is 40 iV.j miles ; branch 
— from Chester to the Penitentiary, 1 I'u'j miles ; sidings on 
the main line, 2 iVu miles; aggregate length of all tracks, 
45 J Jj miles. 

St. Loui.'f Olid R R. Co. was organized October 15th, 
1879, by what was styled the " St. Louis Central Railroad 
Company." The road was completed August, 188ti, from 
Carbondale to Harrison Junction, on the Cairo and St. 
Lonis Railroad, and was constructed from Murphysboro, 
Jackson county, to Pinckneyville, in the spring of 1882, 
connecting with the " Wabash, ("hester and Western " and 
the " St. Louis and Cairo Short Line." It was subsequently 
leased to the St. Louis Coal Railroad Company, which was 
oro-anized as stated above. It also operates under, the R. 
R. of the Carbondale and Shawncetown R. R. Co.— between 
Carbondale and Marion, a distance of 171 miles. Total 
length of main and leased lines 29 miles. This road has an 
extensive traffic in coal, and reaches the St- Louis market 
over the line of the St. Louis and Cairo Short Line R. R. 
Offiirrs. — Pre.sident and General Manager, Andrew C. Bry- 
den, St. Louis ; Vice-President, Edwin Harrison, St. Louis ; 
General Superintendent and Secretary, James C. Bryden, 


Carbondale ; Auditor, Edftiu Brown, St. Louis; Assistant 
Superintendent, James Prentice, Carbondale. 


The main line of this road enters Perry County from the 
uoith near the center of Taiuaroa precinct in section 4, and 
extends southward through the entire county, having about 
18 miles of road in the county, besides the sidings. The most 
iin|xirtaut stations are Du Quoin and Tamaroa. 

In September, 1850, Congress passed an act, and it was ap- 
proved by President Fillmore, granting an aggregate of 
2,595,051? acres, to aid in building this road. The act 
grantad the right of way, and gave alternate sections of land 
for sis miles on either side of the road. The grant of land 
was made directly to the State. On the 10th of February, 
1851, the legislature of Illinois granted a charter to an east- 
ern company, represented by llnniotd and others, to build it, 
with a cajiital stock of $1,000,000. The road was completed 
in 1854. The legislature, in granting the charter, and trans- 
fci-iiiig to the corjioration the lands, stipulated that .sfccjijucr 
(I ///. of the gross earnings of the road should be paid semi- 
annually into the treasury of the State forever. This wise 
l)rovision, in lieu of the liberal land-grant, yields a handsome 
annual revenue to the State ; also that in the event of war 
government transportation should be furnished at a certain 
reduction from the prices regularly paid by the general 
government for such services. The proceeds of land sales 
have been regularly applied to the redemption of construc- 
tion bunds, and it is significant that while the original issue 
of mortgage bonds amounted to §22,000,000, that amount 
has been so reduced that in 1890 the whole issue will be re- 
tired, and the stockholders will own a road more than 700 
miles in length, fully equipped, with no outstanding liability 
other than the share of capital. It may be noted here, that 
when the general government donated lands to the States of 
Illinois, Mississippi and Alabama, it was intended that 
through the aid derived from these lands a through artery 
of travel should be established between the Lakes and the 
Gulf ports. Had the war not supervened, the project would 
then have been carried out in its entirely, and the North and 
South movement of traffic would have beoi fully developed, 
but the enforced delay in carrying out the original pro- 
gramme was utilized in building up the State of Illinois, and 
in perfecting the track of this road. The resources of the 
com))any were taxed to their utmost capacity during the 
war, in furnishing transportation for the general government; 
but the interests of communities along the line were carefully 
watched, and a local business was built up, which in volume 
and value far exceeded the most sanguine expectation of the 
proprietary. Strict attention to local business has always 
been a marked characteristic of Illinois Central Railroad 
management, hence their lands have been eagerly sought 
after; and they have the satisfaction of knowing that the 
value of the road is not dependent entirely upon its identifi- 
cation with the through business of the country, but on the 
contribution of local traffic, which shows a permanent and 
certain increase. Two years after the close of the war, in 
1867, the Illinoi.^ Central Railroad Company leased three 

railways in Iowa, "The Dubuque and Sioux City," "Cedar 
Falls and Minnesota," and "Iowa Falls and Sioux City' 
Railroads. The last named road was not, however, com- 
pleted to Sioux City until 1871. These leased lines have 
been extensive feeders to the Central ; and also have added 
immensely to the commerce of Chicago, and have been great 
auxiliaries in the development of Iowa and southern Min- 

On the opening of the Vandalla line, the Illinois Central 
made its first direct advance toward securing a representation 
in the traffic between Chicago and St. Louis. Two through 
trains were run daily, via Effiiu/liam. In 1870, on comple- 
tion of the Belleville and Illinois Southern Railroad to Du 
Quoin, the southern business of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
originating in St Louis, was transferable from Odin and 
Ashley, the former connections with the Cairo Short Line. 
Though the Illinois Ceutral Railroad put in a car-hoist at 
Cairo, to obviate the difficulties incidental to the diiferent 
gauge of the southern roads, the tedious transfer between 
Cairo and Columbus militated against a satisfactory develop- 
ment of through business, and it was not until 1873, by com- 
pletion of the ]Mississippi Central Extension, from Jackson 
to a point opposite Cairo, that the Illinois Central was en- 
abled to compete on equal terms with rival routes to the 
South for the business of the Gulf States. This extension 
could not have been built without the aid of the Illinois 
Central Railroad Company, which was given by exchanging 
one million of Illinois Central, five per cent, sterling bonds, 
which were easily negotiable in foreign markets, for five 
millions of the southeru bonds, bearing sere}/ per cent, an- 
nual interest, with the understanding that the difi'erence be- 
tween the interest of the sterling and the so\Uhern bonds 
should constitute a sinking fund for the redemption of the 
bonds at maturity. The financial panic of 1873, combined 
with other local causes, prevented the line between New Or- 
leans and Cairo from earning sufficient to meet the annual 
interest charges, and the property was placed in the hands 
of a receiver, where it remained until 1S77, when a reorgan- 
ization of the companies resulted in placing the direct con- 
trol in the hands of the Illinois Central Railroad Comi)any. 
No expense has been spared to put the road-bed and equip- 
ments in first-class condition. About the same time the Illi- 
nois Central Managers acquired, on favoiable terms, pos- 
session of the Oilman, Clinton and Springfield Railroad, 
and thereby secured in perpetuity the traffic of a valuable 
section of country formerly tributary to competing roads. 
At Durant, 309 miles from Cairo, connection is made with 
a branch, 21 miles in length, to Kosciusko, also at Jackson 
(Mississippi); the Vicksburg and Meridian Railroad fur- 
nishes a line to Vicksburg, and thence via the Vicksburg^ 
Shreveport and Texas Railroad for Monroe, La., Shreve- 
port and all points on the Texas and Pacific Railway. The 
Morgan's, Louisiana and Texas Railroad, in connection with 
steamers from Brashcar, furnish an alternate route to Gal- 
veston and other points in Texas 

The following statistics in reference to the physical con- 
dition and equipment of the Illinois Central Railroad, will 
not be devoid of interest : — 




Msia line, Cairo lo I.a Salli-, opened for bnsine.'?, Jnn. Sth, ISM aw 09 

Galena Branch, La Salle, to Dunkirk, opened Jure I21I1, ISM MC.-3 

Chiiago Branch, Chicago to Centralia Junction, opened Sept 2i'.lh, 1856, °4!i.7S 
Springfield Division, Oilman to Springfield, i>pentd in Sept., Is;i 111.47 

Tot.'il length of Main Line and Branches, M'.OT 

Aggregate length computed as single track, 831.CA 

Length of Sidings, l.''.2.G8 

Total length of track owned in Illinoi.", 9W>.30 

Iowa Pivi.-ion, from I<ubiiquc to Sioux City, , 327.(iO 

Southern tiiviaion, from Cairo to Sew Orleans, 548.00 

Minnesota Branch, from Waterloo to Mono, 8<>.00 

Slaking the total-number of miles, 


The line between Chicago and Cairo is operated as the 
Chicago Division ; tliat between Centralia and Dubuque as 
the Northern Divifion, and the Road between Oilman and 
Springfield as the Springtield Division. The tracks of the 
various lines are mostly steel-rails, the road beds, especially 
iu this state, are ballasted with rock, the rolling stock is ex- 
cellent, and the road throughout is, in all parts, first class. 
The :Main Line passe.s through the richest portion of the 
state — and is the greatest thoroughfare of travel and traffic 
between the North and the South. 


Believing that there are many farmers in these ccunties 
who desire a profitable investment, we would therefore call 
the attention of all who are desirous of procuring more land, 
or larger farms to the large quantity of good faiming land, 
the Illinois Central Railroad company still tfl'er for sale, 
along their line in Marion, Fayette. CIrnton, Washington, 
Jeflersou, Jackson, Perry, Franklin. Union, AVilliamson, 
Alexander, and Pulaski counties in this state. 


The title to these lands ofTereti for sale is as perfect as 
huniau agency can make it. It was originally donated bj' 
act of Congress to the State of Illinois, and by an act of the 
State Legislature transferred to this company and its trus- 
tees. No incumbrance of any kind whatever. To all who 
desire in good faith to examine any of these lauds, the rail- 
road company issues half-rate tickets on any of their own 
lines to and from the nearest points to the land, and if such 
ticket-bolder buys even a forty-acre tract, they will allow 
what he paid for such ticket as part payment on the pur- 
chase. These lands are productive, the climate healthy, and 
prices very low — usually from S-l to S':! per acre, on easy 
terras, and a low rate of interest. These lands can be pur- 
chased on the following terms : 

One quarter cash, with five per cent, interest for one year 
in advance on the residue ; the balance payable in one, two 
and three years, with five per cent, interest in advance each 
year on the part remaining unpaid. For example, for 
forty acres of land at S5.00 per acre, the payments would be 
as follows : 

Cash payment S."i0.00 principal, and 57. .*0 interest. 

In one year SO.liO " " 6.00 

In t«o years 50.00 " " 2.50 

In three years 50.00 " 

(-200.00 (15.10 

Or the same land may be bought for S180.00, all cash, as ten 
per cent, is deducted when all cash is paid. Full informa- 
tion on all points relating to any particular locality or tract, 
will be furnished on application, either in person or by 
letter, to 

p. Daggy, Land Commissioner, 
Room 36, No. 78 Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 


(^uarternary. Tertiary, Carboniferous, 
Devonian and ."^ilurian systems. Be- 
neath them may, and, if generally 
accepted theoiies be true, must be 
formations of other sj-stems anteda- 
ting these. The Empire State of the 
Valley has mainly escaped from up- 
heaval by earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions, so that her prairies spread 
out in beautiful repose uninterrupted 
by unsightly masses of matter from 
long past ages. In the counties of Riindolph, Monroe and 
Perry, the various systems penetrated thus far by man iu 
his inquiries after geological truth have rewarded his re- 
search quite as well as any throughout the state. The 
Jlississippi with her deep grooved channel upon the West ■' 
her line of bluffs following up her general course; a break 
traversing the counties all contribute t.» nuike clear the 
strategraphical chart. The Quarternary, Tertiary and 
Carboniferous .systems present outcroppings here and there 
throughout their extent. 

The Quarternary, or uppermost stratum, is possessed of 
greater economical value than all other formations com- 
bined. It comprises the drift and all deposits above it of 
whatever may be the quality of the soil. In scientific terms, 
it includes the alluvium, buttora prairie, blufli' and drift of 
various thicknesses, which crop out here and there upon the 
surface. All those deposits which have been formed since 
the inauguration of the present order of thiugs, might be 
appropriately classified under the head of Alluvium as it 
embraces soils, pebbles, sand, elay.s, and vegetable mold, all 
of which are here found. 

Soils are a well-kuown mixture of various comminuted 
and decomposed mineral substances, combined and mingled 
with decayed vegetable and animal remains, and composing 
those ingredients so well adapted to the nourishment of the 
vegetable kingdom. They are formed by the action of 
water in form of rain or dew ; by atmospheric changes of 
heat and cold ; by decay of vegetable and animal matter. 
The soils of these counties are very deep and exceedingly pro- 
ductive. The vegetable kingdom has contributed largely to 
their formation. The luxuriant growth of prairie grass, 



high as a man's head riding horseback (as the old settlers 
are wont to say), dying with the touch of frost each autumn 
to form a thin layer of vegetable mold, or. being burned by 
the raging fires of the hazy Indian summer-time to add 
their mite of alkali, has contributed untold wealth to the 
fertility of the soil. Here and there, are clay formations 
cropping out upon the surface, kindly inviting the hand 
of industry to transform their barrenness into tile and brick, 
and thus contribute to the general good. Immediately un- 
derneath are evidences of the aqueous agencies in pebble and 
formative sand rock measures, only waiting to become useful 
in various ways that man's inventive genius has devised. 
Upon the surface here and there, are the monuments to the 
existence of a glacial period, in form of great boulders, com- 
posed of quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblend. We look 
upon these massive rocks, and note nothing in common with 
the formations surrounding them. Bedded in the virgin 
prairie soil, poised upon its surface, their composition 
declares them of different origin from other rock, and the 
abrasions upon their surface, sometimes in deep longitudinal 
grooves, oftentimes well rounded in general outline, declare 
in plain words a long journey thitherward. Scientists have 
critically examined them. Evidently the storm of centuries 
have beaten upon them where they stand, and the hand of 
time has broken many a fragment and piled them at their 
bases, as if to number the years of their being Speculations 
have been indulged as to their mighty journeyings from the 
far-off North land during an age when Manitoba waves 
would have been hailed as the breath of spring-time; an age 
when animal and vegetable existence were alike impossible. 
Borne on before the resistless power of slowly-movin'g 
glaciers or icebergs, they were dropped here and there on 
far-stretching prairies, or carried on the very tops of 
mountains, like those of Missouri, where their piled up con- 
fusion leads to the idea of a battle-field with the gods. 
Who can number the ages that have rolled away since it 
paused in its course, or measure the time of its journey ? or 
who assay to count the time it occupied its place in the 
parent ledge before the glacier or iceberg wrenched it from 
its place and bore it away ? 

The prairies themselves, stretching out in their beauty, — 
nay, in silent grandeur, — have invited man's genius to assign 
to natural cause their origin, and declare the years of their 
formation. Much scientific discussion has been indulged 
respecting thera. Prof Leo Lesquereux, in report of the 
State Geologist of Illinois, asserts that they, with their pecu- 
liar surface soil, owe their origin to the same causes that are 
at present operating to form prairies, though on a less exten- 
sive scale- The black, rich soil is doubtless, he says, due to 
the growth and decay of successive crops of vegetation, 
which, in the geological ages of the past, under a far higher 
temperature and more favorable atmospheric conditions than 
now exist, grew to an extent unknown since the appearance 
of man upon the earth. These prodigious crops of plants 
and grasses were from year to year submerged, and becom- 
ing decomposed, contributed their annual accumulations to 
the surface of the country. By the continuation of this pro- 
cess for untold centuries, and by the subsequent recession of 

the waters that once covered the entire Mississippi Valley, 
a black, mucky soil was formed, and the whole region 
emerged as vast swamps or swales interspersed with hills and 
valleys, mountains and table-lands. These, by gradual 
growth, became outlined in prairies. 

In each of the three counties here treated of, great deposits 
of coal have been found. The age of these formations would 
prove a study of interest. That of coal can be computed 
more accurately than any other encountered beneath us. It 
has been calculated that thirty feet of vegetable matter 
would be required to form one foot of coal. What must 
then have been the plant growth which gave us such vast 


The surface deposits of this county comprise the three 
usual sub-divisions of the Quarternary system, designated as 
alluvium, marly deposit known as " loess" and drift. The 
most important alluvial deposit in the county is that known 
as the American Bottom, which follows the great river from 
the northwest corner of the county southward to the mouth 
of the Kaskaskia, having a width varying from four to fif- 
teen miles. This belt is exceedingly productive, and but 
for the overflows to which it is subjected, would be by far 
the most valuable land of the county. The soil is quite 
sandy, but is intermingled with humus or vegetable mold 
or clay from the sediments of the river, forming a rich warm 
soil of unsurpassed fertility. 

The loess is a deposit of light brown or buff siliceous marl, 
sometimes also quite calcareous It caps the blufis of the 
Mississippi and other streams of the county, and is of a 
thickness varying from ten to sixty feet, or even m^ire. It 
generally contains great numbers of bleached shells. It 
gives origin to the bald knobs, that are often a conspicuous 
feature in the river bluffs. Ttie drift deposits of this county 
comprise a series of brown and yellow clays, intermingled 
locally with gravel and small pebbles, spread over the en- 
tire surface of the uplands, and underlying the loess where 
both are present. Boulders of igneous' character are occa- 
sionally seen in the valleys. Specimens of galena, analogous 
to the ores of Potosi in southeast Missouri, are frequently 
found beneath the soil in this county. Whether native, or 
transported by human agency, or yet b}' easterly currents, 
carrying them from their resting places across the river, is a 
subject for speculation. The stratified rocks exposed at the 
surface include a portion of the lower coal measures, from 
the micaceous sandstone above coal No. 6 in the general 
section to the base of the measures, together with the Chester 
group and the St. Louis group of the lower carboniferous 
limestone series. 

Coal Measures. — The beds exposed in the county that be- 
long to the coal measures comprise a series of micaceous 
sandstones, limestones, and shales, with two seams of bitu- 
minous coal. The thickness of the whole, including the 
conglomerate at the base, probably does not exceed two hun- 

» We nre indebted to the State Geological Reports for much data bearing on 
the Geology of these counties. 



dred and fifty feet. The followiug vertical section shows 
the succession and comparative thickness of these beds : 

Micaceous sandstone and shale ao to 40 feet. 

Band of limestone 3 " 

Shale 1-.! " 

Limestone and bituminous shale 4 *■ " 

Coal (Bellevillel •• 8 " 

Fire-clay and nodular limestone 3 " G " 

Shale or shaly sandstone .'iij " 40 " 

Limestone 3 '* 4 " 

Bituminousshale 3 " & '* 

Coal No. j (7) 2 " 4 " 

Fire clay 2 '■ 4 - 

Shii'e and .sandst4jne ( ■unglotneralf) ,M> " lao ■' 

The coal measures underlie about one-third of the county, 
being that part known as the prairie district. The sand- 
stone and shales that form the base of this group of strata 
give origin to a more broken surface. Of the coal mea- 
sures, two are developed in this county, the Belleville coal 
(No. 6) and a lower seam, probably No. .5 The Belleville 
coal seam is very regular, with an average thickness of about 
six feet. It almost invariably has a good roof, composed 
either of limestone or hard bituminous shale, either of which 
makes a subtantial roofing, both safe and economical. In 
a few places, packets of a conglomerate have been found in 
this roofing, notably in a shaft sunk near Coulterville, the 
giving way of which is attended with disastrous results. 
The coal from this seara is compact, of a bright color, and 
comparatively free from pyrites. Sometimes it rests upon a 
bed of fire-clay, but more frequently on one of argillaceous 
limestone. The over-cropping limestones are fossiliferous. 
The out-cropping of the coal measures, which underlie the 
northwestern part cf the county, is along Mary's river. At 
Pope's bank the coal is deposited in five distinct layers, 
measuring respectively sixteen, twelve, fifteen, sixteen, and 
one and a half feet- 

At Boyd's coal mines, one mile west of Spaita, the coal is 
obtained by a shaft sunk to the depth of about fifty feet 
through the following beds : 

Cluy ,um1 grnvel 20 feet. 

Limestone 2 " 

Shale 15 " 

Limestone 5 " ' 

<'oal •' 

The dip is slightly easterly, and does not exceed 5°. A 
mile and a half northeast is Wood's coal mine, where the 
coal is reached at a depth of forty feet. It is overlaid with 
bituminous shale and limestone. In the vicinity of Steels- 
ville, the coal is of an average thickness of six feet, and is 
found from twenty-five to thirty feet below the surface. 
Four miles to the south it out-crops in the bluffs along Cos's 

Chester Group. — The following vertical section gives an 
idea of comparative thickness and relative position of the 
different members of this group: 

Grey silioious limestone No. 1 2.5 to 30 feet. 

Shalesaudshaly sandstones, with fossil plants . 80 " OO " 

Shaly liinest ,ne No. 2 15 " 18 '• 

Massive brown sandstone 40 ** 

Limestone No. 3, upper bed at Chester 40 " 45 " 

tireen and blue argillaceous shales, with plates 

of limestone 45 '* 70 " 

Arenaceous and ar^illaccovis limestone No 4 . . 20 to 30 feet. 

Massive and shaly saiid.-^tonc . 15 " 20 " 

Compact and granular grey limestone No. .0 . . 150 " 

Passive quartzose brown sandstone 120 '' 

This group attains its greatest thickness in the southern 
part of the county. At Chester the middle portion of this 
group forms the greater portion of the river bluff, and the 
beds afford the following section at this point : 

Green and purple scales 8 feet. 

Compact grey limestone 10 '* 

Limestone, irregular, partly ujdular and partly argil- 
laceous 32 " 

Green and argillaceous shales, with thin plates of lime- 

stone and ferruginous hands 70 " 

Compost grey limestone, with intercalated beds of blue 

aiKl green clay shales «2 " 

Total 202 " 

Adjacent to the city, and partly exposed on the hill-tops, 
is a bed of i]uartzose sandstone This sandstone is overlaid 
with another limestone which m.iy be found as you journey 
farther from the river, so that like step-stones these forma- 
tions rise one above another, exposed as the aqueous abra- 
sions have by lapse of time laid them bare. Near the Peni- 
tentiary buildings the top of the limestone is eighty feet 
above low water level of the river, and is overlaid by a mas- 
sive sandstone about fifteen feet in thickness. Below Ches- 
ter, limestone almost wholly made up of crinoidea and fish 
teeth abounds — a limestone susceptible of a high polish. 
At Prairie du Rocher, the bluff is composed of the massive 
grey limestone of the St. Louis group, but before reaching 
tlie general level of the adjacent country we pass over the 
lower sandstone of the Chester group, and the limestones 
and shales of the higher beds are found expo.std on all 
the small streams between the bUifis and Red Bud. 
At Red Bud, the sinking of a shaft presented the following 
record of strata : 

Surface clay 18 feet. 

Grey limestone, conUiiuing fossils found in the Chester 

group 13 " 

Clay shale 46 " 

Economical Geology, — Elsewhere in this work soils are 
treated of, and in presenting a brief view of what is appro- 
priately termed economical geology, we shall only call atten- 
tion to the minerals that furnish the basis of future wealth 
and importance to this county. 

Vodl — By far the most valuable and important mineral 
deposit underlies fully one third of the county. It has been 
calculated that the yield of a coal seam is one million tons to 
the square mile for every foot of thickness of the seam, and 
consequently the yield of the upper seam as here found 
would aggregate six million tons. Then if three hundred 
square miles of the county are thus underlaid the enormous 
amount of eighteen hundred million tons of coal awaits the 
application of human genius in its exhumation. Then, too, 
yet beneath this partially developed seam is another with 
probably one-third as much more coal. Mining coal, a 
comparatively new industry, is being rapidly pro.seculed, and 
with constantly increasing facilities for its transportation, 
and not only this, but for transfer of rude ores from the 
mountains of Missouri, to be changed as if by a magician's 


wand into various forms of utility and beauty through its 
agency. It is destined to grow and demand enlarged facili- 
ties for exhumation and carriage. Manufacturing interests 
are taking hold, and will be within the next decade more 
than double in number and capacity. 

Bnildinf/ Stone. — Enough stone, and that too, of superior 
quality — abounds here to supply the state f jr centuries. Its 
presence was one of the great inducements offered in behalf 
of the location of the State Penitentiary at Chester. To 
particularize, the St. Louis limestone, abundant in the north- 
western part of the county, rising full two hundred feet in 
height, could be made available for the heaviest masonry, as 
well as for foundation-walls for dwellings, for flag-stones, etc. 
The lower sandstone of the Chester group, an excellent free- 
stone, which can be sawed or cut easily when freshly quar- 
ried, hardening on exposure, will furnish, practically, inex- 
haustib'e supplies for various purposes of art. Then the 
lower limestone of the same group, for all manner of archi- 
tectural display, is most excellent ; for caps, for cornices, 
for columns, and for shafts it is well adapted. Much of it 
is susceptible of a high polish, and will be availed of by way 
of ornamentation. 

Lime. — Stone employed in its manufacture abounds. The 
best is found in the vicinity of Prairie da Rucher. It is 
not surpassed by any calcareous deposit in the Mississippi 
valley for the production of a superior quality of lime. 

Clays. — The fire clay which underlies each of the coal 
seams nny be useil advantageously. Clay for the mauufxc- 
ture of brick of fair quality everywhere abounds, underly- 
ing the surface soil. 


As iu Randolph we find along the great river, following 
its course, a widespread bottom presenting its inexhaustible 
alluvial deposits. Soil sandy, intermingled with humus or 
vegetable mold and clay from the sediments of the river. 
Hemming in the great water way, as if to check its overflow, 
are great bluffs of varied character. The disturbances in 
the regular stratification of rocks are very marked, there 
being two decided axes. The nucleus of the more northern 
one is the Keokuk limestone, which is well exposed near 
Columbia on a small creek. Above the exposure is a brown- 
ish-gray and cherty limestone, forming about forty feet of 
its bulk, while the remaining ten feet consists of blue calcareo- 
argillaceous shales with small geodes of quartz. Immediate- 
ly west, the overlying St. Louis limeston ■ dips full 20 degs. 
south, while on the eastern side of the axis the dip in the 
opposite direction varies from 8 to 12 degs., thus forming a 
trough or valley, and indicating, at some time away back 
in the sleeping ages, mighty convulsions of nature which 
have pushed upwards out of their natural beds great 
of rock, different from their fellows, upon either hand. 
These convulsions speak of an age antedating the carboni- 
ferous period, since coal measures in regular lines cross the 
valley, intervening the exposures of the Keokuk limestone. 
The other axis is to the south and shows the elevation of the 
Saccharoidal sandstone. Its extent is limited, as it rapidly 

sinks to the eastward beneath shales and limestones of the 
Lower Carboni.'erous series. 

The relative position and comparative thickness of the 
stratified rocks in this county are shown iu the following 
section : 

No. 1. Cial lupa^ 40 to .W foet. 

Xo. 2. Chester Kionp Km to :i'.il feet. 

N.i. ;;. rppc-r St Louis limestone 140 to l.'Jl feet. 

No. 4. Lowel- St. Louis or W:U'.s:uv VJO to l:'.0 IVt't, 

No..-.. Keolcok liojestone loll fcet. 

No. 0. Iturlinu'ton limestone 7o to lull feet. 

No. 7. Kiudiuhook (jroup so to IIKJ feet- 
No. 8. Trenton limestone 12(1 feet. 

The a^^regate thickness of these rocks may be estimated 
at about oue thousand feet, and they represent a very large 
portion of the whole Paleozoic series below the coal meas- 
ures, as that series is developed in Southern Illinois. No 
part of the State presents more interesting phases of geo- 
logical research than here. Coal is found throughout the 
basin formed by the break in the formations already referred 
to, and is necessarily confined to a narrow strip. Breaks in 
coal measures, being quite as uneven as the basis on which 
they rest, make successful mining hazardous. At a number 
of points within the isolated synical basin, coal was found, 
and in some places successfully rained. Gall's coal mines, 
on the northwest quarter of section 3, township 2 south, 
range 4 west, have been quite extensively worked and 
abandoned. The beds exposed give the following section : 

fuloareons shales C (o s feet. 

I oui part ar(;illiieeou-s limestone 3 to 4 feet. 

P.ilmninons shale I to 3 feet. 

Cal. liellevillescam :Uo 4 feet. 

Ciiloareoils shnlesauil no limestone .T to 4 feet. 

Sliule tiiul shiily .siinilstone Ij feet 

No. 2. Chester Group. — As developed in this county is 
the upper group of the lower carboniferous system, consists 
of a heavy bed of sandstone forming its lower division, aljove 
which are two or three beds of limestone alternating with 
sandy and argillaceous shales and sandstones. In thickness 
they are less than in Randolph county, and as we travel 
north grow more and more so. In places the rock of this 
group is massive and concretionary in structure, then again, 
fossiliferous, consisting of coarse, granular and partly crinoi- 
dal limestone. 

Nos. 3 and 4 St LouL? Limestone. Upper and Loiver. 
Occurs in extensive outcrops in the county, and in two well- 
marked divisions. The upper consists mainly of light-gray 
compact, regularly bedded limestones, with some thin shaly 
partings, and the lower of buff or brown marly and partly 
maguesian beds, and with some very massive layers of a serai- 
oolitic, nearly white limestone. Exposures of these groups 
are met with to the east and north of the Chester group. 
'Ihe sink holes met with are a sure guide to the extent of 
these formations, they being only formed where the upper 
division of this group forms the bed-rock. 

No. 5. Keokuk Group. — Exposures of this group are rare 
in this county, forming as it does the nucleus of the anticlinal 
axis passing near Columbia. It has been found to be com- 
posed of coarse-grained gray limestone, yellow calcareous 
shale, blue shale, cherty gray limestone and bedded chert. 


No. 6. Burliiiyton LlmrstDin' — May include the bedded 
chert attributed above to the Kenkuk group. It is couliiicd 
to the viciuity of Salt Lick Point where it forms the upper 
escarpment of tiie bluH'. It consists of alternations of light- 
gray crinoidal limestone and chert. Tiie bluff where found 
is the highest between St. Louis and Chester, presenting 
from its summit a grand panorama of river and valley. 

Nu. 7. K'lHih'fhQok Group. — Seemingly out of its place, 
having by some agency been pushe<I entirely out of its rela- 
tive position, usurping that of the Devonian and upper Silu- 
rian groups, is found only in the vicinity of the foregoing 
group, and consists of ashen gray shales, which pass upward 
into chocolate-colored shales and limestones. 

No. 8. Tretitoii Limestone. — The oldest formation found 
in Southern Illinois. Its presence is attributable to like 
causes with the three preceding groups. It forms a low ledge 
of massive gray limestone at the base of a blufl' about two 
miles below Eagle elitf. Wherever it outcrops it consists of 
heavy bedded yellowish gray crystalline limestones, inter- 
sected with vertical fissures or joints. These vertical fissures 
are, in places most marked, separating great columns so that 
thev stand apart like silent sentinels. Some of them are 
from forty to fifty feet in height. They have locally received 
the a|)peIlation of the " stoue chimneys " 

Ei-oiiomien/ Geolofjy. — In his report the State Geologist 
savs there is no county in Southern Illinois more abundantly 
supplied with buikling stone of various qualities than this, 
and it is so generally distributed over all portions of the 
county as to be easily accessible to every neighborhood. 
The stratified rocks arc here something more than a thousand 
feet in thickness, and fully one-half may be considered of 
economical value. The sandstone that forms the basis of 
the Chester group will furnish an unlimited supply of excel- 
lent building stone. It generally is compact, free from 
foreign substances, but sometimes shows a concretionary 
structure ; where this is the case it can be readily quarried 
as it splits evenly in blocks of required sizes. It works 
easilv under the chisel, and hardens on exposure. The lime- 
stones of the same group furnish some good material suitable 
for rough walls. The rock most generally used, however, 
comes from the St. Louis group which furnishes the bed rock 
of a much larger area of territory than iloes any other. It 
is mostly a compact, fine grained, bluish-gray limestone, 
weathering to a nearly white color, and generally lies in 
regular beds of fair workable thickness from size suitable for 
flagging, curb-stones, &c., to blocks of two feet thickness. 
Most of the macadamizing material used in the county is 
obtained from the hard, bluish-gray limestones of this group. 
Dimension stone of any required thickness and form is 
obtainable from the lower division of this group. It is one 
of the best building stones in the county. In the next or 
Burlington group the rock is too cherty for use. 

Marbl''. — The Trenton limestone aflibrds some beds of light- 
gray crystalline thick-bedded rock that receives a fine polish, 
and the thickly imbedded organic forms give to the polished 
surface a slightly mottled appearance, pleasing to the'eye. It 
mav be obtained at Salt Lick Point in inexhaustible 

tb((/. —As already indicated the only c lal found in this 
county is that obtained in the valley or basin formed by the 
upheavals on either side. Tlie valley is narrow and coal 
seams irregular throughout its e.xtent, being found in pack- 
ets. The veins where found are of uneven thickne.<s, rang- 
ing from thin leaves to four feet. 

Iron Ore may be found thick enough to prove of some 
economical value at the junction of the Chester and St. 
Louis groups. Its presence is indicated, ami a band, appar- 
ently of good quality, is here exposed. 

Hi/draulic LimciifoKc—Tha manufacture of cement is of 
sufficient importance to cause thorough examination to de- 
termine the existence of Hydraulic limestone in workable 
quantities. That it exists here is well known, whether in 
quantity and of quality to re-pay investment in its mining 
and reduction is problematic. 

LimcKtonfi for Lime. — This county could afiord sufficient 
lime, that too, of most excellent quality, to supply all the 
demands that could possibly be made upon it for centuries. 
Lime kilns are here and there operated successfully, and at a 
hundred other points might be constructed to the advantage 
of proprietors. 

Brick Materliih. — Clay suitable for the manufacture of 
brick everywhere abounds, and sand may be readily sup- 
plied from the banks of adjacent streams. 


The geological formations of this county are restricted 
to the coal measures and tha superficial deposits known as 
drift. The coal measure strata that formed the original sur- 
face in this region, consist mainly of arenaceous, argillaceous 
and bituminou-i shales, fine-grained sand stones, and thin 
bjds of silicious and argillaceous limestone. The drift de. 
posits above the coal measures are comparatively thin. 
Perhaps a medium would be represented by the following 
section : 

Soil and .«ub-soil 
Keddish Clay . . . 
.Sand ADd gravel . 
Yellow tough cla.v 

Beneath this clay last named, is encountered a blue mud, 
which is rich in vegetable remains, or in places where the 
stratified rocks belonging to the coal measures are reached, 
the blue mud being absent. The coal measures embrace a 
depth of about three hundred feet. At Tamaroathe follow- 
ing section was obtained : 

Soft micaceous sandstones 1^ f' 

Sandy Shale 20 

Massive hard ferruginous sandstone 10 

lilue clay shale 2o 

Impure Iron ore, with fossil shelU - 

Bituminous Sliale 3 

Coal So. 8 9 

Fireclay . 3 

Sandstone ^^ 

Sandy Shale 102 

Hard calcareous sandstone 3 

Black carbonaceous slate 1 

Clay Shale . ■ 3 

Hard, arenaceous, slaty rock 16 

Clay Shale ' 

Light-grey, sub-crystalline limestone 8 



Bituminous Shale 2 ft. 

Coal, i-oinetimes wanting No. 6 ? 2 " 

Fire clay or clny nhale 3 " 

Limestone, light-colored, nrcnaceous 7 " 

Gray S ale 6 " 

Jjimestone *"• " 

Shales, with fossil rlants i5 " 

Coal No. 5 ? .li to 7 ft. 

Clay shale, witli nodules of limestone 15 " 

At other points throughout the county workable veins of 
coal were found at much lets depths. The Black Diamond 
mine exhibits the following section : 

Clay, (-urface material) 24 f^et. 

Limestone 9 " 

Clay Shale 1 '• 

Bituminous Sliale 1 " 

Coal 1 " 

Fire-clay 4 " 

Limestone f' " 

Clay Shale ■'"' " 

Limestone 7 

Blue clay shale li " 

Hard, dark-colored limestone 3 " 

Bituminous Shale 2 " 

Coal ...••• _5 " 

93 " 

At Pinckneyville the depth is only some forty to fifty /eet 
to coal, which out-crops on a ravine southeast of the town 
in section 30, T. 5 S. R. 2 W. 

Eeonoviiml Geolof/y. — Perhaps no county in Southern 
Illinois offers superior inducements to the mining of coal 
than this. The accessibility and quality of the coal are 
both in its favor. Mr. Pratten's analysis of the Du Quoin 
coal gave the following result : 

Specific gravity 1.24C 

Loss in coking 48 5 

Total weight of coke 51.1-ltio 

Moisture 8.') 

Volatile matters 40.4 

Carbon in coke 48.1 

Ashes (light gray) 3 (1-1(10 

Carbon in coal .'JO.C 

The analysis when compared with that of other bituminous 
coal found throughout the state is favorable to the Du Quoin. 
In reference to the accesi-ibility, not alone is the coal found 
throughout this county at comparatively little depth, but the 
roofing is superior, being in places a hard, blue limestone. 
Where it is a bituminous shale it is not so good. 

The amount of accessible coal in this county is enormous. 
The State Geologist in his report estimates it at two billion, 
four hundred million tons, which at Si. 50 per ton would 
yield 13,600,000, and adds that this estimate is undoubtedly 
below rather than above the actual amount of coal to be ob- 
tained from the beds underlying the surface of this county 
alone. Here then, would we look for the future manufactur- 
ing establishments of Southern Illinois, for the erection of 
smelters, furnaces, iron industries, foundries, &c. An era 
of prosperity awaits the hand of industry, and the mining of 
her black diamonds will expedite its advent. 

Building Slone. — In this, Perry county is deficient. 
Material suitable for foundation walls is found and .some 
adapted to such masonry as enters into making of bridges 
and culverts is accessible. Some of the limestone out- 

cropping is adapted to the manufacture of quick-lime, 
and has been thus used. The sand-stones, are too soft for 
general uses, but are used for flagging, light walls, &c. 

Sand and Clay for the manufiicture of brick may be 
found almost in any place where it may be desirable to 
manufacture them : and from the abundance of coal, and 
the economy with which they" can be burned, brick will 
always be one of the cheapest and most easily obtained 
materials for building purposes in this county. 


N treating of the flora of these coun- 
ties, it is not our purpose to treat 
exhaustively on all the plants of 
the respective counties, but rather 
to give a list of the native trees 
and grasses found within their 
limits. The intelligent and prac- 
tical husbandman first looks to 
the native vegetation as a dial to 
be governed by in determining the value of new lands. The 
growth, size, and kinds of timber will, to a great extent, 
decide and determine the qualities of the soil for agricultural 

The botanist, in making a survey of the State, classes it 
under three heads : the heavily timbered regions of the 
South, the flora of which is remarkable for its variety and 
beauty ; the central portion, consisting mainly of prairie 
region ; and the North, which is a combination of both 
timber and prairie. These counties represent the charac- 
teristics of the latter, having a fair proportion of each, also 
including the American Bottom varieties. Many of the 
early species of the vegetable kingdom have changed and 
passed out of sight since the coming of the Anglo-Saxon. 
The " buffalo grass," which formerly grew only upon the 
prairies, and the high pampas, have become extinct 
and given place to blue grass and other varieties sown and 
cultivated by the present tillers of the soil. The plants are 
many and rare, peculiar to this climate and latitude. Among 
the most important for medical purposes we find the bone- 
set, ginseng, Colombo, pennyroyal, pink-root, Indian turnip, 
sarsaparilla, and other varieties too numerous to mention. 
The native plants of beauty are the lily, phlox, golden rod, 
eye-bright gerardia, asclepias, and hundreds more which 
adorn the meadows and flower-gardens of this section of the 
Prairie State. Beside these, there are the climbing vines, 
which fill the forest with beautiful festoons of artistic form, 
such as the woodbine, grape, clematis, bitter-sweet, etc. The 
trees and grasses, however, engage the special attention of 
the traveler. The many varieties of oak, hickory, and elm, 
are in abundance, — the giant cottonwoods, sycamore, walnut. 



and hundreds more that wave in the breeze, attest the 
virtue of the soil and the excellence of climate to produce 
what Dame Nature has so bountifully brought forth. 

The following are the indigenous floral and vegetable 
products of these counties : Foa pratensis—spenr-gmss ; 
Poa compremin — blue-grass ; Armeimi triphijUnm—lndiaa 
turnip; Thijplatifolia—csit-ta\l; Sagittarla i'«ri')4(/is— arrow- 
head ; Cypripedium piiheseens — yellow lady's slipper; 
Cypripedium candidum— white lady's slipper, common ; 
Cannabis saticd — hemp; Humidici lupulus — hop, com- 
mon ; Datura stramonium — Jamestown weed ; Axclepinx cor- 
fiiiti — milk weed ; Fraxinus Americana — white ash ; Fraxinug 
sambunfoUa—h]&ck ash ; Phijtolaef.a decandra — poke weed ; 
Amyrantua hybridiis—])ig weed ; Riimex crispus— sour dock ; 
Sassafras officinale — sassafras ; Batjitin odoriferus — fever 
bush; Marntbiuin rnhjare — hoarhound ; So/anum nigrum^ 
night-shade ; Pliysalis iv'.sroxa — ground cherry ; Monanla di- 
dym-i — horsemint; Nepeta cataria — catnip; Hedcuma pulc- 
yioides — pennyroyal; Diospyrox mrginiana — persimmon ; 
Plantago major — plantain ; Verbascum thap.-<ii.-< — mullein, com- 
mon ; Cissium lancfolatam — common thistle ; Lappa major — 
burdock ; Taraxacum dcas-leonis — dandelion, common, been 
introduced during the last forty years ; Erecth ites hieracifolia — 
fire-weed ; Ambrosia artemisvfulia — rag weed; Xaidhiuin 
stramarium — cockle burr; Bidens bipinnata — Spanish needle ; 
Bideiischrysanthemoides — beggar ticks ; Mantn cutula — May- 
weed ; Leucaiitlwmum rulyare — ox-eye daisy. Another plant 
which has become quite common in Randolph county, along 
the bluff near Kaskaskia, is a species of the flag. It was 
brought from France by one of the old French families, on 
account of its floral beauty. The berries that it bears are a 
special delight of the birds, and the result is that the whole 
section of country is likely to be inoculated with its presence. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum — thoroughwort, not common ; 
Cornus Florida, dogwood ; Sambueus Canadensis — elder, very 
common ; Ribes cynosbidi — wild gooseberry ; Tynw eoronaiia 
— wild crab, abundant. 

Crateyus, several species ; Rosa setiyera — climbing rose ; 
Rubus liicida — dwarf wild rose ; Rnbus ivYAysKS— blackberry, 

Asimina triloba — papaw, quite abundant along the creek 
bottoms; Nelunbium luteum — May apple, abundant in 
shady places. 

Saiiyuinaria Canadensis, or hloodroot ; Lepidium Viryini- 
rum —wild pepper grass ; Poriulaca Oleracea, or purslane ; 
Titia Americana, or linden; Xanthoxyhun Americanina — 
prickly ash ; Rlius typhina — sumach; Rhus toxicodendron — 
poison oak; Vitis oestiralis — summer grape, common ; Viti^ 
cordifotia—trost grape; Ampelopsis quinquefolia — Virginia 
creeper ; ^Eaculus pavia — buckeye ; Acer saccharinum — sugar 
maple ; Acer dasycarpum — white maple ; Neyundo aceroides 
— box elder; Baptisia tincforia — indigo weed, not abundant; 
Cereis Canadensis — red-bud ; Gymnoclad ns Canadensi<< — 
Kentucky coffee- tree ; Gleditsehia tracanthos — honey locust; 
Prunus Americana — red plum; Piunus ehieasa — Chickasaw 
plum; Prunus errotina—wUd cherry; Fragarin Viryiniana 
— wild strawberry ; Rubus occidentalis^h\a.c]!i cap raspberry ; 
Rubiis Canadoisis — dewberry, common. 

Popuhis nngu/atd — cotton-wood, abundant. 

iSalix — willow, several varieties. 

Alnus serrulafn — alder. 

Betula — birch ; Carpinus Ainericann — horu-beau, not com- 

Corylus Americana — hazel nut; Cutanea pumili — chin- 

Quereuj< rubra — red oak; Qnerrns tinctnria — black oak; 
Quercu-s nigra — black jack; (^wreu'< inibriciria — laurel 
oak ; Quercus prinua — chestnut white oak ; Q uerc us casta nea — 
yellow oak, not common ; Quereus alba — white oak, common ; 
Qnereus obstiloba — post oak, abundant. 

Carya glabra —pig-nut hickory ; C^iirreas macrocarpa — 
overcup oak ; Carya tomentosa — white heart hickory ; Carya 
alba — shell bark hickory; Cirya ulieiej'ornus — pecan, com- 

Jnylans nigra — black walnut, abundant ; Juglans cinerea, 
— butter-nut, not common. 

Platan us occldentalis — sycamore. 

Ulmus fuh-i, — red elm ; Moras rubra — red mulberry ; 
Urtica dloica — stinging nettle; Ulmus AniTicma — white 
elm, abundant. 

In the above list we have given the scientific as well as 
the English names, believing such a course to pursue in the 
study of plants more beneficial to the student or general 
reader. There may b3 some plants omitted, yet we think the 
list quite complete. 


HE study of Natural History is always 
interesting to all ages and classes of so- 
ciety, and more especially the animal 
kingdom of our own inhabitation, both 
the fauna of the past and present. It 
is ditticult for those of the present day to 
believe that the wild buffalo of the West- 
ern plains once roamed over the prairies 
east of the Mi3sissi|)pi ; or that the 
Elk and Black Bear were on their native heath in this part 
of the country only a little more than half a century ago. 
Many other varieties of animals, which found their homes 
ill the forests and on the prairies of this part of the state, 
have fled before civilization, and are now seen by our chil- 
dren only in the cages of the menagerie. In order to more 
fully interest and inform the reader, pertaining to this 
science, we here append in a classified form the most im- 
portant animals indigenous to this region. 


Of the hoofed animals, one of the most prominent is the 
American Bison {Biton, or Bos Americanas,) which disap- 
peared from the prairies of Illinois before the arrival of the 
white man, leaving, as the only evidence of its former pres- 



ence, a few " buffalo wallows " in certain parts of the state. 
The bison is a large animal, with thick, heavy body, short, 
stout legs, short, black horns, and black, or brown shaggy 
hair. Large herds of these animals at present roam over 
the plains at the eastern base of the Eocky Mountains. 
Like the mastodon and other ancient animals, the bison is 
destined at no distant day to become extinct. The American 
Elk {Cerms Americaniis,') next to the, is the largest 
deer of America. It is remarkable for the size of its 
antlers, which sometimes grow to the height of six feet, and 
weigh from forty to eighty pounds. The animal itself is about 
as tall as an ordinary horse, is very fleet, and has wonderful 
lowers of endurance. It long ago left the prairies of Illinois, 
and is now found in the northern parts of the United States 
and in British America. The deer family (Ccrvidce) has 
had, so far as is known, only one representative in this 
region, viz. : the common American deer, (Ccrvus Yhyini- 
aniis,) which disappeared from its prairie haunts several 
years ago, and is found in the mountainous regions of Mis- 
souii and the unsettled parts of other states. Its flesh is 
very sweet and palatable, and it is highly prized in the 
finest markets, where it commands a ready sale at the high- 
est price. 


The most ferocious animal of the carnivorous order, com- 
mon to this country, is the wolf, which belongs to the dog 
family {Canida). There were formerly two species of this 
animal in these counties,viz.: the prairie wolf ( C'k/ii'js lalrnns), 
and the common American, or gray wolf (0(;(/«f)CT'/rfe)i;o/('.>;). 
The former is tmall, with long body, elongated, sharp muz- 
zle, smooth tongue, and like all the dog family, has five- 
toed fore-feet and four-toed hind ones. It formerly inhabited, 
in large numbers, the wild prairie regions, but latterly has 
disappearwl from this part of the state. The latter is large, 
with long, sJim body, long, sharp muzzle, smooth tongue, and 
straight, bushy tail. In years gone by the howling of these 
wolves was the evening serenade of the pioneer settlers, and 
foreboded havoc among the flocks of those times. A few of 
this species are still found in dense woodlands and unfre- 
quented thickets on the prairies. Two species of fox ( Vulpes) 
are found here, the common or Gray Fox {Vulpes mdgaris), 
and the Red Fox ( Vvlpcs fidrvs). The former are still 
numerous in this region ; the latter, rare. Both species are 
noted for their extreme cunning, and their predatory habits. 
Foxes are readily distinguished by their slender, pointed 
muzzle, long,bushy tail, aod the elliptical pupil of the eye. 
Of the Cat family (Fr/ida), the only two indigenous repre- 
sentatives are the American wild-cat {Lijiix rvfus), and the 
Canadian lynx (Lynx eaiiiidfrisin). The former was very 
common during the early history of this country. It was 
about thirty inches long, of a pale rufous color, dappled 
with gray, ears black ou the outside, tail short, with black 
patch above the end. It was very destructive to lambs, kids, 
poultry, etc. It has, within the last few years, almost dis- 
appeared. The lynx was never common in Illinois, though 
it was occasionally seen thirty years ago, and even later. It is 
about forty inches long, of a grayish color, streaktd with black ; 
ears tipped with a bunch of black hairs, and tail very short. 

It is further distinguished by having one molar less than the 
true cat, in each side of the upper jaw. The panther {Felia 
]}(irdii!^) was also an early inhabitant of this region, although 
not numerous. The common Raccoon (Procyon lofor) is 
one of the most familiar wild animals in these parts. It in- 
habits the timbered regions, generally near some stream or 
body of water, to which it resorts for food, in the shape of 
craw-fish, frogs, mussels, etc. It also feeds upon roots, ber- 
ries, young corn, " roasting-ears," birds, and other small 
animals. This animal, from the end of its nose to the tip 
of its tail, i.s about two feet long, and has a pointed muzzle, 
five toes on each foot, and a ringed tail. It is nocturnal in 
its habits, and in cold climates passes the winter in a par- 
tially torpid state. Its fur is valuable. The raccoon be- 
longs to the family of Procyonid(v, of which it is probably 
the only representative in this region. 

The weasel family {3Iuslclida-), belong to the well-known 
animals, minks, skunks, otters, common weasels, etc , most of 
which have long, slender bodies, five-toed feet, and glands 
which secrete a liquid of very disagreeable odor. Otters and 
minks are hunted for their furs, which are very valuable. 
The former are amphibious, and are at present rarely seen. 
The costly fur called ermine is obtained from a weasel which 
inhabits the northern parts of Europe and Asia. 

Weasels are brown in summer and white iji winter, the tip 
of the tail being black. The color of minks is dark-brown, 
or black, throughout the year. The otter {Lutra canadeims) 
is black, and is noted for its size and strength. Its toes are 
webbed; head large and flat; ears short; tail slightly flat- 
tened, and nails crooked. It is aquatic, and subsists on fish. 
Minks and weasels prey on birds, poultry and small animals 
of various kinds. The skunk {Mephitis Aniericauio has a 
pointed nose, bushy tail, and is nocturnal. It feeds upon beetles 
and other small animals. It is also fond of eggs. It was 
very common a few years ago, but like most of the wild 
animals, is gradually disappearing. Of the opos.sum family 
{Didelphidida:), the only species here is the common opossum 
{Didelphys Virginiana). Opossums are small animals, about 
twenty inches long to the tail,whicli is from twelve to fifteen 
inches in length, nearly bare, and prehensile. Its hair is 
whitish with dark-brown tips. When captured and wounded, 
it feigns itself dead. It is a marsupial, or pouched animal, 
and carries its young, which at birth weigh only a few 
grains, in a ventral pouch situated near its hind-legs. On 
emerging from this pouch, which occurs four or five weeks 
from birth, the young twine their tails around that of their 
mother, and thus supported ride on her back. The opossum 
lives on birds, eggs, insects and other small animals. This 
animal, like the raccoon, is found in all parts of the United 
States and throughout most of North America. 


The animals of this order are easily distinguished by their 
teeth. In the front part of each jaw they have two chisel- 
shaped incisors, between which and the molars is a consider- 
able space without teeth, these animals having no canines. 
The largest representative of the rodents ever known in this 
country is the American beaver (C'osto?' canadensis). The 



rats and mice Qlurida) constitute the most numerous family 
of the rodents. They number, in all, about three hundred 
species in the world. 

Their appearance and habits are too well known to require 
description here. The black rat {Mus rrittu-^) was formerly 
very common, but of late years it has been almost extirpated 
by the brown, or Norway rat {Mus deeumaiuts), which is 
much larger and stronger. 

Of the mice we note, as found here, the common house- 
mouse I Mii,i miL-'culm), the field-mouse, the meadow-mouse, 
the jumping-mouse (Janihis liudsonius of the family Jacu- 
lidce), — which has a body about three inches long and a tail 
six inches, — and the tree-mouse. The musk-rat ( Ondatra 
zibethitiis), allied to the beaver, has but one species. This 
animal is about the size of a cat, and has a strong, musky 
smell. It is amphibious, building its mud houses in ponds 
and shallow lakes. It is a native of North America, and is 
still quite common. Its fur, like that of the beaver, is valu- 
able. The fur of the latter i.s used for making the finest 

The squirrel family (Sciui-ida) is represented here by the 
red (fox) squirrel (Schirus hitdm>iiti-<}, the gray squirrel 
{Sciurua Cni-olliiciifi.''}, the flying-squirrel {Pt/romy.i vfilu- 
cellri), the ground-stjuirrel {Tamla-f !'lri(diis), the gopher 
(Spermnphihis), the prairie squirrel and the woodchuck or 
ground-hog ( ArHoiin/n monax), all of which are so common 
that they need not be described. 

Of the hare family ( Lrporidtr i, the common gray rabbit 
{Lep-^ns cuniculus) is the only representative now inhabiting 
this region. It is very prolific, and is destined to propagate 
its species long after some of the animals mentioned shall 
have become extinct. 

Bats and moles — the former belonging to the order of 
animals (r/ii'/-()^//^-i/ 1, the latter tu {he order i,Iiiiiictirori) — 
are still very numerous. Both are carnivorous (iiiisccticn- 
roK.v), and during hibernation are semi-torpid. 


In the following list of birds indigenous to these countries 
the old system of groups, or orders, is used rather than the 
new classification of birds adopted provisionally by the 
Smithsonian Institute at Washington. The former, as it 
contains fewer and less difficult technical terms, will, it is 
believed, be more readily understood by the general reader. 
The chief characteristics of all the birds belonging to each 
order are given first, and appended thereto are the names of 
such birds of the order as are indigenous to this region. 


These are generally of large size and stout form; bills 
hooked and very strong; claws sharp and curved; wings 
extensive and muscles powerful ; females larger than males ; 
li%'e in pairs and choose their mates for life (?). Under this 
order and belonging to the hawk family (Falconidce), are 
the sparrow-hawk {Tinuuneulus alamlarius); swallow-tailed 
hawk {Nnur/cru-t furcatiu); hen-harrier (Circus cyaiteui); 
go8-hawk {Falro palamhariu^) ; sharp skinned hawk, red- 
tailed hawk {Buieo borealis); red-shouldered hawk, pigeon- 
hawk {Falco columbarum) ; white-headed ("bald") eagle 

(_Haliehis leucocephalui) ; ring-tailed, or golden eagle (Aquila 

To the owl family (Strigidoc) belong the great horned-owl 
(Bubo Virffininnus); snowy owl (Strtx nisa); barred owl 
(Syniium nebidomm, or "hoot owl"); American barn or 
screech-owl (Stn'x flumiiKe); spotted owl, marsh owl, Kenni- 
cott's (?) owl. 

Of the Vulture family (^Vtdturidw), the only representa- 
tive is the turkey-buzzard (Cathartes aura). 


Binls of this order are characterized by their stout bodies, 
strong legs and feet, and their general adaptation to living 
on the ground. It includes the wild-turkey (Mclengris 
gallopavo), prairie hen ( Tetrao citpldo), ruffled grouse, or 
" partridge" (Buiiasa umbd/u-i), quail (Ortyx Virylnianus), 
turtle-dove (Turlur aurilus), wild or passenger pigeon (Edo- 
pides mit/raloria). 


They have long necks, long billi, very long and slender 
legs, and slender bodies. Their general form is well adai)ted 
to wading. This order includes the plover { Cliaradrlu><'^, 
common snipe {Sruhpax (/allina'ju), American woodcock 
(Philohela minor), Wilson's snipe (Gallinaf/o Wihoiiii), 
mud-hen (Fulira Atncrii'dna), kill-dee (Aer/laliirs voriferiis), 
red-breasted snipe (Gambeita mdanoleuca), tell-tale snipe 
(Gamhdta fliivipes), water-rail (Rallus aqiiaticus), aand-hill 
crane t Grus Caitad/n.ti.f), blue crane ( Gru.i Aiueriraiiun), 
yellow-legged and upland plover, white crane (Grus albug), 
and heron (Ardea cinerca). 


They are broad and flat; feathers compact and well oiled ; 
legs wide apart, femur short, and feet webbed. Under this 
order are found the common viWdgooie i Anser Ameriraini-<), 
summer or wood duck (Aix sponsa), Canada goose (Bermi- 
cala Canadeims), American swan (Cyynus Ainericanus), 
brand goose, or "brant" (An.ser Bernida), butter-ball (Bn- 
cephala albeoki), mallard (Anas Bosdia.^), blue-winged teal 
(Boschas crerca), American widgeon (Mareca Amerirana), 
red-head duck (Aylhaya Americ(tna), canvass-back duck it) 
(Aythaya vallisneria), green-winged teal (Nellion Carolinen- 
sii), pin-tail duck (Dafiln anifa), trumpeter swan ( Cyr/nim 

lNSEssor.i-:s, or rERciiiNt; birds. 

The perchers dift'er greatly among themselves; all have 
three front-toes and a single hind one; feet well adapted to 
perching. To this order belong the majoritv of birds, of 
which we note, as belonging here, the wood-thruth ( Timlus 
mudelinus), mocking-bird iMitims po/yghttu-s), blue-bird 
(Slnlis Wilsonii), cat-bird (Mimiis Carolinem^i'i, robin 
(Turdiis migralorlus), brown thrush, or "thrasher" (Turdu.-< 
rufas), titmouse, or chickadee (Pnrui alrlrapit/u«) brown 
creeper (Certhia familiaris. nuthatch iSiltn Caroliiicnii.'<), 
winter wren (Troglodytes Ityemalis), cedar bird (Aiiipjdi^ 
cedrorum), rose-breasted gosbeak (Guiraca /udnviclwia), 
chewink (Pipilo erytliroplifhalmw<), meadow-lark (Sturnd/a 
magna), blue jay (cyanura rridata), wren (Troglodytes do- 



me«<fca), warblers barn-swallow {HiruwJo hordeorum), bank- 
swallow (Cotyle riparla), blue martin {Progne purpurea), 
cardinal red bird {Cardinolls Virginianua) , field sparrow 
{Spizella pusUla), indigo bird (Cyanospiza cyanea), great 
northern shrike, or butcher bird, (Collurio borealis), yellow, 
or thistle bird (Sylvitica ccstiva), swamp, or red-winged black- 
bird {Sturntis predatorius), cow blackbird ("cow- bird") 
common blackbird {Merula miisiea), king bird, or bee martin 
{Tyrannw CarolinensU), rnven (Corviis corax^, common crow 
{Corvua Americanus), summer red-bird {Pyravga cestiva), 
scarlet tauager, Baltimore oriole {Icterus Baltimore), peewee, 
or Ph(jebe bird iSatjorius fuscus), kingfisher {Ceryle alcyon), 
ruby-throated humming-bird {TrocUlus colubris), yellow- 
billed cuckoo {C'ucu/iis caiwrus), ruby-crowned kinglet, 
golden crowned kinglet, whippoorwill, (Antrostomus vorif- 
erus), g-ass sparrow, or black-throated bunting, lark, spar- 
row, finch, snowbird (Juiwo hyemalls), chipping sparrow 
(Spizella socialis), night hawk ( Chordeiles popetue). 


Birds of this order have their toes in pairs, two in front 
and two behind. Under this order and indigenous to this 
county are the swift, or chimney-swallow {Cypseliis pe.las- 
rjius), red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalm), 
golden-winged woodpecker ( Calaptes awatus), Carolina par- 
oquet {Coiiunis Ciirolinensli), sap-sucker {Picus pubescens). 

(class) reptilia, or reptiles. 

Under this class we find represented here the order Tes- 
tndinata, or turtles, and including such individuals as the 
box-turtle (Cistudo virginea), suapping-turtle ( Chelyara 
serpeidina), wood tortoise {Glyptemy.f iiisctdpta), and soft 
shelled turtles, including niud-turtles. Of the order La- 
certia (lizards), the common striped lizard {Ameira sexli- 
neata) is the only representative we have found here. Un- 
der the order (Ophidia), or serpents, we note the common 
black-snake {Baseanion constrictor), water-snake {Serpens 
aquaticus), rattle-snake {Crotalus horridus), moccasin {Toxi- 
cajjhis atrapiscus), copperhead {Trigonocephalus eontoririx), 
garter-snake {Eutania sirtalk), house-snake, joint-snake, 
blue racer, and green snake. Of these the rattlesnake, cop- 
per-head and moccasin are very poisonous, and therefore 
most to be dreaded. The blowing, or hissing adder, a veno- 
mous serpent, is rarely seen here. 

The class Batrachia, or frogs, has as representatives, the 
leopard frog (Rana halecina), bull-frog {Raim pipiens)^ 
wood-frog, tree-frog (" tree toad,") (Rana %/'<), marsh-frog 
{Rana palmtris), common toad (Bufo vulgaris), tadpole, 
salamander (Amblystoma punctatum), tritou, or water-newt 
{Diemiciylus viridescens), and mud puppy {Menobranchus 

The class o{ Pisces, or fishe-s, is represented, in the streams 
of these counties, by the white, the black and the striped 
bass, cat fish, pike, sturgeon, gar, goggle-eyed perch, sun-fish, 
chub, white perch ("croppie"?), white and black suckers, 
buffalo and a few others of minor importance. 




I HE history of no part of the West ex- 
' ceeds in interest that of the early settle- 
ments in Randolph county. Civiliza- 
tion in the Mississippi valley here first 
found a permanent foothold. At a 
time when the feeble settlements of 
New England, fearful of the midnight 
war-whoop of the savage, clung to the 
valleys of the Connecticut and the Merriraac ; when a few 
Dutch burghers at the mouth of the Hudson represented the 
wealth and population of the state of New York, when 
Penn's colony on the banks of the Delaware was but an ex- 
periment ; at a time when no Virginian had yet threaded the 
passes of the Blue Ridge, and all beyond was an undiscov- 
ered country, unpenetrated by a single English pioneer, a 
few Jesuit priests and French traders in fur, a thousand 
miles within the interior of the continent, a trackless wilder- 
"hess stretching north, south, east and wttt, founded the old 
town of Kaskaskia. Other French settlements sprang up 
between Detroit and New Orleans ; and France, to cement 
her growing power in the New World, within twenty miles 
of Kaskaskia and still on the soil of Randolph county, began 
the construction of a fort which at ote time was considered 
the strongest on the continent. 

From this citadel Illinois was ruled. Soldiers marched 
from it to fight the English in Pennsylvania and in Canada. 
Its gates, which might have withstood long continued assaults, 
were opened peacefully by the stroke of a pen in the Old 
World, one day in the ytar 1763, and the French flag was 
lowered before the standard of Great Britain. But a few 
years passed before another invading army trod the soil of 
the county. This time a band of Virginia riflemen suddenly 
appeared at Kaskaskia, and wrested Fort Gage from the 
Briti-sh commandant. On the capture of this post was 
based the claim of the colonies to the Mississippi as their 
western boundary. After the Revolution, a flood of immi- 
grants poured in from the country east of the Alleghenies. 
Kaskaskia became the capital of the territory, and then 
of the state. The most distinguished men of the West here 
began their public career. Her merchants controlled trade 
far and near, and sold goods to the shop keepers of St. Louis. 
The town, now in a state of ruin and decay, is the oldest 
settlement in the Mississippi valley. 


The date of the founding of Kaskaskia was probably the 
year 1700. For a few years it was little more than a 
mission station. The Indian trade gradually attracted set- 
tlers from Canada and France, and the village began to 
wear the appearance of business as well as of religion. A 
grant of land for Commons was made on the fourteenth of 
August, 1743, by M. Vandrieul, governor, and M. Salmon, 
commissary ordonnateur of the province of Louisiana. 



Grants in the Common Field were made to the inhabitants 
in severalty. Among the French names which appear on 
the records as belonging to the owners of land in the village 
and Common Field of Kaskaskia in the last century, are 
those of Archambeau, Aubuchon, Allary, Autire, Bienve- 
nue, Blouin, Beauvais, Buchet, Bougie, Buquett, Buyatt, 
Brazeau, Barrutelle, Beauvet, Chaniberlaud, Charleville, 
Cottineau, Chinie, Curvois, Cerre, Danie, Doza, Delisle, 
Derousse, Duprain, Dubord, Duplace, Devigne, Dugay, 
Danis, Degagne, Faggot, Godebert, Gendron, Gomes, Gau- 
delert, Janis, Joyouse, Lamall, Leplant, Laderoute, La- 
source, Lafatigue, Lafout, Lavassieur, Lachapelle, Lachance, 
Lasond, Louval, Lachange, Langlois, Menard, Morin, Moreau, 
Mieure, Montrieul, Philip, Peltier, Page, Picard, Provost, 
Prieur, Place, Rochblave, Ravel, Racine, Richard, Seguin, 
St. Pierre, Tiirpiu, Turojurt, Torrengeau, and Valle. 

Kaskaskia is said to have become an incorporated town 
in 1725. By that time a considerable immigration had set 
in from France. Fifteen or twenty years later considerable 
attention was j)aid to agriculture and commerce, and cargoes 
of pork, flour, bacon, tallow, hides, and leather were floated 
down the Mississippi to New Orleans, and thence to France. 
On the cession of Illinois to England many of the French 
families removed to the west bank of the Mississippi, some 
to St. Louis, and some to Ste. Genevieve, thinking that 
they there could still find a home under the French govern- 
ment. In 1766, the year after this exodus, Kaskaskia is 
described as containing sixt3--five families, " besides mer- 
chants, other casual people, and slaves." The richest in- 
habitant at that time, Jean Baptiste St Gerome Beauvais, 
kept eighty slaves, and furnished " to the king's magazine" 
eighty-six thousand pounds of flour,, which was only part of 
his harvest for one year. 

The year 1722 is given as the date of the fuuiuling of 
Prairie du Rocher. The grant of Commons was made on 
the seventh of May, 1743, the same year as that of Kaskas- 
kia. The village never grew to any great size, and no event 
of importance seems to have marked its history. A mill 
was built by the Jesuits. In 1766 it was a settlement of 
twenty-two families, and the inhabitants were said to be 
very industrious, laising a great deal of corn and every kind 
of stock. Like Kaskaskia, it suffered by the removal of 
some of the Fi-enL-h families to the west of the Mi.'jsissippi 
on the British occupation of the country. 

The village of Fort Chartres had an existence correspond- 
ing with the occupation of the fort of that name by the 
French garrison. It sprang up, outside the gates, on the 
building of the fort, and when the garrison marched to St. 
Louis, and the British took possession, the French families 
abandoned their houses, and transported themselves to (as 
they supposed) the French side of the river. The church 
here was the mother of the churches at Prairie du Rocher 
and St. Phillips, the latter on their establishment being mere- 
ly chapels conne'bted with the church of St. Anne at Fort 

The French settlers were gregarious in their habits, fond 
of social intercourse and dwelling together, and averse to 
pushing their improvements to any considerable distance 

from the outskirts of their villages. The "improvement 
rights," granted under the law of 1791, show the limits 
within which tract-s of land were placed under cultivation 
On the west side of the Kaskaskia river, six or eight miles 
above the village of Ka^ikaskia, improvements were made 
and crops raised, at an early day, by .Jean Baptiste Gendron 
(claim 1007), Antoine Beauvais (claim 283), Louis Long- 
valle (claim 2007), and Antoine Buyatt (claim 2'Jo). 
Claim 999, farther up the Kaskaskia, containing three 
thousand eight hundred and eighty arpents, was granted 
to Nicholas Cailotte Lachance, and his rival sons, Nicholas, 
Baptiste, Antoine, Gabriel, Fran(;ois, Joseph, Miclwul, 
Charles, and Benjamin, on account of improvements which 
they had here made. This seems to have been the farthest 
up the Kaskaskia river that the old French settlers ven- 
tured. Where Diamond Cross now is, 'on the hills, about 
three miles east of Kaskaskia river, on Gravel run," as it is 
described, the four hundred acres contained in claim 241 
were granted to Jean Baptiste Beauvais, covering land 
which he there had in cultivation. Claim 292, a couple of 
miles from Chester on the hill road to Kaskaskia, com- 
prised the improvement right of Antoine Bienvenue. On 
Mary's river, at the mouth of Gravd creek, where claim 
291 has been surveyed, Joseph Colchout settled and made 
some attempt toward bringing a farm under cultivation. 

The statement has been made that Kaskaskia, in the year 
1763, contained two or three thousand inhabitants. If this 
b3 true, its subsequent decline must have been very rapid. 
The French settlements in Illinois doubtless reached the 
period of their greatest prosperity about 1763. The news 
of the cession of the ountry to England drove the wealthy 
and influential families across the Mississippi, and the 
French colonies on the west of the river were thenceforth 
larger and more prosper ^us than those in Illinois. In the 
year 1800 there were seven hundred French within the 
present boundaries of Randolph county. Of these the 
village of Kaskaskia had five hundred and Prairie du 
Rocher two hundred. In all the rest of Illinois there were 
about six hundred French inhabitants, of whom the greater 
number, four hundred, lived at Cahokia. There were besides 
a number of French slaves in Prairie du Rocher, the de- 
scendants of the five hundred brought from the island of San 
D.jmingo by Philip Francois Renault in 1719. 


The early French settlers were ambitious for neither 
wealth nor knowledge They were content to take the world 
as it came, and endeavored to extract all the enjoyment 
possible out of life, and to avoid its cares. All were devout 
Catholics and punctual in the discharge of their religious 
duties. They were eminently a social people. Instead of 
settling on separate farms, like the American pioneers, they 
clustered together in villages, so that they might have the 
greatest opportunity for social intercourse. Their physical 
wants were easily supi)lied, and the great part of their lives 
they gave to pleasure. The young people delighted in the 
dance, and this cheerful and innocent diversion was actually 
carried on under the eye of the priest and the aged 



patriarchs of the village, who freely sympathized with the 
spirit of the gay assemblage. The excitement and anima- 
tion of a French ball room were surprising. Old and 
young, rich and poor, met together in good feeling and with 
hearts overflowing with merriment. It was the usual cus- 
tom to dance the old year out and the new year in. The 
numerous festivals of the Catholic church strongly tended 
to awaken and develop the social and friendly intercourse 
of the people. On the morning of the Sabbath they were 
always found at church, but the rest of the day was devoted 
to social intercourse and diverting pastimes. Husbands and 
wives were kind and affectionate, and the children obedient. 
Hospitaliiy and generosity were common virtues. 

Their costume was peculiar. Blue was their favorite 
color, and handkerchiefs of that hue usually adorned the 
heads of both men and women. No genuine Frenchman in 
early times ever wore a hat, cap, or coat. The capot, made 
of white blanket, was the universal dress for the laboring 
class of people. In summer the men wore a coarse blue 
stuff, and in the winter, cloth or buckskin. The women 
wore deer-skin moccasins, and the men a coarser and 
stronger article, made of thicker leather. With that natural 
aptitude for dress, which seems to belong peculiarly to their 
nation, the women caught up the fa.?hions of New Orleans 
and Paris with great avidity, and adopted them, as far as 
they were able. Notwithstanding their long separation by 
an immense wilderness from civilized society, they still re- 
tained all the suavity and politeness of their race. It is 
said that the roughest hunter, or boatman, among them 
could at any time appear in a ball-room, or other polite, or 
gay assembly, with the courage and behaviour of a well-bred 
gentleman. The women were remarkable for the spright- 
liness of their conversation, and the ease and elegance of 
their manners. 

They seldom violated the penal law. Reynolds remarks 
that very few, or none, of the Creoles were ever indicted for 
the crimes the law books style malum in se, and that the 
records of the courts in Illinois do not exhibit an indictment 
against a Creole Frenchman for any crime higher than keep- 
ing his grocery open on a prohibited day of the week. Edu- 
cation, however, was neglected. The priests and old ladies 
taught the children, but there was no regular system of 
schools. While not superstitious, the ancient French in 
Illinois believed that some of the negroes of the West India 
islands possessed supernatural power to do any one harm, 
and that they could also look into futurity. In Cahokia, 
about the year 1790, this superstition got the upper hand of 
reason, and several poor African slaves suffered for this 
offence. One, called Moreau, was hung on a tree not far 
from the village, and another, named Emanuel, was shot. 

They were on friendly terms with the Indians. The ease 
with which the French could adapt themselves to circum- 
stances, made them at home by the camp fires of the savage. 
When with the Indians they adopted their modes of life, 
dressed like them, and frequently took as wives the dusky 
squaws. In the wars between hostile tribes the French suf- 
fered as did their Indian allies. In the parish register of 
Kaskaskia are recorded solema services for the dead — " Slain 

upon the Mississippi by the Chickasaws ; " "Killed by the 
savages on the Wabash ; " and for others who fell victims 
to Indian atrocities within a few miles of the village. 

The horses and cattle of the French, for want of proper 
care and food fur many generations, had degenerated in size, 
but had acquired additional vigor and toughness, so that a 
French pony was a proverb for endurance. These ponies 
were sometimes attached to the cart or plow singly, and 
sometimes two were hitched together, one before the other. 
The carts were made entirely of wood, and held about double 
the contents of a common large wheelbarrow. Oxen were 
yoked by the horns instead of the neck, anil in this way were 
made to draw the plow and cart. No reins were used in 
driving. The driver's whip, which had a handle about two 
feet long, and a lash two yards in length, controlled the horse 


The favorable report of the Illinois country, carried back 
by the soldiers of Col. Clark, occasioned the first American 
immigration in 1780. Descending the Ohio, and stemming 
the ctlrrent of the Mississippi, a colony of pioneer settlers 
reached Kaskaskia, among the members of which were John 
Montgomery, John Doyle, David Pagon, Joseph Anderson, 
John Dodge, Minard Asturgus, James Curry, and Levi Teel. 
The most of these had been soldiers under Black Shortly 
after their arrival, they made settlements east of the Kas- 
kaskia river. 

John Blontgomery improved a tract of land four or five 
miles northeast of Kaskaskia. The old Vincennes road 
afterward ran past his place. Montgomery built a small 
water-mill here, which was in use for some years. The 
place in which he settled is included in claim 1993, contain- 
ing four hundred acres, granted to him on account of his 
improvement. This place was one of the best known in the 
early history of the county, and after Montgomery, Stacy 
McDonough resided here for lialf a century. 

John Doyle was one of Clark's soldiers. He resided in 
and near Kaskaskia. He was a man of some education, 
and taught one of the earliest English. schools in the country. 
He was acquainted with both the French and English lan- 
guages, and was often employed as an interpreter. He was 
unambitious, made no endeavor to obtain either wealth or 
position, but was respected as an honest man. 

David Pagon, had served in Clark's expedition to Illinois, 
as had also James Curry and Levi Teel. Claim 2008, on 
Nine Mile creek, two miles north of Ellis Grove and five 
miles from Kaskaskia, includes the place on which Pagon 
settled. Teel improved a farm east of the Kaskaskia river, 
a little more than a mile above the mouth of Nine Mile 
creek. Pagon built a house in a strong and substantial manner 
so as to withstand an Indian attack. While the house was 
yet unoccupied, Teel and Curry, having been hunting in the 
neighborhood, took possession of it to spend the night there. 
The door had three bars across it, and a hole cut in at the 
bottom for the cat to go in and out. Toward evening the 
house was besieged by sixteen Piankashaw Indians Curry 
first discovered their presence, and told Teel to get ready 
his gun for defence. Teel was inclined to open the door and 



surrender, but Curry would not listen to this proposal. As 
Teel stood bj' the door, with his foot near the cat hole, an 
Indian from the outside thrust a spear through his fo >t, and 
fastened him to the floor. He instinctively seized the spear 
to pull it out, when the Indians pierced his hand with other 
spears, thus nailing him to the floor, and reuderiiig him use- 
less. Curry was a man of extraordinary bravery, and cool 
and prepared in any emergency. Fearful that Teel would 
open the door and let in the enem}-, he sprang up into the 
loft, and through a small hole in the roof thrust out his gun 
and fired at the Indians. Three shots, fired in rapid succes- 
sion, killed as many warriors. Descending to the lower 
floor he found Teel transfixed by his hands and feet in the 
manner described. Going back again to the loft, he tum- 
bled the whole roof, weight poles and all, down on the In- 
dians, who had huddled clo^e to the side of the house to 
avoid his shots. The roofs in those days were put en with- 
out nails, but had weight poles to hold them fast. Sometimes 
large round timbers were laid on the tups of the houses on 
purpose to roll off' on assailants below. The roof falling, 
killed the chief, and disabled some others of the Indians, 
and as day was breaking, the rest of the band ran off, leav- 
ing Curry the victor He took both guns, and walked along 
by the side of Teel, who was almost exhausted by loss of 
blood, toward Kaskaskia. Teel gave out before reaching 
the village, when Curry hastened on for help, and at last 
succeeded in getting him to the town where he recovered 
from his wounds. 

Curry was a large, strong and active man, fearless of 
danger, at the same time bold and discreet, and while serv- 
ing under Clark was cliosen among the first to accomplish 
any especially desperate and hazardous service. While out 
hunting with Joseph Anderson, it is supposed that he was 
killed by the Indians. He left their camp one morning, 
and did not return, nor was ever heard of afterward Jo- 
seph Anderson settled on Nine Mile creek, and lived tbere 
till his death. His improvement right of four hundred 
acres, (claim 308) lies on both sides of the creek, just above 
Little Nine Mile, and connects with that of 

John Dodge and Jlinard Asturgus improved land on the 
hills opposite Kaskaskia The donations of land which 
they received, four hundred acres each, claims 996 and 
1001, extend within a mile of the village, and within half a 
mile of Fort Gage. Djdge had been one of Clark's soldiers. 

Settlements were also made in the year 1780 by John 
Hilterbrand, Henry and Elijah Smith, David Hix, and 
Haydon Wells, on the east side of the Ka.skaskia river, above 
the mouth of Nine Mile creek. Some of these had served 
with Clark. Elijah Smith settled on the Kaskaskia, where 
Cox's ferry now is Claim 1044, c ivering the customary 
four hundred acres of land, was given to his heirs in right 
of his having made this improvement This is the farthest 
grant of land that was up the Kaskaskia, and for a 
long while Smith's little farm was the limit of the settlement. 
Hix's improvement was on claim 1992, immediately south 
of Smith. Thomas Hughs came from the western part of 
Pennsylvania in the year 1783. During that year he built 
a cabin, and placed some land under cultivation, on Nine 

Mile creek. Claim 319, comprising four hundred acres of 

land, granted to his heirs, covers this improvement. The 
next year he went back to Pennsylvania for his family. 
Coming down the Ohio river near Fort M issacre, the boat 
was attacked by the Indians, and Hughs and an iufant child 
in the arms of its mother were killed. The child was shot 
through the head, and its brains were spattered over the 
mother's breast. The mother was wounded severely in the 
shoulder. Some friends were accompanying the family to 
Illinois, and of these two were killed. The rest of the party 
escaped and returned without attempting to continue their 

Indian hostilities broke up the settlements east of Kaskas- 
kia, and interfered with the immigration to Illinois. The 
American pioneers found refuge in Kaskaskia. Israel 
Dodge, Ichabod and George Camp, John C )ok, Jacob Judy, 
William Musick, James Piggott, and Robert Seybold had 
all become residents of the village before 1783. Israel Dodge 
was the father of Henry Dodge, afterward United States 
Senator from Wisconsin. In 1790 ho removed across the 
river to Upper Louisiana. James Piggott settled at Pig- 
gott's fort in the present county of Monroe. He had served 
in the war under Clark, as had also Seybold. Jacob Judy 
built Judy's mill in Monroe county. 

The Indiau troubles lasted till about the year 179.5. Ic 
1796 and 1797 several families re- established themselves 
east of Kaskaskia river, and remained there permanently . 
Ichabod and George Camp made improvements west of the 
Kaskaskia river, and Camp creek bears their name. They 
afterward removed to St. Louis, and lived at Camp Spring, 
then west of the city, now include! within its limits. Mrs. 
Hughs, whose husband, Thomas Hughs, was killed by the 
Indians on the Ohio, as has been narrated, afterward 
married James Pillars. In the year 1795 the family, con- 
sisting of Mr. and Mrs. Pillars, two sons, John and Richard 
Pillars, and James Hughs, the surviving son of Thomas 
Hughs, came to Illinois. They settled on the farm east of 
the Kaskaskia, long known as the "old Hughs place." Pil- 
lars lived here several years, and was a quiet and industrious 
citizen. James Hughs returned to Kentucky, there married , 
and came again to Illinois in the year 1800. He was a man 
of great energy and sound judgment. He was in the United 
States ranging service during the war of 1812-14. John 
Reynolds, then a boy. afterward Governor of the State, re- 
sided in the same neighborhood from 1800 to 1807. He 
says: "Before any common school was established in the 
neighborhood where my father resided, I mounted a horse 
nearly every evening during a winter, and rode about a mile 
and a half to the residence of James Hughs, to study under 
his guidance the arithmetic. Mr. Hughs, although he was 
raised in the backwoods, and was filled with fun and frolic, 
was a man of strong mind and benevolent heart. He took 
great pleasure in teaching me the arithmetic, and during 
this winter I studied the most important principles contained 
in the treatise." 

Stace McDonough, in the year 1797, settled on the old 
place which John Montgomery first improved, in claim 
1993, a couple of miles northeast of Ellis's Grove. He had 



experienced many adventures in his campaigns against the 
Indians, and became a leader in the frontier community. 
He was born, of Scotch ancestry, in New Jersey, in the year 
1770. His parents dying when he was an infant, he was 
bound out, but he and his master not getting along well 
together, he ran away, and coming West, found his way to 
Kentucky. He took part with the Kentucky troops in their 
expeditions against the Indians north of the Ohio, and in 
Col. Clark's campaign in the year 1786, though then only 
sixteen years of age, distinguished himself by his brilliant 
services He was strong, athletic, and courageous, and a 
faithful and ardent soldier. He was an excellent marksman, 
and frequently acted as a spy. He entered into the service 
of the United States government in 1790, and in Gen. Har- 
mer's campaign of that year was given the command of a 
train of pack horses. The next year he served under Gen- 
eral St. Clair, and was placed in charge of the convoys of 
provisions for the army. He was in the disastrous defeat of 
St. Clair on the fourth of November, 1791, escaping on foot 
from the field of battle, and saving the life of an officer whom 
he found wounded and exhausted on the ground, and whom 
he assisted into camp. He commanded one of the govern- 
ment boats on the Ohio in 1793. He was an excellent pilot, 
and thoroughly understood the navigation of the river. 
Near the mouth of the Kentucky river, an Indian standing 
on the shore shot him in the shoulder. A white man with 
the Indians, called out in English, "to throw that man over- 
board, he will die in a short time." He never recovered 
fully from the wound, but was well enough to take part in 
Wayne's campaign against the Indians a year or two later. 
He left the service at the close of the war in 179.5, and 
married in Louisville, Kentucky. After coming to Illinois 
he improved a fine farm. He was extremely fond of the 
rifle, and spent a good deal of his time in hunting. In the 
war of 1812-14 he was captain of a ranging company, and 
did good service in protecting the frontiers from Indian 
depredations. ' He was also, during this war, contractor for 
carrying the mails from St. Louis to Shawneetown. This 
mail route was then very important, on account of its being 
the only one by which correspondence was kept up between 
Illinois and Washington. The country between the Kaskas- 
kia and the Ohio rivers was a wilderness, and the Indians 
hostile, but he carried the mails with punctuality. Like 
many of the early pioneers he had strong natural abilities, 
but no education. He was honorable and upright in his re- 
lations with his neighbors. He died on the farm on which 
he settled on coming to the county, after having lived on it 
nearly fifty years. 

Toward the close of the Indian wars the fettleraents in 
Illinois began to extend. The New Design settlement, in 
the present county of Monroe, was at that period by far the 
largest American colony in Illinois, and soon after 1795, it 
began to extend southward into Randolph county. In the 
year last mentioned the town of Washington was laid off on 
the west bank of the Kaskaskia river, not far south of the 
northern boundary of the county. Its site was the high 
bluff of the river, overlooking to the west the Horse prairie. 
Johnson J. Whiteside was one of its projectors. The 

Whitesides had emigrated from Kentucky to the New 
Design settlement in 1793. Washington came to be known 
as Horse Prairie town. Its inhabitants cultivated large 
fields of grain, and raised stock. Among the residents, 
of this place were William Going and his son, who 
bore the same name. They had come from Kentucky 
in 1794, and erected a station a short distance south- 
west of the present town of Waterloo. Both were 
blacksmiths. The old gentleman was a quiet and orderly 
citizen, except when excited with taffia. At courts and other 
gatherings he had bells to sell, and often put a cord through 
the staples of a dozen bells of all sizes and then tied them 
around his waist. His head was adorned with a fox-skin 
cap, the tail suspended behind, and his other dress was of the 
same backwoods character. Thus equipped, he danced in the 
crowd, making of course, a terrific noise. He was not a 
large man, but strong and active. He compelled Judge 
Simms, one of the United States judges for the North- 
western territory, while he was holding court at Cahokia, to 
undergo this bell-dance at which his honor grew very im- 
patient. He was noted for performing other wild freaks. 
He died at the Horse Prairie town, and was buried in the 
old graveyard north of the town. 

William Going, the son, was a man of different qualities- 
He had received but a limited education and could hardly 
read and write, but possessed strong natural abilities which, 
had he made use of them, might have fitted him for almost 
any position. He was brave and courageous, and impressed 
his associates as a man of decision and firmness. His im- 
pulses were naturally on the side of honesty and integrity, 
but bad associations, and evil habits, gradually grew on him, 
and often the public was forced to think strange of his con- 
duct. At horse races, shooting matches, and at the card 
table, bis was the governing spirit. Besides being a black- 
smith, he was a good gunsmith. He had no taste for steady 
and hard labor. He worked in his shop when it pleased 
him, and with the object of only earning enough to support 
himself and family. For wealth he cared nothing. He had 
steady nerves and excellent eyesight, and none excelled him 
in repairing, or shooting, a gun. Reynolds relates that he 
at one time, at ninety yards, with a rest, put four rifie balls 
into the same hole, near the centre of the target. The fifth 
ball also touched the hole. From the Horse Prairie town 
he moved to a place on the Kaskaskia river, in St. Clair 
county, below the present town of Fayette, and from there 
to Arkansas, where he died in 1830. 

John Pulliam, from 1799 to 1802, was a resident of the 
Horse Prairie town. He was born in Botetourt county, 
Virginia ; after the Revolutionary war he removed to Ken- 
tucky, and in 1796 came to the New Design settlement. 
In 1797 he removed to the neighborhood of Florissant, west 
of St. Louis, and returned to Illinois two years later to settle 
in Horse Prairie town, near which he cultivated a farm. In 
1802 he began improving a farm on Prairie du Long creek, 
near the mouth of Richland creek, in what is now Monroe 
county. He died on the Kaskaskia river, near the present 
town of Fayette, in 1813. He was a man of sound mind, 
and considerable energy and activity. From him sprang 



oue of the most numerous piimeer faniiliea in Illinois. 
Johu Grosvenor, a stuue masou and farmer, and a native of 
Connecticut, lived iu the Hjr^e Prairie town for some 
years after 1793. He had a large farm adjoining the town 
which he cultivated with more industry than wa^ usually 
displayed in those days, raising considerable amouuts of 
produce As the country in the Horse Prairie improved, the 
village declined, and soon became extinct. 

Among the pioneer settlers on I£orse creek was Henry 
Levens. He emigrated from the western part of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a large, stout mau, a stranger to fear, and 
well calculated to brave the dangers and difficultiesof a new 
settlement. He was without much education, but possessed 
decisive and energetic qualities of mind which made him a 
conspicuous personage among the early pioneers. He came 
to Illinois iu 1797. Coming down the Ohio river, he landed 
at Fort Massacre with two wagons and teams, one of which 
was an ox team. In one of the wagons he placed a large 
skiff to be used as a wagon body on land and a ferry boat 
in crossing the large creeks encount-red on the journey. 
The party was twenty five days in coming from the Ohio to 
Kaskaskia. He settled on Horse creek, about two miles 
above its mouth, and three miles north of the present town 
of Evansville. He here obtained a donation of four hun- 
dred acres of land (claim 2607) by reason of his improve- 
ment. In the year 1800 he built a saw and grist mill 
on Horse creek, near his residence, which he carried on with 
much energy and industry, and with great advantage to the 
other settlers. At the time this was built it was the only 
saw mill in the country. The lumber for nearly all the flat 
boats built in early times in Illinois, was .sawed at this mill. 
Levens was a man of great hospitality, and his house was 
the usual place at which dancing and convivial parties as- 
sembled. He raised a large family, and both his sons and 
daughters were inclined to gayety and sociability, and 
indulged freely in the pleasures of the ball-room, and other 
amusements of a similar character. The most of his sons^ 
and some of the daughters, played on the violin. The 
family was the centre of attraction, and many happy days, 
and particularly nights, of innocent amusement and recrea- 
tion were enjoyed in pioneer times at Levens' hospitable 
dwelling on Horse creek. The sons were active, resolute 
men, excellent hunte^s and marksmen, and frequently 
carried off the prizes at the shooting matches which formed 
a common amusement for the neighborhood. They also 
delighted in foot racing, wrestling, and jumping, and an 
early chronicler remarks that they " were not bashful in a 
fight, in which they indulged at times to the great discom- 
fiture of their adversaries." The gun, race-horse, and violin 
were articles of greatest admiration in the family. Although 
fond of amusement, the Levens' family became more wealthy 
than the most of their neighbors. Their stock was raised, 
winter and summer, without much labor, and the mill and 
farm yielded considerable income. The peltries, resulting 
from the hunting expeditious of the sons, added something. 
At one time the family consisted of four, or five grown 
unmarried sons and two daughters. The progress of the 
settlements at last crowded the old man too much, and in 

1818 he sold out his possessions on Horse creek, and moved 

to the frontiers of Missouri where he died at an advanced 

The Horse prairie, lying between the K;nkaskia river 
and Horse creek, obtained its name, as did also the creek, 
from the fact that herds of wild horses were f lund in the 
prairie, aud along the creek, iu early times. These horses 
had escaped from the French villages. In the upper end of 
the prairie, at the close of the list century, a settlement, 
composed of Samuel aud Winder Kinney, Chance Ratcliff, 
Robert McMalian, Jarrot Brickey, the Gibbons, Teter, and 
some other families, was formed in the upper end of the 
prairie. In a few years the most of the families moved 
away. McMahan was born in Virginia, removed to Ken- 
tucky, and in 1793 came to the New Design settlement. In 
1795, in the present Monroe county, three miles northeast 
of New Design station, his wife and four children were 
killed by the Indians. Oa coming to the Horse prairie, he 
settled on Ralls' ridge where now runs the road from Red 
Bud to the Kaskaskia. He was justice of the peace, and 
oue of the judges of the old court of common pleas. He 
removed to St. Clair county near Lsbanon, and then to the 
neighborhood of Troy, in Madison county, where he died in 
the year 1822. Jarrot Brickey was a native of Virginia^ 
and came to Illinois from Kentucky. He lived in the Horse 
prairie for nearly half a century. He was iu the ranging 
service during ths war of 1612-14, as was also his son, 
Preston B. Brickey, whose farm was half a mile north of 
the present town of Red Bud. 

Kaskaskia by this time had become the residence of seve- 
ral Americans. John E Igar, who came to the village iu 
1784, had assumed a prominent position iu the community. 
William Morrison reached the place in 1790, and began an 
extensive mercantile business. The earliest practicing law- 
yer in Illinois, John Rice Jones, had settled in the town the 
last named year, and in 1798 Dr. George Fisher began the 
practice of medicine. 


According to the estimate of Reynolds, the American 
population in Illinois in the year 1800 amounted to eight 
hundred souls. The New Design and American Bottom 
settlements, in the present county of Monroe, contained six 
hundred inhabitants, and there were other scattering settle- 
ments in that county. Only about one hundred Americans 
lived in Randolph county. Of these, six or eight families 
lived in Kaskaskia. The settlement east of the Kaskaskia 
River contained seven families, and the Horse Prairie colony 
was still less in number. 


On the openingof the present century the arrivals became 
more numerous, and the number of American inhabitants of 
the county rapidly increased. The immigrants were mostly 
from the western and southern states, and the Ohio river was 
the main channel by which the pioneers reached the country. 
Fort Massacre was a usual point for leaving the Ohio and 
beginning the journey overland. In very early times the 
I French had opened a road from Fort Massacre to Kaskai>- 



kia, marking the miles on the trees. The figures were cut 
in with an iron instrument and painted red. This road 
made a great curve to the north to avoid the swamps and 
rough country on the sources -of Cache river, and to 
take advantage of the prairie as much as possible. A road 
also ran from Fort Massacre to Cape Girardeau, then in the 
Spanish country. There were two celebrated crossing places 
on the Ohio, Lusk's Ferry and Miles' Ferry. The former 
was opposite the present town of Golconda, and the latter 
six or seven miles farther up the river. From Lusk's and 
Miles' ferries a road had been established to Kaskatkia. 
This road was first opened by Nathaniel Hull, one of the 
pioneers of Monroe county. Roads were afterwards cut 
leading from Shawneetown to Vincennes and Kaskaskia. 

The scanty American population of the county received a 
notable addition in 1800 in the family of Robert Reynolds. 
His son, John Reynolds, then a boy of twelve, afterward 
became governor of the state. Robert Reynolds was born 
in Ireland, and emigrated to the United States in 1785. In 
Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, John Reynolds was 
born in 1788. The family in the fall of that year removed 
to East Tennessee. In February, 1800, with eight horses 
and two wagons, the family left Tennes-ee for the Spanish 
country west of the Mississippi. Upper Louisiana, now 
Missouri, was then popularly known as the Spanish country. 
The Spanish authorities encouraged by liberal land grants 
the immigration of Americans. Several members of the 
Murphy family had gone from the Reynolds neighborhood 
in East Tennessee, and had settled on the St. Francois river, 
southwest of St. Geuevievs, and Robert Reynolds had de- 
cided to settle there. The Ohio was crossed at Lusk's ferry, 
and they first set foot on Illinois soil where now stands the 
town of Golconda, in Pope county. The west side of the 
Ohio was then called the Inilian country. Governor Rey- 
nolds relates that he asked Mr. Lusk how far it was to the 
ne.\t town, and that the proprietor of the ferry laughed and 
said, "One hundred and ten miles to Kaskaskia, the first 
settlement on the route." Big Muddy river was found to 
be full and swimming, and after wailing on the banks two 
weeks for the stream to fall, a raft was constructed, with 
two days' labor, and the family and their efi'ects were ferried 
over. Four creeks were rafted between the Ohio and Kas- 
kaskia, and the journey required four weeks. Governor 
Reynolds has recorded his impressions as he reached the 
bluff's east of Kaskaskia, and surveyed the prospect. It was 
spring, and the landscape was clothed in beauty. The 
prairie between the Kaskaskia and Mississippi rivers was 
covered with grazing horses and cattle. The Mississippi 
itself could be seen through the forest of cottonwood trees 
skirting its shores, and the ancient village of Kaskaskia 
presented its singular and antique construction to his sight 
The ancient cathedral stood a venerable edifice in the heart 
of the village, with its lofty steeple and large bell — the first 
church bell he had ever seen. Around the village were 
numerous camps and lodges of the Kaskaskia Indians, 
who still retained much of their original savage inde- 

Many of the young warriors decorated themselves with 

paints, and tied feathers in their hair, and sometimes at- 
tached to their heads the horns of animals. 

After securing some provisions, and provender for the 
horses from General Edgar's mill, near which they had en- 
camped, preparations were made to cross the Mississippi, 
when R )bert Morrison, John Rice Jones, Pierre Menard 
and John Edgar came up, and proposed that, instead of 
going to the Spanish country, the Jleynolds family should 
remain for a time at Kaskaskia, and look around for a per- 
manent residence in the vicinity. After spending some time 
in the exploration of the eastern side of the Mississippi, 
Robert Reynolds re-affirmed his decision to settle west of the 
river, and applied to the Spanish commandant at St. Gene- 
vieve for a permit, but found that a pledge was required 
that he should raise his children in the faith of the Roman 
Catholic church. To this he refused to agree, and he re- 
mained in Illinois. The family lived in Kaskaskia some 
months, raised a crop of corn in the common field, and then 
settled east of Kaskaskia. Governor Reynolds says: "Our 
residence was within about two miles and a half of Kaskas- 
kia, and we made mathematically the seventh family of the 
colony. We made our habitation east of the Kaskaskia 
river, in the forest amongst the high grass, and the wolves 
and wild animals were howling and prowling about us all 
night. About the year 1805, a small school was formed in 
the settlement where my father resided I was a scholar at this 
humble institution during part of the winters and the wet 
days we could not work on the farm, for one or two years, 
while we remained in the settlement. There were some books 
scattered about the country, but they were not plenty. Al- 
though my father was a reading man, and possessed a s-trong 
mind, yet, as far as I recollect, he brought to the country 
with him no books i xcept the Bible. John Fulton, who 
.settled in the vicinity, brought with him Rollin's Ancient 
History. My father borrowed it, and I read it day and 
night at the times I spared from labor." In 1803, Robert 
Reynolds, with Pierre Menard and Robert Morrison, repre- 
sented Randolph county in the Legislature of the Indiana 
territory. In 1807, he moved to the Goshen settlement, four 
miles southwest of Edwardsville. 

In 1801 John Braird and family settled four miles north- 
east of Kaskaskia He was born in Virginia and raised in 
the country adjoining the New river. He emigrated from 
Virginia to Tennessee in the year 1787, and there married a 
relative of Robert Reynolds. He is described as a brave, 
energetic, decisive man, and while living in Knox county, 
Tennessee, was always elected captain of the companies 
raised to pursue the Indians when any depredation was com- 
mitted, which was not unfrequent. In April, 1793, he led 
one hundred and twenty five men from Knoxville to Nash- 
ville, and killed a few Creek Indians. The next mouth, in 
command of fifty men, he pursued a band of Indians who 
had killed two citizens near Clinch river. In defiance of 
the orders of the United States government he crossed the 
Tennessee into the Cherokee country, and there killed several 
of the savages The government ordered him to be tried by 
court martial, but the people of Tennessee sustained him in 
his course. On the formation of the state government of 



Tennessee he was elected to the legislature from Knox 
county. He died in Illinois in 1>*09. One of his sons, 
Joseph A. Beaird, became a prominent citizen of Monroe 
county, which he represented in the state senate for several 
terms. Another, William A Beaird, was sheriff of St. Clair 
county from 1818 to 1830. 

Among the additions to the settlement cast of Kaska-skia 
in 1801 WHS Jo^pph Heard, who first settled on Garrison 
hill, and theu improved a farm on Gravel creek, two miles 
and a half north of Chester, in later years the property '>f 
Joseph B. Holmes. His son, Hugh Heard, settled two 
miles north of his fatiier, in the neighborhood of Diamond 
Cross, and the farm on which he lived was long known as 
the " Old Heard farm." After living on this farm many 
years Hugh Heard removed to Wisconsin. James Heard, a 
brother to Hugh, located still farther north, and made a 
farm on which he lived to old age. Joseph, William and 
James, were sons of the latter. With Joseph Heard came 
George Franklin who improved a farm in section twenty- 
two, of township six, range seven, and afterward removed to 
the neighborhood of the present town of Pinckneyville in 
Perry county. 

In the year 180i the arrivals became more frequent and 
the settlements began to expand over wider territory. John 
Fulton, the same who as Governor Reynolds relates, brought 
with him to Illinois RoUin's Ancient History, came from 
Tennessee, and settled east of Kaskaskia, in the vicinity of 
Robert Reynolds. He made a valuable addition to the com- 
munity, and was active and foremost in promoting the pub 
lie welfare. His sons, Thomas, David and Cyrus, lived 
afterward in the same neighborhood. The two former died 
these, and the last removed to Marion county- William 
Roberts came from Lexington, Kentucky, also in 18'i2, and 
settled east of the Kaskaskia river, in the neighborhood of 
Ellis Grove, where he improved a farm. He was a man of 
enterprise and shrewdness, and traded down the river, be- 
coming well known al'>ng the banks of the Mississippi between 
Kaskaskia and New Orleans. He died in 1822. His son, 
Thomas Roberts, was nearly of age at the time of the settle- 
ment of the family in the county. He settled on a farm 
near his father. For many years he acted as justice of the 
peace. He was a member of the c<mnty commissioners' 
court from 1828 to, 1834. His death occurred in 1858. 
One of his nine sons, Daniel Preston Roberts, was the last 
register of the land office at Kaskaskia, receiving his appoint 
ment in ls53, and coutinuing in the office till its removal to 
Springfield. John and Ephraim Bilderback came in 1802 
Ephraim settled eaH of the Kaskaskia. He was a man of 
great industry, aud paid close attention to his farm. His 
sons were William, Stuart, James, Charles, Franklin, Henry, 
Ephraim, Thomas and John. William removed to the ex- 
treme southern part of the county, where he entered laud as 
early as 1814. Charles also settled in that part of the 
county. John Bilderback, the brother of Ephraim, was in 
the ranging service during the war of 1812-14. He died 
without children. 

Robert Tindall, of the Chester district. South Carolina, in 
1802 began improving a farm five miles northeast of Chester 

in section ihirty-two, of township six, range six. This was 
the first settlement in that vicinity. He undertook the erec- 
tion of a water mill on a small stream flowing through his 
farm, but before its completion it was washed away by the 
floods. He then built a horse mill near his residence which 
was in operation for some years and proved a great advan- 
tage to the neighborhood. On M.iry's river, about fiur 
miles above its mouth, Binjainin Crane, with a family of 
seven sons, whose names were Benjamin, Squire, William, 
.lames, Joel, Lswis, and John, settled probably in 1802, 
though by some the date is placed earlier- The Cranes were 
men of decided character, and were the leading citizens in 
the country adjacent to the mouth of Mary's river. On the 
west side of the Kaskaskia river, near the mouth of Camp 
creek, Paul Harelston made a settlement in 1802. He was 
a man of considerable influence and prominence in early 

The vigorous and influential Irish settlement, east of the 
Kaskaskia, in the neighborhood of Plum creek, from which 
have sprung many of the leading citizens of the county, was 
founded in 18 J2. These colonists were of Irish blood, 
Presbyterians in religious faith, and came to Illinois chiefly 
from the Abbeville district in South Carolina. They were 
known in Randolph county as " South Carolina Irish." 
They had the same energetic traits which have marked the 
Scotch-Irish stock in all parts of the United States, and left 
a lasting impression on the county. James Patterson was 
the pioneer of this settlement. He was born in South Caro- 
lina. His father had come to America from Ireland, and 
had taken part as a soldier in the war of the Revolution. 
He arrived in the year 1802, and settled on the site of the 
present town of Preston. He was a man of great energy and 
activity, and always maintained a high standing iu the com- 
munity. He filled the office of justice of the peace for several 
years, and in 1819 was chosen a member of the county com- 
rai.ssioner's court. He was a ranger in the war of 1812-14. 
About the year 1819 he moved to the neighborhood cf 
Sparta, and there died in 1829. His four sons, John, Samuel, 
Reuben, and .James Harvey, became well-known citizens of 
the county. Robert Huggins came from South Carolina iu 
1803, and lived for some years in the Irish settlement, and 
then removed to the Opossumdeu prairie. His sou, James 
Huggins, settled in Flat prairie, about the year 1817, and 
improved the first farm in that prairie. The descendants of 
Huggins lived afterwanl in Perry county. 

In June, 1803, Abijah Leavitt, came to Fort Gage as a 
sergeant in Col. Pike's division of the regular army sent 
to garrison the fort. He was from Bangor, Maine He 
obtained a discharge from the array, and settled a mile back 
from Garrison hill, on section twenty-nine, of township six, 
range seven, where he improved a farm, on which he lived 
for manv years. In early life he had been a sailor. He 
was a quiet, industrious citizen, and was held in esteem by 
his neighbors. Edward, John, George, and Abijah Leavitt 
were his sons. Edward, the oldest, was born on the Ohio 
river, on the way to Illinois. Two of the sons are yet living, 
and Abijah lives on the old farm on which his father settled. 
Numerous and valuable additions were made to the Irish 



settlement iu the year 1804. John McClinton, David 
Anderson, James Anderson, and Adam Hill, with their 
families, numbering in all thirty-one person-i, reached the 
settlement on Christmas day of that year. This was the 
largest single colony which up to that time had settled in 
the county, and gave a great impetus to the growth of the 
Irish settlement. A few weeks after their arrival McClin- 
ton's wife died, and he himself died within a year afterward. 
His three sons, John, William, and Samuel McClinton, were 
placed under the guardianship of the Hills and Andersons, 
Ddvid Anderson, or as he subsequently came to be called, 
Colonel Anderson, was a man of much popularity. He was 
strong and athletic, benevolent and kind in his disposition, 
and a warm friend of religious institutions. He was elected 
colonel of the militia. For several years, under the territo- 
rial government, he was one of the judges of the court of 
couraon pleas, and afterwards in 1819 and 1820 one of the 
members of the county commissioner's court. His sons all 
died in early life. His oldest daughter became the wife of 
Robert G. Shannon. James Anderson died a few years after 
coming ti Illinois. He left five sons James, John, William, 
Th >mas and David. The Andersons settled in section five, 
of township live south, range seven. They came from the 
Abbeville district, South Carolina, where their ancestors had 
settled previous to the war of the Revolution. Adam Hill 
settled northeast of Evansville. John, William, Adam, 
Robert and Samuel Hill were his sons. 

At the close of the year 1804 another important colony 
r ached the Irish settlement, among which were Absalom 
Cox, Archibald Thompson, James Thompson, Robert Mc- 
Donald, and William McBride. This colony also came from 
the Abbeville district in Sjuth Carolina. Absalom Cox 
settled on the Kaskaskia on the old claim granted to Elijah 
Smith for his improvement there made. He established 
Cox's ferry across the river at that point within a few years 
after his arrival. When he located here it was the highest 
settlement of the Kaskaskia He was elected captain of a 
militia company, and was in the ranging service during the 
war of 1812-14. He died on his farm in the year 1844. 
John, William, Thomas, and Absalom "were his sons. Archi- 
bald Thompson was a man of excellent character. In 1812 
he moved to a farm two miles south of the present town of 
Evansville where he died at an advanced age in 18.33 He 
was one of the judges of the common pleas c >urt which ex- 
isted in territorial days. Robert, William, Moses, Archi- 
bald, John and James Thompson were his sons. He was 
elected a member of the State legislature in 1834, and died 
while filling that position. James Thompson settled on a 
farm on coming to Illinois in 1804. He served as a ranger 
during the Indian troubles. Robert and Archibald were his 
sons. William McBride proved a valuable member of the 
community. He was born in the north of Ireland, and was 
advanced in years when he came from South Carolina to 
Illinois. He died in 1818. He had three sons, Thomas, 
John and William. William, the youngest, was captain of 
a militia company in 1813, and county commissioner in 1844. 
He was the father of John T. McBride. Robert McDonald 
settled near the Kaskaskia, a short distance below Cox, and 

there died. None of his descendants now remain in the 

John Lacy, in the year 1804, reached the county from 
South Carolina, and improved a farm about seven miles 
northeast of Chester. He lived here some years, and died. 
His widow married Major Adair, and the farm on which 
Lacy settled became afterward known as the " Major Adair 
place." Samuel Cochran, in 1804, settled'three miles north 
of Chester, and improved what was afterward known as the 
Haskin farm. His location was at some distance from the 
other settlenienis, and, though sociable and fond of com- 
panionship, he was here obliged to lead a secluded life. He 
was influential and popular, and among the public positions 
which he held was that of judge of the common pleas court. 
He held this office previous to 1809, while Illinois was yet a 
part of the Indian territory. He died in Jackson county, 
in 1824. His sons were John, William. George, Alexander 
and Elisha, and all were noted for their skill as hunters. 
William lived and died on the farm one mile northwest of 
Chester included in claim 292. George, Alexander and 
Elisha became citizens of Jackson county. Near the present 
town of Rockwood, a man by the name of Emsley Jones, 
settled about the year 1804. In a quarrel with a man 
named Reed, living in the same neighborhood in the Miss- 
issippi bottom, he killed Reed. For this murder he was 
hung iu the commons, south of Kaskaskia. His execution 
was witnessed by a great concourse of people. This was the 
.second hanging to take place iu the county In the year 
1802, about fifteen miles east of Kaskaskia, near Mary's 
river, a young man going back from Kaskaskia to the east, 
was shot by an Indian. The murderer was a straggling 
Delaware from west of the Mississippi. With the murdered 
man's saddle and some other articles he escaped towards the 
mouth of the Big Muddy river. The Kaskaskia Indians 
were employed to search for the murderer whom they found 
and brought to Kaskaskia. Certain articles belonging to the 
murdered man, found in the possession of the Indian, 
formed the evi lence on which he was convicted. He was hung 
late in the fall of 1802, by Dr. George Fisher, then sheriff, 
on a honey locust tree, on the bank of the Kaskaskia river, 
a mile or so above the village of Kaskaskia. These two 
executions were the only ones in Illinois till 1821, when one 
took place at Belleville. 

In the year 1805, Alexander Barber reached the county 
from Ohio. He settled east of the Kaskas'ua river and 
west of Ellis Grove, where he lived twenty years, and then 
moved to a farm two miles north of Rockwood. He was a 
man of strong natural mental abilities, clear judgment and 
robust constitution. The«e qualifications gave him a lead- 
ing place among pioneers, and his opinion and judgment 
were much relied on. He had mechanical genius, and as 
the settlement increased engaged in building mills, and thus 
was of much use to the people of the county. The name of 
Barber, to the early residents of the county, always sug- 
gested a mill. He filled the office of justice of the peace 
without interruption for more than forty years, and his 
official acts in this position are unusually equitable and sat- 
isfactory. Alexander Clark iu 1805 settled three miles 



south of the present town of Evansville. The Abbeville 
district, South Carolina, made another contribution to the 
settlement of the county this year in the Lively family. 
Joseph Lively settled the Seymour farm iu section twenty- 
eight, of township six, range seven, three miles northeast of 
Kaskaskia. In 1823 he removed to the lower end of the 
Opossumden prairie. He died in 1823, leaving six fons, 
Amos, Shadrach, Enoch, Kichard, James and Reuben. 
John Lively settled on the prairie northwest of the Irish 
settlement, which thenceforth was known by the name of 
Lively prairie. He died in the year 1.H26. Reuben, James, 
Turner, William and Hugh were his sons. Another branch 
of the Lively family settled in what is now Washington 
county, where in 1813, the wife and all the children, but 
two, of William Lively were killed by the Indians. 

Among the arrivals in 1806 were George Wilson and 
Samuel Crozier from the Abbeville district, South Carolina. 
The former settled near the fork of Plum creek, and from 
there removed to the mouth of Doza creek. When the war 
of 1812-14 began, he, with his neighbors, built a fort which 
stood about a mile from the < ast bank of the Kaskaskia, not 
far from the line between townships 4 and 5. He took an 
active part as a ranger in that war, and after its conclusion 
settled in the old fort, improving a farm in the neighborhood. 
In 1828 he moved to the Heacock prairie, where he died in 
18.57. His sons were John, George, William, James and 
Andrew. Samuel Crozier improved a farm on Nine Mile 
creek, three miles so\ith of the present town of Evansville. 
He was affable and benevolent, and possessed unusually 
strong mental qualities. He was elected a member of the 
.state senate in 1.^22, and served till 1824. John, James, 
Andrew, Archibald, and Samuel, were his sons. John set- 
tled on the site of Red Bud in 1824, and his son, Samuel 
Crozier, was one of the founders of that town. 

The year 1807 witnessed the arrival of John Campbell, 
who settled near the mouth of Xine Mile Creek ; of the Tag- 
garts who settled in the part of the county north of Chester 
where their descendants still live; of John Steele, the pio- 
neer of the Steeleville neighborhood, and of John Mausker, 
who moved across the river from Missouri and located on 
the island in the Mississippi opposite Rockwood. John 
Campbell was from the Abbeville district. South Carolina. 
From his first location near the mouth of Nine Mile creek, 
he removed to a place four miles east of where Evansville 
now is, where he ditd in 1827. He was unassuming, quiet 
and respecttd. John, Samuel, Archibald and James Camp- 
bell, his sons, settled near their father. John and Daniel 
Taggart were also South Carolinians. The former for some 
years remained in the neighborhood of Kaskaskia. He was 
in the ranging service, and after the conclusion of the war 
settled on the farm, nine miles north of Chester, on which 
he afterward lived many years. Amos Taggart was his son. 
Daniel Taggart also performed service as a ranger, and 
settled on a farm near his brother. His sons were John, 
William, Amos and Daniel. John Steele was a captain in 
the Virginia force during the Revolutionary war. After 
the colonies had gained their independence he became one 
of the pioneer settlers of Tennessee, living for a time near 

Knoxville, and then in the neighborhood of Nashville. He 
had the qualities requisite for a pioneer hfe^self-reliance 
and courage — and selecting a location beyond the limits of 
the settlements, made the first improvement iu the neighbor- 
hood of the present town of Steeleville. His sons were George, 
Archibald, James, John and Thomas. George Steele was 
the founder of Georgetown, or Steeleville, as the place came 
to be called. He settled on the site of the town in 1810, 
and iu 1812 a fort was erected here for protection against 
the Indians. All the five brothers were in the ranging 
service during the war. John Mausker was one of the pio- 
neers of Kentucky and Tennessee. At St. Clair's defeat by 
the Indians he received seven different wounds, but eflected 
a miraculous escape from the field of carnage. In 1804 he 
settled in Ste. Genevieve county, Mi.s.souri, three years later 
located on the island opposite Rockwood, and in 1812 on 
the river above Rockwood. His .son, Samuel Mausker, has 
since lived in the .same vicinity, and is now one of the oldest 
citizens of the county. 

The number of new settlers in 1808 were quite numerous. 
Jacob Bowerman, a man of great decision of character, set- 
tled three miles south of Steeleville, and afterward west of 
that town. He was remarkably ingenious, and could work 
at almost any trade, even making good guns, without pre- 
vious instruction. As a marksman with the rifle he had uo 
superior. He had lour sons, Jonathan, Jesse, Michael and 
Wdliam. Robert Foster and John Anderson this year 
made the journey from the Abbeville district, South Caro- 
lina, on horseback. Anderson was a brother of Colonel 
David Anderson, near whom he ^ettled. For many years 
he was a justice of the peace. Foster first settled near the 
Kaskaskia, to the west of Ellis Grove, and then on Plum 
creek, where he erected a horse mill and steam distillery. 
These conveniences caused the influx of other settlers to the 
neighborhood, ami Foster's mill became a place of frequent 
resort. Musters and other public gatherings were held 
here. He died in 1831. Samuel, John, James, William and 
David were his sons. James was one of the founders of 
Sparta. A man named Henderson also arrived from South 
Carolina in 1808, and settled on the Kaskaskia river, oppo- 
site Evansville. The immediate neighborhood of the present 
city of Chester received its first settler this year in the per- 
son of John Clendinen who came from (ireen county, Ken- 
tucky. He improved the farm, afterward known as the 
Porter place. He had been a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, and the story is told that once, while guarding some 
prisoners, a lady came and besought permission to see her 
brother, one of the captured men. His gallantry did not 
permit hira to refuse, and confiding in her integrity, he 
loaned her his uniform in order that she might eflt-ct her 
object. The lady made the visit in safety, and was grateful 
for his kiudness. He was an honorable, industrious citizen. 
His descendants reside in the southern jiart of the county. 
His sons were James, Henry, John and Harvey. James 
Clendinen setthd about half a mile west of Diamond Cross 
in 1808, from which place in 1837 he removed to the neigh- 
borhood of Rockwood. Harvey Clendinen was county 
commissioner from 1838 to 1844. Andrew Mct'ormack and 



John Miller located in the Bilderback settlement, north of 
Kaskaskia and east of the Kaskaskia river, in 1808. Richard 
Robbison came to this part of the county the same year, and 
afterward removed to the vicinity of the present town of 
Steeleville. He had a large family of sons from whom 
sprang a numerous posterity. Augustus Davis, who came 
to Kaskaskia in 1808, became subsequently a member of the 
Steele settlement. James White, a South Carolinian, settled 
in 1808 on the hills west of Steeleville, half a mile north of 
where the road leading from Steeleville to Chester crosses 
Mary's river. This year William Barnet came from Ken- 
tucky and joined the Irish settlement. He died in 1818. 
John, his oldest son, lived for many years on the place his 
father settled, William, the second son, while returning 
home from a campaign against the Indians in 1813 was 
drowned while crossing Plum creek, within a distance of two 
miles from his father's house. 

Kaskaskia in the first decade of the present century 
received a large increase of American population. Michael 
Jones came to the town in 1804 as register of the land office. 
His address was plea.sing and plausible, hia education good, 
and he was well qualified for business, though his tempera- 
ment was said to be excitable and irritable With E. 
Backus, receiver at the land office, he acted as commissioner 
to adjust land claims in the Kaskaskia district. The Rector 
family came to Kaskaskia in 1806, and were connected with 
the surveys of the public lands. There were nine brothers 
and four sisters, all born in Fauquier county, Virginia. 
Reynolds speaks of them as singular and peculiar in their 
traits of character; ardent, excitable and enthusiastic in 
disposition ; possessing integrity and honesty of purpose in 
the highest degree ; impulsive and ungovernable when their 
passions were aroused; true and devoted friendi, but impul- 
sive and energetic enemies; and the most fearless and un- 
daunted people he ever knew, dangers, perils and death 
appearing to them, when excited, as only amusements. 
William Rector, the oldest brother, was colonel of a regiment 
in the campaign against the Indians in 1812. In 1816 he 
was appointed surveyor-general for Illinois, Missouri and 
Arkansas. Stephen Rector was a lieutenant in the ranging 
service in the war of 1812-14. Nelson Rector was captain 
of an expedition up the Mississippi in 1814, and had an 
engagement with the British and Indians at Rock Island. 
Dressed richly in a splendid military uniform, with a large 
red feather in his hat, he led his company from the boat, 
disregarding the fire of the Indians, especially directed to 
him, as though their rifles were but pop guns Thomas 
Rector fought a duel with Joshua Barton, a prominent citi- 
zen of Missouri, on Bloody Island, opposite St. Louis. The 
establishment of the territorial goverument in 1809 brought 
to Kaskaskia many distinguished residents, among whom 
were Gov. Ninian Edwards, Nathaniel Pope, Benjamin 
Stephenson, Judge Jesse B. Thomas, Judge Alexandet Stu- 
art, John J. Crittenden, and his brother, Thomas P. Crit- 
tenden, William C. Greenup and Matthew Duncan, who 
established, in the fall of 1809, the first newspaper in Illinois. 
The winter of 1809-10 witnessed more gayely, carousal and 
amusement at Kaskaskia than the town has ever since 

known. Governor Edwards and other territorial officers, 
soon after their arrival, organized a colony of their own, and 
located in the prairie in the bottom below Prairie du Rocher. 
Edwards, Thomas, Stuart, Stephenson and some of the Rec- 
tors resided here. 

In 1809 John Beattie came to the Irish settlement. He 
was a native of the Abbeville district. South Carolina. He 
was quiet and retired in disposition, but with much force and 
decision of character. John, Andrew and Charles Beattie 
were his sons. The settlement in the Horse prairie began to 
increase in 1809. That year witnessed the arrival of Chesley 
Allen, Rawleigh Ralls and Edward Faherty. Allen was a 
Virginian. His sons, James, John, Albert, William and 
Miner Allen became respected citizens of that part of the 
county. Rawleigh Ralls was born in Virginia, and served as 
a soldier in the latter part of the Revolutionary war, though 
at that time he was not yet grown to manhood. From Vir- 
ginia he removed to Tennessee, and in 1809 came to Illinois. 
He first settled near Prairie du Long creek, about three- 
fourths of a mile north of the line between Randolph and 
Monroe counties, and from there moved to the beautiful 
ridge running parallel with the Kaskaskia, and still known 
as Rail's ridge. Edward Ralls, his son, settled on the farm 
on the ridge that had been originally improved by Robert 
McMahan. He died in 1851. John Ralls, another son, was 
one of the pioneer preachers of the county, and died in 1857. 
Edward Faherty settled on the southern b irder of the Horse 
prairie. His sons, Patrick and John Faherty, were after- 
ward residents of that part of the county. Ezra Owen and 
his son, Thomas J. V. Owen, located in the "Dr. Fisher 
settlement," as it was called, also in the year 1809 Ezra 
Owen was made major of the militia, and served creditably 
in that position. The son was sherifl" of the county from 
1823 to 1828, and in 1830 was elected a member of the state 
legislature. Dr. George Fisher was born in Hardy county, 
Virginia, and settled in Kaskaskia in the year 1789. In 
1806 he removed from the village to a farm at the foot of 
the bluff, six miles above Kaskaskia on the Prairie du 
Rocher road. This vicinity was afterwards known as Dr. 
Fisher's settlement. He was appointed sheriff of Randolph 
county soon after the organization of Indiana territory, and 
filled the office for several years. He was a member of the 
first legislature of the territory of Illinois, which met at 
Kaskaskia at the close of the year 1812, and was chosen 
speaker of the house. He also served as speaker of the 
house in the third territorial legislature which convened 
during the winters of 1816-17 and 1817-18. He was a 
delegate to the convention of 1818 which framed the first 
constitution of the state of Illinois. A short time after his 
removal to his farm above Kaskaskia the small-pox reached 
the vicinity of Kaskaskia. Dr. Fisher erected a hospital on 
his farm, and here the great part of the French population 
of the surrounding bottom passed through the dangerous 
malady under his skillful treatment. The citizens of Kas- 
kaskia all that summer kept guard at the outskirts of their 
village to prevent the contagion from reaching the town. 
The American settlements were undisturbed by the disease. 
Dr. Fisher was an able physician, though an early authority 


states that his education was but ordinarj', and that he 
depended more on his natural abilities than on books and 
scientific knowledge. lie died in 18'20. 

For a kv! years previous to 1809 considerable immigra- 
tion had come to Illinois, and the counties bordering on 
the Wabash, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, from Vincennes 
around to Alton, had begun to improve. The Indian troubles 
commenced in 1810, and thence till the conclusion of the 
war of 1812-H few new families came to Illinois. The 
settlements in Kan<lolph countj' happily escaped the Indian 
depredations. The greater part of the able-bodied male 
population of the country served as rangers during the war, 
scouring the frontier, and taking part in expeditions against 
the savages. 

Several forts, or block houses, were erected during the 
year 1812. One was in the Irish settlement, about a mile 
east from the Kaskaskia ; another was in Dr. Fisher's settle- 
ment ; another on the site of the present town of Steeleville ; 
and a fourth at Jacob Bowermau's. The .settlement east of 
the Kaskaskia river used Fort Gage as a place of refuge. 
In mo.«t cases the people abandoned their own houses, and 
lived together in these forts till the war was over. The 
men kej)t up their farms, but always carried with them 
Iheir rifles. Several attacks were made on men at work in 
the field by the Indians, but no serious injury was done. 

The only new settler who camu to the county in 1811 
was Michael Harmon. lie came from Tennessee, and after 
exploring the country around Kaskaskia, decided to locate 
about seven miles north of the present town of Chester and 
the same di.stance from Kaskaskia. This locality subse- 
quently came to be known as the Harmon settlement. 
Returning to Tennessee he brought b.ick his family, but 
the next fall died. His seven sons settled in the vicinity. 
With Harmon's family came John Young who settled near 
Ellis Grove. William Nelson, a native of Ireland, and a 
former resident of the Abbeville district, South Carolina, 
made a settlement on Horse Creek, some three miles sonth 
of the present town of Red Bud, in 1812. He built a dis- 
tillery, became a leading man in that part of the county, 
and served for a long term of years as justice of the peace. 
He had five son.s, John G., Isaac, William, Robert, and 
Wilson, some of whom filled public offices. Hugh Leslie 
accompanied Nelson from South Carolina, and became a 
citizen of the count)'. 

In 1814 James and Samuel Thompson reached Kaskaskia 
from the Abbeville district, South Carolina. James taught 
school in Kaskaskia three years, and settled on a farm in 
township five, range seven. He commanded a company of 
militia iu the Black Hawk war. He was a skilful surveyor. 
For twenty years he surveyed public lands for the United 
States government, and was county surveyor for several 
terms. In pursuit of his favorite occupation his foot prob- 
ably left its impress on every section of land in Randol|)h 
county. He was judge of the probate court from 1831 till 
the office was abolished by the constitution of 1848. He 
was county commissioner in 1820. Samuel Thompson was 
also a surveyor, and was employed in surveying the public 
land for several years. William and John Allen, originallv 

residents of Georgia, whence they removed to Ohio, in 1841 
came to Illinois, and settled in township five, range seven. 
In 1815 Alexander Gaston settled in the ea-!teru part of the 
count}', not far from the present town of Stcclcvillo. 

Andrew Borders, a native of South Carolina, then a young 
man of twenty-three, came to the county in 1810, and began 
an unusually successful business career. He settled in the 
neighborhood of Sparta, where he died in 1804. He 
brought with him to the county four slaves, whom he 
treated with great humanity and kindness. Samuel Craw- 
ford reached the county from Tennessee in 181G. Three 
years later he made a settlement in the lower end of the 
Opossumden prairie. He was popular with the people and 
held several public positions. He was a justice of the peace 
for a time, and receiver of public money at the Kaskaskia 
land office. He was elected a member of the state senate 
in 18-8, and served till 18:j2. William Fowler, a soldier of 
the war of the Revolution, came from South Carolina in 
1816, and made his home in the Ilarraou settlement John 
Layne, the same year, settled near the present town of Steele- 
ville ; James Slater, in the vicinity of Ellis Grove; Cor- 
nelius Adkins, in the lower end of Short's prairie; and 
Emanuel Canaday, in the Steele neighborhood. 

In the year 1817, among the settlers were several who 
became conspicuous and infiuential in the early historj' of the 
cjunty. Among these was Robert M. Mann. He was born 
iu ths Abbevilh district of S)uth Cirolina aid left that 
stit3 fjr Illiniis in ISOT. Oa re.ic'iing Kuitucky news of 
Indian depredations deterred him from proceeding farther, 
and he remained in Logan county, Kentucky, till 1817, 
when he came to Randolph county, and entered land near 
the present village of Preston, on which he lived until his 
death iu 1855. John Mann, his oldest son, came to the 
county some years after his father. He served as county 
comrais ioner for several years subsequent to 1842. Another 
son, Robert Mann, was an oflicer in the Black Hawk war; 
in 1820 was elected a member of the state legislature, and 
also served as school commissioner. The other two sons 
were William and Samuel Alexander Mann. Col. Gibriel 
Jones in 1817 settled near Steeleville. He was born in 
Loudon county, Virginia. In 1810 he removed with his 
father to Barren county, Kentucky. He enlisted in the 
Kentucky troops during the war of 1812-14, and was at the 
battle of the Thames in Canada. On coming to Steeleville 
he taught school. He was active, energetic, and talented, 
and was appointed colonel of the militia and served in that 
position several years. From 1825 to 1828 he lived near 
Kaskaskia, and subsequently was in the mercantile business 
at Steeleville and Chester. He was the captain of a com- 
pany raised in the county for service in the Black Hawk 
war, and was made colonel of the regiment, distinguishing 
himself as an able and gallant soldier. He represented 
Randolph county in the state legislature from 1824 to 1826, 
and from 1S38 to 1840. He was elected a member of the 
county commissioner's court in 1822 and 1836. He was 
also mayor of the city of Chester. He lost his wife in the 
great storm which visited Chester iu November, 1864, his 
house being swept away in the tornado. 



Ignatius Spregg, in 1817, came from Maryland and settled 
iu the American Bottom. He was elected treasurer of the 
county, from 1828 to 1838, served as sheriff and became a 
citizen of Arkansas. In the latter part of the year 1817, 
James and Henry O'Harra came to Illinois and shortly 
afterward settled in the neighborhood of the present village of 
Ruma. They were of Irish descent, and their ancestors had 
settled at an early period in Frederick county, Maryland. 
In the year 1811 the family removed from Maryland to Nelson 
county, Kentucky, and thence came to Illinois. Curtis 
Conn, a native of Boston, Massachusetts, came to the county 
in 1S17. He had lived several years in the West India 
islands, where he had been actively engaged in trade. After 
residing for a year in Kaskaskia he settled on the firm, a 
couple of miles northwest of Chester, which Samuel Cochran 
had begun to improve in 1804. He was judge of the probate 
court ten years. Daniel Alexander reached the county iu 
1817 from Maine. He settled on a farm in the Hughs 
settlement, and after living there many years went to Texas, 
where he was murdered. James McFarlaud, a South 
Carolinian, settled on the we^t fork of Mary's river, near 
where that stream is cros.sed by the Kaskaskia road, iu 1817. 
Samuel Nisbet, also a native of Sjutli Carolina, settled the 
same year o:ie mile east of where the village of Eden was 
nfterward built William Morris became a resident of the 
Opossumden prairie, and William Givin and the Barrows 
and Houseman families located in the vicinity of Shiloh. 
At the point of the bluff, five miles above Kaskaskia, Henry 
Will began the improvement of a farm in 18-7, and an im- 
portant settlement sprang up in his vicinity. 

In the year 1818 the neighborhood south of Ruma re- 
ceived important additions in the families of Joseph and 
Thomas Orr, Benedict Horrel, John Brewer and Norton, 
Samuel, L?wis and Thomas Hull. Amos Paxton was also one 
of the pioneers in this part of the county. The Orrs were 
from Virginia. Joseph was a major in the militia. The 
Brewers and the Hulls came from Kentucky. One of the 
most useful and respected of the early residents of the county, 
the Rev. Silas Crisler, arrived from Boone couuty, Kentucky, 
in 1818, and began the improvement of a farm, on the old 
Shawneetown road, near the Harmon settlement seven miles 
north of Chester. Much of his time was devoted to the work 
of the ministry, and he was the founder and pastor of the 
Gravel creek church, one of the early Baptist churches in 
Illinois. He died in 1851. Amasa Aldrich a native of 
Massachusetts, became a citizen of Kaskaskia in 1818. A 
few years afterward he settled on a farm north of Chester. 
In 1819, a Tennessean, Alexander Campbell, came to the 
Irish settlement. He afterward removed to the neighbor- 
hood of Steeleville. One of his sons, Edward Campbell, was 
elected county commissioner in 1844. Another, John Camp- 
bell, was sheriff from 1838 to 1848 and from 1854 to 1856, 
and county judge from 1849 to 185S and from 1856 to 1861. 
Eli Short, a soldier in the Kentucky troops during the war 
of 1812-14. who had received a wound at the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe, which troubled him during the rest of his life in 
1819 settled in the prairie in the eastern part of the county 
which still bears his name. For many years he preached the 

Gospel. One of his sons, Jefferson Short, was killed in the 
Black Hawk war. David Hathorn in 1819 settled near the 
site of EvansviUe, and afterward in the Opossumden prairie. 
James Baird came from Ohio the same year, and began the 
improvement of a farm three miles south of Sparta. Arthur 
Parks settled in the eastern edge of the Lively prairie. He 
was county commissioner from 1824 to 1826. Adonijah Ball 
made a settlement on Rock Castle creek iu a region which 
no one had previously penetrated. George W Stratton came 
to the county in IS 19 He first settled in the American 
Bottom, and shortly afterward purchased the laud on which 
that part of Chester known as Buena Vista is now built, on 
which he lived till his death in 1845. Isaac Rust, a native 
of Maine, first cane to Kaskaskia in 1819. In early life he 
had been a sailor, and after a few years tried the sea again 
for a year, and then returned to become a permanent citizen 
of the county. He was a wagon-maker, and introduced an 
improved style of wagons among the Kaskaskia people. 
He also repaired boats, and rigged sailing vessels with masts, 
thus bringing his nautical knowledge into use. In 1836 he 
removed to a farm two miles east of Chester. Sheltou Evans 
and Lewis Simmons settled in the point below Kaskaskia 
about the year 1819, and in 1825 removed to the Horse 
prairie, where the penitentiary is now built, above Chester. 
Benjamin A. Porter settled in 1819. He built a brick house 
and a mill. The mill burned down, but the house stood for 
many years afterward. 

In 1820, numerous additions were made to the population 
of the county. Robert Bratuey, who had been a soldier in 
the war of the revolution, and an early settler in Tennessee 
settled near the mouth of Little Plum creek. With him 
came his son, Josepli Bratney, who had served under Jack- 
son in the war of 1812-14. Martin Smith arrived from the 
state of New York. John Thomison began the improve- 
ment of a farm four miles west of Sparta. Alexander Alex- 
ander came from the Chester district. South Carolina, and 
settled one mile south of where the village of Eden now is. 
Thomas, William and John McDill located in the neighbor- 
hood of the present town of Sparta. John Adams, a native 
of North Carolina, and one of the pioneer settlers of Ken- 
tucky, came to the neighborhood of EvansviUe, and in 1822 
settled in the Horse prairie. John and Samuel Cochran 
settled in the vicinity of Chester, the former first living near 
the mouth of Mary's river, and afterward on the farm sub- 
sequently occupied by Isaac Rust, and the latter improving 
the Douglas place, two miles and a half east of Chester. 

The settlement in the lower end of Flat prairie was 
strengthened by the arrival, in 1820, of David Cathcart, 
John Dickey, and John McMillen, and the next year of 
Ebenezer Alexander and James Anderson. Heacock prai- 
rie was settled in 1822 by Samuel Douglass, James Bean, 
Thomas McBride, James Redpath, and Elisha, George, 
Charles and Fortiss Heacock. The same year, the Grand 
Cote prairie, in the northeast part of the county, received as 
its pioneer settlers, James Coulter, John McKelvey, and 
Alexander McKelvey. 

In the precinct histories will be found more minute men. 
tion of the pioneer settlers of the county. Of all of them it 



may be said that they were simple-hearted, brave, and 
generous, and their memories should be cherished as those 
who, on the soil of Randolph county, laid the first founda- 
tions of the great commonwealth of Illinois. 


The first water-mill ever built in Illinois was near Kas- 
kaskia, on the opposite side of the Kaskaskia river, where 
now stands Reiley's mill. Prix Paget (the name is spelled 
" Pagi " in the deeds of conveyance) was the earliest pro- 
prietor of a mill at that place of whom there is any record. 
He erecteil a stone mill, and engaged in the manufacture of 
flour for the New Orleans and Mobile markets. He -met 
his death at the hands of the Indians. The mill was 
attackeii by a band of Kickapoos, and Paget, with some 
negrots employed in the mill, was killed. One negro made 
his escape, and gave the alarm to the people of Kas- 
kaskia. Paget's body was found cut in pieces, the head 
severed from the body, and thrown into the hopper. The 
old mill was about one hundred and fifty yards below the 
site cjf the present one. After Paget's death the mill was 
abandoned for many years. The structure crumbled to 
pieces, so that only the walls remained. About the year 
1795 the mill tract came into the possession of General John 
Edgar, who rebuilt the mill with enlarged capacity. From 
the mill-pond, about three hundred yards distant, the water 
was conveyed by an arched culvert. General E<lgar carried 
on the mill for many years, and it was of great service, both 
to the people of Kaskaskia and the pioneer American fami- 
lies who settled in the various parts of the county. It was 
resorted to from a distance of many miles. The mill ceaseit 
to run while still owned by General Edgar. After his 
death, it passed into the possession of a company composed 
of Jacob Feaman, Anthony Lessieur, James 51. Wheeler, 
and Samuel Jones, who put it in running order. Daniel 
Reiley purchased it in 1842, and made important improve- 
ments. In 18-5.5 he began the erection of a steam mill. 
He was aclivelv engaged in running the mill till his death 
in 1867, and made Reiley's mill the center of considerable 
business activity. 

A mill was built in early times at Prairie du Rocher. 
Henry Levins' mill on Horse creek was a great convenience 
to the residents of that part of the county. 


An inundation of the Mississippi bottom in Randolph and 
Monroe counties occurred in the year 172.5. Another, which 
made necessary the abandonment of Fort Ghartres, took 
place in 1772. The flood of 1785 was the greatest of the 
last century. The French villiges were reached by the 
water. The inhabitants of Kaskaskia and Cahokia were 
compelled to seek refuge on the bluffs. The next great 
flood was that of 1844, still remembered and referred to, not 
only by the residents of the .Vmerican Bottom, but by people 
then living abng the whole course of the Mississippi and 
Missouri rivers. Water many feet deep covered the bottom. 
Large steamboats sailed from bluft'to bluti'. The village of 
Kaskaskia was almost destroyed. The water stood five feet 
deep in the old hotel building, while the high water of 1785 

had just reached the fli),)r. Sub^equeut overflows have 
occurred in later years, but none so great or destructive. 
The annual rise usually washes away ([uantities of land at 
different points in the bottom, and the river from lime to 
time has shifted its channel. The Mississippi each year has 
approached nearer and nearer to Kaskaskia. On the 20th 
of April, 1881, the neck of land separating the Mississippi 
and the Kaskaskia, above the village of Kaskaskia, was 
washed away, and about one-fourth of the water of the 
Mississippi now passes down the Kii<kaskia. Three or four 
da)'s after this cut off was nia le. steamboats efl'ecled a pas- 
sage by the new channel. 


While the ncighl)oring counties of Randolph and St. Chiir 
contained the great bulk of the early French population of 
Illinois, M )nroe was the chief seat of the pioneer American 
settlements. The American inhabitants of Illinois at the 
beginning of the century were about eight hundred in num- 
ber. Of these not many mon- than a hundred resided in 
what is now Randolph county, and less thin thirty in .St. 
Clair. Monroe county contained the balance. The settle- 
ments at New Design, at Bellefontaine, in the American 
Bottom and arouml Whiteside's station and Pigu'ott's ancient 
fort, w.'re thrifty an.! vigorous. Purtions of the Am-jrican 
bottom wer^ as densely populated tlu'u as now. From this 
it may well be judged that an important part of tiie early 
historv of Illinois is inscribed in the annals of the pioneer 
settlements of Monroe county. These settlements bore the 
brunt of savage depreilations during the Indian war which 
raged from 1786 t.) IT'.l'i. Many ol' the piuneers fell victims 
to the tomahawk anil xalping knife of the savage, and 
many families were massacred. The Jlorelocksand White- 
sides became the most noted Indian fighters iu ll," West. 
Afterward, when these daigers were over, populaiicjn had 
increased, and a state government was organized, the county, 
in the person of one of her early citizens, furnished Illinois 
her first governor. The gubernatorial chair was twice sub- 
sequently filled by men who began their distinguished 
careers iu this part of the state, and the first nativcboru 
citizen of Illinois to represent the state iu the United .States 
senate first saw the light of day in an old house HJiich is still 
standing on the soil of Monroe ci'unly. 

The first American colony to settle within the territory 
now comprised in the county, arrived in the year 1782, and 
was compo.sed of James Moore, Shadrach Bond, Robert 
Kidd, Larken Rutherford and James Garretson. Their 
wives and children accompanied them, and they came to 
make a permanent settlement. Crossing the Allegheny 
mountains, they floated down the Ohio to its mouth, and 
then propelled their craft against the strong current of the 
Mississippi till they reached Kaskaskia some time in the 
autumn of the year 1781. From this place the country was 
explored in difl'erent directions, and all of tlu party fixed 
on locations now in Monroe county, as the most eligible 
place for settlement. The French inhabitants had clung 
close to two or three villages, and had made little progress 
toward clearing the wilderness, or extending their settlements 


over any considerable territory. These Marylanders and 
Virginians adopted a different policy. With the true Saxon 
instinct of ownership of his own homestead and lordship 
over his own acres, ejch immigrant selected a location where 
he would be likely to experience little trouble from neigh- 
bors and remain master of his own domain. The hill trac-^ 
between the French villages of Kaskaskia and Cahokia and 
St. Louis passed near a beautiful spring, a high, healthy 
ground, to which the French had applied the name of Belle- 
fonlaine. Here Moore, Garretson and Rutherford deter- 
mined to make their settlement. The rich soil of the Miss- 
issippi bottom attracted the attention of other members of 
the colony, and there Kidd and Bond made their homes. 
Kidil clung closest to the French villages, and settled at a 
distance of but a few miles from Prairie du Rocher. Bond 
chose a location farther north. These settlements were made 
in the spring of the year 1782. 

James Moore, the leader of this colony, was a native of 
Maryland. He was a man of vigorous traits of mind, ready 
resources, and was accustomed to the exigencies of pioneer 
life. Not long after his arrival he was employed by Gabriel 
Cerre, a wealthy merchant of St. Louis, to take goods and 
trade with the Indians in the western part of Tennessee. 
He was thus engaged for a number of 3'ears, during which 
time he made his headquarters at the French Licks, as the 
place was then called, where now is built the capital of the 
state of Tennessee. His place of settlement was a short 
distance south of. the site of the town of Waterloo where 
the spring, which attracted liim to this locality, may still be 

James Garretson first made an improvement near the 
Bellefoutaine. Claim 510, survey 720, a mile northeast of 
Waterloo, was granted to him as an improvement right. 
He afterward removed to the American Bottom, and for 
many years his home was in the present iloredock precinct. 
He was an honest, upright citizen, unambitious and unas- 
suming, and always refused to hold public position. He 
was a brave man and an excellent soldier, and did his part 
toward protecting the settlements from the attacks of the 
Indians. His brother, Samuel Garretson, was kilkd by the 
Indians during the winter of 1788-89. 

Robert Kidd had been one of the soldiers in George 
Roger Clark's expedition to Illinois in 1778, and had taken 
part in the capture of Fort Gage. He made a quiet and 
unpretentious citizen of the great commonwealth of which 
ho was one of the founders, and died at his home in the 
American Bottom in the southern part of the county in 1849. 
Kidd lake, near the head of which he settled, bears his name. 

Larken Rutherford had also been a soldier under Colonel 
Clark. He was a large and athletic man, and was bold and 
fearless in his disposition. At the storming of Fort Sackville 
in 1779 he exhibited much bravery. Soon after the year 
1800 he removed to the present St. Clair county, and settled 
north of Belleville. During the latter years of his life he 
was a zealous member of the Baptist church. In the organ- 
ization and government of the church he took an active part. 
He was honest in his views, and while vigorously observing 
his own duties, was rigid and exact in expecting the same 

from others. A difference of opinion he would not tolerate. 
He was a member of the Richland Baptist church in St. 
Clair county, and in 1809 took offence .it some views ex- 
pressed in a sermon by James Lemen on slavery, of which 
Lemen was a strong opponent. Rutherford brought the 
matter before the church authorities, and the result was a 
division not only of the Richland church, but of the Baptist 
association, which was continued for many years. 

Shadrach Bond was born and raised near Baltimore, 
Maryland. He lived on his farm in the American Bottom 
for many years till his death at an advanced age. He was 
the uncle of Shadrach Bond, the first governor of the State 
of Illinois. He was several times elected to the legislature 
of both the Indiana and northwestern territories. He was a 
representative in the territorial legislature which convened 
at Cincinnati in September, 1790. For several years he was 
one of the judges of the St. Clair county common pleas court. 
In these public positions he discharged his duties in a con- 
scientious manner, and was held in high estimation by the 
people. His education was limited, but he possessed a strong 
mind and an excellent heart. He was not ambitious for 
wealth. In his younger days, as was the case with most of 
the early pioneers, he spent a considerable part of his time 
in hunting, and was considered an excellent woodsman. He 
was one of that of men who improve with age, and the 
longer he lived and the better he became known, the more 
his character wfs esteemed. 

All the members of this band of pioneers left descendants 
who have since been identified with the State of Illinois, and 
of whom some have reached positions of influence and dis- 
tinction. The families of Bond, Garretson, Moore, and Kidd, 
are all represented by some member living either in Monroe, 
or an adjoining county, and the land on which Moore settled 
at the Bellefoutaine has never left the family, and is now 
owned by heirs of the original pioneer. 

Soon after these hardy adventurers from Maryland and 
Virginia had prepared the way, a New England man fol- 
lowed. This was Captain Nathaniel Hull, born in Massa- 
chusetts. He was one of the first; to make his way overland 
from the Ohio river to Kaskaskia, and his track was the one 
usually taken by subsequent bands of immigrants. He set- 
tled under the bluff below ChalHn Bridge, and bscame a 
prominent citizen of the new community. His store, and 
the post-office there established, were in all probability, the 
first in the county. He served as magistrate and county 
judge. With all his good qualities he was a man of eccen- 
tric notions, and asked to be buried in an upright position, 
standing as in life, overlooking from his grove in the bluff 
above his house, the fertile expanse of the American Bottom. 

Another of the early pioneers, William Biggs, became the 
first sheriff of St. Clair county, which then included Monroe, 
and filled other important public positions. He was born in 
Maryland, served under Colonel Clark in the war of the 
Revolution, and coming to Illinois settled at the Bdlefon- 
taine. He was taken prisoner by the Indians, who killed 
his companion, Vallis, in 1788, and effected his escape by 
paying a ransom. He was accompanied to Illinois by his 
two brothers. George Biggs settled southwest of Waterloo 



where he received a grant of land included in claim 777. 
The Huff and Moredock family came in the year 1786, and 
first settled near the Bellcfontaine, but afterward removed 
to the American Bottom. The murder of Mrs. Ilufl'by the 
Indians, on the route to Illinois, instilled such deadly hatred 
of the savage race into the breast of her son, John Moredock, 
that he never lost an opportunity of avenging his wrongs. 

Piggott's fort, or the fort of the " grand ruisseau," as it was 
called by the French in the American Bottom, not far from 
the bhiH", west of Columbia, was established about the year 
1783. James Piggott wa.s a native of Connecticut, and early 
in the war of the Revolution engaged in the privateering 
service. He removed to Pennsylvania, and commanded a 
company of Pennsylvania troops at Brandywine, Saratoga, 
and other battles. His health becoming impaired by severe 
marches and hard service, he was obliged to resign his cap- 
taincy, and with his family followed Colonel George Rogers 
("lark to the west, and was placed in command of Fort Jeffer- 
son which had been established five miles below the mouth 
of the Ohio, and on which the Indians made a desperate 
assault. In 1790 there were seventeen families, and forty- 
six inhabitants, at Piggott's fort. They addressed a petition 
to Governor St. Clair, praying for grants of land to the set- 
tlers. It was likely on this petition that, in 1791, 
passed the act granting to every settler on the public lands 
in Illinois four luindred acres, and to each enrolled militia- 
man one hundred acres. Governor St Clair, under whom 
Piggott had served in the war of the Revolution, :ippointed 
him the presiding judge of the St. Clair county court. In 
1795 he established the first ferry the Mississippi at 
St. Louis. This has been continued ever since, and is now 
known as Wiggins' ferry. The was issued by Zenon 
Trudean, lieutenant governor of the province of Upper 
Louisiana. He died at this ferry, opposite St. Louis, in 1799. 

The New Design settlement was founded about the year 
178G. James Lemen, a native of Berkeley county, Virgi- 
nia, settled here that year. He became the bead of a nu- 
merous and iiitluential family which has been held in re- 
spect in Illinois for now nearly a century. The dwelling 
which he constructed is still standing. It was the first brick 
house in the county, and is now one of the oldest in the state. 
The New Design .settlement, toward the close of the last 
century, was the most flourishing of all the American colo- 
nies in Illinois. In 179.3 it received a large acc; ssion in the 
Griffin, Gibbons, Enochs, Chance, Musick and Going fami- 
lies. Four years later a still more numerous colony arrived. 
It was composed of no less than one hundred and fifty-four 
persons, and was made of immigrants from Hardy county, 
Virginia on the south branch of the Potomac, and included 
the Carr, Stookey, Eyeman, Shook, Mitchell, Kinkead, 
Clark, Badgeley, Teter and Miller families. The first season 
in Illinois was sad and disheartening. The summer was 
wet, the journey from the Ohio to Kaskaskia was accom- 
plished in mud and water, and though the settlers extended 
an open-handed welcome and hospitality, disease desolated 
nearly every household, and swept away one-half of the new 
arrivals. In New Design the earliest church (Protestant) 
organization in Illinois was formed. 

The Whitcsides, the family of noted Indian fighters, came 
to New Design in 1793, and shortly afterward settled at the 
Belle fontaine and Whiteside's station. They were from the 
frontiers of North Carolina, and from there had made their 
way into Kentucky. The fort which William Whiteside 
erected southeast of Columbia wa-s a noted military post in 
the Indian wars. John Whiteside lived for many years at 
Bellefontaine, and died there. Jo.«eph Kinney settled at 
New Design in 1793, and shortly afterward built one of the 
first mills in Illinois on Rock House creek. One of his sons, 
William Kinney, became lieutenant-governor of the state, 
and another, Andrew Kinney, where Monroe city now stands, 
built a water-mill from which, early in the present century, 
flour was shipped to the St. Louis, New Orleans, and even 
more distant markets. 

By the act of Congress of 1791, a grant of four hundred 
acres of land was made to all who had cultivated or im- 
proved land in Illinois, except in villages, prior to the year 
1788. Under this act the public records show that forty- 
five improvement grants "were made to Americans. The 
heads of American families were seventy -five in number, and 
all the Americans who were capable of bearing arms as 
militia men on or before the year 1791 were only sixty-five. 
Under the law which granted four hundred acres to each 
head of a family in 1788, two hundred and forty-four dona- 
tions were made. From this it is estimated, supposing each 
family to have averaged five members, that the whole popu- 
lation of Illinois in the year 1788 was twelve hundred and 

Where the road from the Bellefontaine to Cahokia de- 
scended the bluff' settlements were made by the Ogles and 
Biggs in the year 1790. The Ogle family brought a con- 
siderable tract of land under cultivation in the bottom ad- 
joining the bluff". The same year families of the name of 
Short, Griffin, Gibbons, Roberts and Valentine settled be- 
tween Bellefontaine anil the bluff' in the present Bluff' pre- 
cinct. After a few years this settlement was abandoned en- 
tirely. A large grave-yard showed that the inhabitants of 
this neighborhood must have been at one time quite numer- 
ous. The first settlement northeast of Whiteside's station, 
in the present limits of St. Clair county, was made by 
William Scott, a native of Botetourt county, Virginia, who 
selected a location on Turkey Ilill, near Belleville, in De- 
cember, 1797. The Jlurdick family settled in the American 
Bottom in 1796, and John Murdick grew up to be the wag 
of the day. George and William Blair came the 
same year. George lived for a time on the Eberman 
place, north of Waterloo, and on a ranch west of hi? 
residence erected a distillery in early times. In iMt^ 
he removed to the site of the present city of Belleville, and 
the public buildings were located on part of his farm at the 
time the county seat was removed to that place from Caho- 
kia. James McRoberts, in 1797, settled north of the present 
Maysville. He lived here many years, and was honored 
and respected. One of his sons became L nited States sena- 
tor. Dr. Caldwell Cairnes, at the beginning of the century, 
settled north of the present town of Harrisonville. For 
years he practiced his profession in the American Bottom. 



He was a member of the convention which framed the ori- 
ginal constitution of the state, and was one of the judges of 
the St. Cliir county court. 

Among the new settlers who reached the county in 1804 
are the Ford and Forguer family. The eldest of the chil- 
dren was George Forguer. His half-brother was Thomas 
Ford, who became governor of the state. The father of 
George Forguer served as an officer in the revolutionary 
war, and toolc part in Arnold's disastrous campaign in 
Canada He was subsequently appointed collector of reve- 
nue of Bucks county, Penosylvania, and while in the 
possession of a large amount of the public money, was 
robbed by Tories. The restoration of this amount entailed 
the loss of his private fortune, and he removed to the 
western borders of Pennsylvania, there to begin life anew. 
He settled near what was known as the Eed Stone Old Fort, 
afterward called Brownsville, and was killed there by the 
falling ia of a coal bank. Some two or three years afterward, 
his widow married Robert Ford, who rn 1802 was killed, as 
it was supposed, by robbers in the mountains. This left her 
with a large family and scanty means of support. The 
Spanish government west of the Mississippi was liberal in 
its offers of land to actual settleis, and with the object of 
taking advantage of this she embarked from Red Stone Old 
Fort for St. Louis, in the Spanish country, in the year 1804. 
She reached St. L )uis only to find that the country west of 
the Mississippi had been ceded to the United States, and she 
could obtain no laud except by purchase. She remained in 
St. Louis some time, and then she and some of her children 
were taken sick. After their recovery, in the fall of the 
year 1804, the family came to the east side of the river, 
finding a home about three miles south of the present town 
of Waterloo. The next year, 1805, the family moved nearer 
the bluff, not far from the residence of James McRoberts. 
Here George Forguer and Thomas Ford attended the school 
kept by Edward Humphrey in the neighborhood of Chalfin 
Bridge. Samuel McRoberts also attended this school, so 
that Mr. Humphrey, in his primitive school-house in the 
bottom, had under his tuition at one time a future attorney- 
general of the state, a United States senator, and a governor 
of Illinois. Mrs. Forguer was a woman of much talent and 
ability, and she bent all her energies toward the education 
of her children. She observed system and economy in her 
family, and used every endeavor to get along. She herself 
taught school for a time near the McRoberts residence. She 
afterward moved to a place under the bluff. Those yet liv- 
ing who remember Thomas Ford at that period, when he 
was about fourteen years old, speak of him as a boy of un- 
usually polite manners and pleasing address. Mrs. Ford 
bestowed much care on the rearing of her children, and en- 
deavored to instill into them sound moral principles. For- 
guer, being the oldest of the children, was obliged to work 
out, and help gain a support for the family. He began this 
when he was nine years old. Altogether he attended school 
not much more than a year. He learned the trade of a car- 
penter in St. Louis, and worked at it for several years in 
that city. He came back to Monroe county, and purchased 
the tract of laud on which Waterloo is built, and in company 

with Daniel P. Cook laid out the town. He purchased a 
stock of goods and opened a store at this point. He also 
projected the town of Bridgewater on the Mississippi, a mile 
above Harrisonville. His mercantile operations proved a 
failure, and he began the study of law. His education was 
defective, but he possessed a naturally strong and vigorous 
intellect, which supplied many deficiencies in the way of 
intellectual training. He had a good voice, and the debat- 
ing societies of the county furnished him the training for an 
accomplished and pleasing orator. He was elected a repre- 
sentative from Monroe county in the State Legislature in 
1826, and at the end of the session was appointed Secretary 
of State. He was afterward elected Attorney-General. He 
removed to Sangamon county, which he represented in the 
State Senate. He was also register of the land office at 
Springfield. He died of a pulmonary disease, at Cincin- 
nati, in the year 1837, at the age of forty-three. Although 
he began the world poor, and for some years was embarrassed 
with the debts he incurred in his unsuccessful mercantile 
operations in this county, he afterward accumulated con- 
siderable wealth. 

Thomas Ford had better opportunities for acquiring an 
education. He was studious in his youth, aud at school 
ardently atta bed to the science of mathematics. He 
awakened the interest of Daniel P. Cook, who made ar- 
rangements for him to study law, and sent him to Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, to improve his education. The misfortunes 
of his brother Forguer obliged him to return home, and 
while reading law he taught school, at intervals, at Water- 
loo, to gain the means of a support. He began practice in 
1823; in 1829 was appointed prosecuting attorney; in 1835 
was elected circuit judge ; in 1840 an associate justice of the 
supreme court; and in 1842 governor of the state. He died 
at Peoria in 1849, which place he made his home after the 
close of his term as governor. 


In the Indian hostilities from 1786 to 1795 the inhabit- 
ants of the present Monroe county suffered greatly. The 
pioneer settlers realized their exposed condition, aud as soon 
as they reached the county erected forts for their protection. 
One of these block houses was at Bellefontaine. Another 
was in the American Bottom near the residence of Shadrach 
Bond. Another was built by Daniel and James Flannary 
on the main road from Kaskaskia to Cahokia. This was 
about three miles southeast of the present town of Columbia, 
and was afterward widely known as Whiteside's station. A 
fourth was erected by James Piggot at the foot of the bluff, 
a mile and a half west of Columbia, where a small creek, 
called by the French the Grand Ruisseau, emerges from the 
bluff. This was also a celebrated place in early times, and 
was known as Piggot's fort. A fifth block house was built 
by Nathaniel Hull at his residence at the foot of the bluff 
just below the present Chalfin bridge. Brashear's station 
stood near the present town of Harrisonville, and Golden's 
block house not far from where Monroe city is now built. 
Sometimes these forts, or stations, consisted of a single block 
house, the second story projecting over the first, with holes 



in the floor through which to shoot at Indians attempting to 
enter the lower story. The lower story was provided with 
port holes, and with strong p'uncheou doors, three or four 
inches thick, stoutly barred. Another and better style of 
pioneer fortification was made by building a large, strong 
block house on each of the four corners of a square lot of 
ground. Large timbers, placed deep in the ground and 
extending twelve or fifteen feet above the surface, filled in 
the interval between the buildings. Within these stockades 
caSins were built, and if a spring was not to be found a well 
was dug. When danger was suspected horses were kept 
inside during the night. There were usually two strong 
gates. In the line of the stockade, near the top, port holes 
were cut here and there, and platforms were constructed 
inside on which to stand and shoot. The timber was care- 
fully cleared away in the vicinity so that no place of ambush 
might be aflorded the enemy. Sometimes sentinels were 
k?pt on watch during the night. In the morning the 
inmates emerged from the fort with great caution, for the 
Indians at that hour often lurked in the neighborhood. In 
these stations the inhabitants found refuge in times of 
anticipated danger, and from them issued the expeditions 
that set out from time to time to punish the Indians for .some 

In the year 1780 while Mr Hulf, who had married the 
widow Moredock, was coming to Illinois from Western 
Pennsylvania with the Moredock family, the party was 
attacked by the Indians on the Missi.ssippi near Grand 
Tower, and Mrs. Huff, one of her sons, and some others were 
killed. The re-t mauaged to cscap"? in the boat. The body 
of Mrs. Huff was mangled in a shocking manner before the 
eyes of her husband and family. One of her sons, John 
Moredock, swore vengeance against the Indian race, and was 
afterward one of the foremost leaders in inflicting punish- 
ment on the savages A few years afterward Mr. Huff, 
himself, was killed by the Indians on the road between 
Prairie du Rocher and Kaskaskia. Many years afterward 
his watch and some other articles were found on the spot 
where he had been killed. 

Before thi.s, in the year 1783, James Flaunary had been 
killed, but the settlers were not much apprehensive 
of danger till a general war commenced in 1786. That 
year James Andrews, who lived two miles north of where 
Waterloo now stands, was attacked by the Indians, he and 
his wife massacred, and his child taken captive. Andrews 
was an adventurous yung Virginian, who had come to 
Illinois with the American immigration, and had settled at 
Bellefontaine in 1782. Shortly afterward he married the 
daughter of Captain Joseph Ogle, and settled at the head 
of Andrews' run at a spot now included in claim 507, 
survey 721. The window of his cabin was a S()uare hole 
cut into the side of the building, which could be .securely 
clcsed in times of danger. Andrews had neglected to close 
this opening on retiring fjr the night, and just before dawn 
while reposing peacefully by the side of his wife and child 
there came the sharp, clear report of an Indian's rifle, anil 
a bullet penetrated his body. He instantly leaped from the 
bed, and sprang out through the opposite door, believing 

that the savages would be satisfied with plundering the 
house, and would not injure his wife and child. After ran- 
sacking the house, and loading themselves with such articles 
as they could carry, they prepared to depart, taking Mrs. 
Andrews with them, when the little girl, at that time three 
years old, who had before remained perfectly quiet and un- 
ob-erved, called out, " Don't take my mamma." Upon 
hearing the cry, they returned and seized the child, and 
carried her with them After traveling about a quarter of 
a mile Mrs. Andrews, who was in a delicate state of health, 
expecting soon to become the mother of another child, 
became uuable to proceed farther, when her inhuman cap- 
tors took the unhappy woman behind a tree and murdered 
her, leaving the body on the scene of the outrage. The 
body of poor Andrews was discovered some days later, far 
down the creek, where in weakness and delirium he had 
sunk down and died. Captain Ogle, the father of Mrs. 
Andrews, went to St. Louis, then a French trading port, 
and offered a liberal reward for the recovery of the child 
through the French traders and trappers. The little girl 
had been carried by the Indians as far north as Prairie du 
Chien, but after a short captivity she was brought back to 
St. Louis by the French trappers. She was raised in the 
family of James Lemen, at New Design. Her name was 
Drusilla, and on arriving at womanhood she became the wife 
of Henry Mace. Soon after her marriage she and her hus- 
band settled on the Andrews' tract, but a short distance 
from where the old house had stood. On one occasion, while 
sitting with her infant in her arms, an aged Pottawatamie 
Indian entered the house, and addressod her in broken Eng- 
lish : " House no here long time ago," and then taking her 
by the arm led her to where her father's house had stood, 
and said, '' Long time ago you papoose, heep Indian came 
and kill you mother." Mrs Mace was much agitated. The 
Indian, without doubt, was one of the band that massacred 
her father and mother. She became the mother of a large 
family of children. 

On the 10th of December, 1788, while Benjamin Ogle 
and James Garretson were hauling hay from the bottom, 
they were fired upon by two Indians. A ball lodged in 
Ogle's shoulder and remained there. Garretson escaped in 
the woods. While engaged in stacking this same hay Samuel 
Garretson and a man named Keddick were killed and 
scalpi'd. On account of his wound Mr Ogle was granted a 
pension by the government. On the 28th of March, 1788, 
William Biggs, who then resided at Bellefontaine, in com- 
pany with John Vallis, set out for Cahokia, to sell some 
beaver fur. When within six miles of Piggot's fort they 
heard the report of two guns which they thought had been 
fired by hunters. Soon afterward sixteen Indians made 
their appearance and presented their guns in readiness to 
fire. Biggs and Vallis whipped their horses and attempted 
to escape. The bullets of the Indians killed Biggs' horse 
and pierced his overcoat with four holes, though his per.son 
escaped injury. With his furs and saddle he fell from his 
horse, and after running sume distance, was made prisoner. 
Vallis was shot in the thigh, but clung to his horse, which 
carried him to the fort. He died six weeks afterward from 



his wound. As soou as Vallis reached the fort a swivel gun 
was fired to alarm the neighborhood. When the Indians 
heard this gun they ran with Biggs for si.K miles. They 
were without horses, but traveled forty miles the first day. 
One of the Indians attempted to kill Biggs, but this his 
comrades would not permit, and killed the Indian himself. 
The Indians were Kickapoos, and traveled with Biggs to 
their town on the Wabash. After some time he effected his 
release by agreeing to pay a Spaniard, named Bazedone, 
two hundred and sixty dollars ransom money, and thirty- 
seven more for necessaries to enable him to make his journey 
home. He reached Kaskaskia by way of the AVabash, 
Ohio and Jlississippi rivers, and from there came to Belle- 
fontaine. lie was a large and fine-looking man, and was 
greatly admired by the Indian maidens, who were his warm 
friends during his captivity. He wrote and published a 
narrative of his adventures in 1820. 

During the years 1789 and 1790 the Indians grew more 
bold and troublesome, and numerous murders were com- 
mitted. No family or individual was safe, night or day, 
from their attacks. It is estimated that in these two years 
one-tenth of the inhabitants of the county were massacred. 
The Kickapoos were mostly the aggressors. They were 
better armed and more vigorous than the other Indian 
tribes, and prosecuted their war against the Americans with 
great ferocity. The French settlers of Illinois almost en- 
tirely escaped. The enmity of the savages was directed 
altogether against the American population. In the xVmer- 
ican Bottom, not far from where Fountain creek flows from 
the bluff, three boys were attacked by six Indians in 1789. 
One, David Waddle, was struck with a tomahawk in three 
places and scalped, but still made his escape and recovered 
from his wounds. His companions ran to the neighboring 
fort and were uninjured. James Turner and John Ferrel 
were killed the same year. James Dempsey was scalped 
and left for dead, but recovered. In the winter of 1789-90, 
a party of Osage Indians crossed the Mississippi and stole 
some horses from the settlers in the American Bottom. A 
party was hastily organized to pursue them toward the river 
James Worley, being in advance of the others, was turned 
upon, and killed and scalped by the Indians, before his 
companions could come to his rescue. It is said that the 
Indians cut off the head of Worley, and threw it toward the 
whites as they advanced. It was seldom that the Osages, 
who lived west of the Missiisippi, crossed the river to commit 
depredations in Illinois. 

A Baptist preacher from Kentucky, James Smith, while 
journeying to the village of St. Phillips, in company with a 
Frenchman and a Mrs. Huft" on the 19th of May, 1790, the 
party was fired en by a band of Kickapoo Indians who were 
concealed in a thicket near Bellefontaine. The horses of 
the preacher and Frenchman were shot, and the woman was 
wounded. Mrs. Huff was at once killed on falling into the 
hands of the Indians; the Frenchman made his escape, and 
Smith was taken prisoner. His saddle bags were found the 
next day in a tlncket where he had thrown them at the time 
of the attack. He was a large, heavy man, and the Indians 
loaded him with a pack of plunder they had secured from 

the settlements, and set out toward their town on the Wa- 
bash. His march through the prairies, with a heavy load, 
and under a hot sun, was excessively fatiguing Some of 
the Indians propo.sed to kill him, and pointed their guns at 
his breast. Having observed him praying and singing 
hymns, they concluded that he was a good medicine man, 
and held intercourse with the Great Spirit, and must not 
therefore be killed. Through the agency of the French 
traders at Yincennes, he was released, the people of the New 
Design settlement paying one hundred and seventy dollars 
for his ransom. He came back to Illinois, obtained his 
saddle bags which contained valuable papers relating to the 
titles of land belonging to his friends, and then returned to 

In May, 1791, John Demp.sey, who two years before had 
been scalped by the Indians and left for dead, was again 
attacked, and this time succeeded also in eftecting his escape. 
A party of eight men hastened in pursuit of the Indians, 
who were double the number of the whites. Captain Na- 
thaniel Hull led the party, of whom the other members 
were James Lemen, Joseph Ogle, Benjamin Ogle, Josiah 
Kyan, William Bryson, John Porter and Daniel Raper. 
The Indians were overtaken and a hot battle fought in the 
timber at the Big Spring, about five miles north of the 
present town of Waterloo, and a short distance east of the 
St. Louis road. The fight was kept up from tree to tree, the 
Indians endeavoring to escape and the whites pursuing. 
Five of the Indians were killed, and not one of the whites 
was injured. 

In the year 179:.) a band of Kickapoo Indians stole some 
horses from the Araericiin bottom near Eagle Clifi's, and an 
expedition was organized to pursue the Indians. William 
Whiteside was captain, and he was accompanied by Samuel 
Judy, John Whiteside, Samuel Whiteside, William Harring- 
ton, William L. Whiteside, John Porter, and John Dempsey. 
They followed the Indian trail, passing near the site of the 
present city of Belleville, towards the Indian camp on Shoal 
creek. One of the party generally went before on the trail 
to prevent the others from rushing int-i an ambuscade. It 
was considered better that one should be killed than all the 
party. They came up with the Indians on Shoal creek, and 
found three of the horses grazing in the prairie. These 
horses were secured, and then arrangements were made to 
attack the Indian camp. Captain Whiteside divided his 
force into two parties of four men each. These parties 
attacked the camp from oj)posite sides at the same time, the 
firing of the captain's gun being the sigual for the commence- 
ment of the battle. One Indian, the son of the chief, was 
killed, and several woundtd. The Indians ran off, leaving 
their guns and everything else behind. The old chief, Pecon 
by name, surrendered, and gave up his gun ti Whiteside. 
He supposed from the bold attack that the whites were 
numerous, but when he found their entire number consisted 
of only eight men, he called in a loud voice for his men to 
return, and at the same time attempted to wrench his gun 
from Whiteside's hands. Whiteside was a large man of ex- 
traordinary strength and easily retained the gun. While 
the struggle was going on the whites were afraid to shoot at 



the Indian lest they might kill their captain. Whiteside 
would not permit his men to injure an unarmed foe, and the 
chief was suffered to escape. Captain Whiteside was famous 
for his prudence, as well as iiis courage, and witli the horses 
they had caught, started back, and neither ate nor slept till 
they reached Wliiteside's station. Hia wisdom was verified, 
for the very niglit of his arrival at the station Pecon and 
seventy warriors, in pursuit, camped near Cahokia. The 
next year, 1794, Pecon and his band shot Thomas Whiteside 
near the station, and tomahawked a son of ('aptaiu White- 
side^who had wandered some distance from the fort to play. 

Captain Whiteside, however, had his revenge ne.xt year. 
A Frenchman of Cahokia informed him tliat a considerable 
number of Indians had camped under the bluff in St. Clair 
county, near where the road from Belleville to St. Louis now 
pasies. Captain Whiteside gathered a company of fourteen, 
among which were Samuel Whiteside, William L. White- 
side, John.son J. White.-ide, Samuel Judy, and Isaac Euochs, 
and attacked the cam[) ju-st before the break of day, killing 
all the Indians except one who ran off, and was killed, it is 
said, by the other Indians for his cowardice. For man)' 
years afterward the boues of these Indians could be seen 
whitening the ground. In this battle Captain Whiteside 
was wounded, and he su|)posed mortally. He fell to the 
ground, but still continued to exhort his men to stand their 
ground and never permit an Indian to touch his body when 
he was dead, as he supposed he would be in a short time. 
His son, Uel, was also wounded in his arm so that he could 
not use his gun. He examined his father's wound, and 
found that the ball had not i)assed through the body, but 
had struck a rib and glanced off toward the spiue. The bul- 
let could be felt uuder the skin. Every pioneer in those 
davs was a surgeon, and with his butcher-knife he cut it out, 
remarking, ' Father, you arc not dead yet.' Tlie old man 
jumped to his feet, and continued his fight with the Indians. 
On their return to Wliiteside's station the party halted in 
Cahokia, at the house of Mrs. Rains, to care for the wounded 
This lady had two beautiful aud intelligent daughters, and 
this accidental meeting finally led to their marriage to Uel 
and William 15. Whiteside. 

The most serious and dreadful tragedy that ever occurred 
in the county, or, indeed, in the State, wa.3 the murder of 
the wife and four children of Robert McMahan, in January, 
1795, three miles southeast of the New Design station. Mc- 
Mahan was a native of Virginia, from which he emigrated 
to Kentucky where, at Crab Orchard, he married Margaret 
Cline. In the year 1703 he came to Illinois, and settled at 
New Design. In 1794 he lived in a house near the station 
belonging to James Lsmeii ; he had selected a location 
in the prairie, and desiring to improve a farm had moved on 
the land which was part of the northeast quarter of section 
nineteen, township three south, range nine west. No other 
house was in sight. He made prepirations to defend him.self 
and family from an attack by the Indians. He ha<l a rifle, 
and only a week before the tragedy, had run two hundred 
rifle balls. He also kept at the house a blunderbuss loaded 
with six charges of powder aud nine balls. " When you 
hear the report of mv blunderbuss," said he to his friends at 

the station, "you may be certain that I am attacked." The 
door of his house was so constructed that it might be strongly 
barred, and port holes were made in the walls through which 
he might shoot any oue who should attcm|)t to ascend to the 
roof The murders took place ou the twenty-sixth of Jan- 
uary, 179-3. On the morniug of that day McMahan went 
out to hunt for his oxen, when he perceived that his horse, 
which was confined in a pen, appeared to be frightened. He 
cast his eye over the prairie in every direction, but saw no 
enemy. A lone hickory tree, one hundred and fifty yards 
from the house, had been blown down the previous fall while 
in full leaf, and thus furnished a convenient hiding place for 
an attacking party. Unfortunately he did not think that a 
deadly enemy might be hid behind' this convenient covert. 

lie entered his house but had not been indoors more than 
two or three minutes, when four Indians, frightfully painted 
black and red, entered the house, two by two, saying " Bon 
jour I B )U jour !" (good day I g )od day I ) a salutation which 
they had eviJently learned from thair intercourse with the 
French. They stood motionless a few seconds, when one of 
them attempted to take down McMalun's rifle from the 
hooks, and McMahan took iloivii his blunderbuss; but his 
wife took hold of it and begged him not to resist as she 
hoped their lives might be sjiared if they submitted peace- 
ably, but otherwise they would be killed. The Indians then 
seized the blunderbuss, and wrenched it from liis hands. 
Every oue then made for the door. Mrs. JIcMahau ran 
half way around the house, when she wa-- shot in the left 
breast aud scalped. McMahan was then pulled back into 
the house, thrown on the floor, and his hands pinioned close 
behind him, wiitli deer siue*s. .Sally McMillan, the oldest 
daughter, then les-s than throeycars ol<l. remained in the house, 
and saw one of the Indians knock her brother and two of her 
sisters on the head with the |)ole of his tomahawk. It was 
a light blow, only sufiicieut to stun them. This Indiin was 
proceeding to open the cradle where lay a female infant, 
only one month old, when Sally ran out of the house, and 
once around it, when she was also seized b_v him. Three of 
the children were scalped. The infant likewise was mur- 

The Indians took from the house such articles as they 
wanted, packed a part of them upon Jlcilahan, untying one 
of his hands so that he might hold the load on his back. 
Thev were in a great hurry to got off. Sally ilcMahan was 
also taken along as a prisoner. They set out for the Indian 
town iu the northeast part of Illinois. They crossed Prairie 
du Long creek, not far from its mouth, and camped the 
first night on Richland creek, about half a mile below the 
present town of Belleville. ^IcMahan meditated an escape, 
but did not make known his intention to his daughter. The 
first night the Indians tied hira securely, and took away his 
shoes aud hat and part of his clothes, so that he had no op- 
portunity. They also tied ou him a belt, partly wrought with 
porcupine (juills and small bells, so that if he stirre<l, the 
bells would rattle and give the alarm. After the journey 
was commenced the Indians were kind and friendly, fixing the 
shoes of Sally McMahan, and making her as comfortable as 
possible. The second night Mc.Nlalian quietly slipped the 



cords from his limbs and body, and was about to rise, when 
one of the Indians raised up his head, and looked around, 
but laid down again without noticing him. When the 
Indian had again gone to sleep, McMahan made his escape, 
without his shoes, bat, and with but little of his clothing. 
He covered some of his clothing over the belt of bells, so 
that they made no noise. He slipped back to the camp, and 
tried to get his shoes, or a pair of moccasins from the Indians, 
but could get neither. He starced for the New Design, as 
well as he could judge of the course. He was nearly fam- 
ished. While with the Indians a small pittance of dried 
meat had been his only food. The Indians, themselves, were 
without provisions, and in an almost starving condition. He 
lay out one night, making his bed of leaves under a large 
fallen tree, which was held up from the ground by its 
branches. His feet and elbows were partially frozen, but 
with the daylight he resumed his journey He visited the 
New Design settlement, but near Prairie du Rocher saw 
Samuel Judy. When he reached New Design his condition 
was deplorable. His clothing was torn and tattered, his 
feet bruised and bleeding, and his limbs partially frozen. 

His wife and children lay dead for several days before the 
murder was discovered by the neighbors. A small dog, 
which had been much admired and petted by McMahan's 
family, came frequently to the house of James Lemen, whin- 
ing, and running backyvard and forward in an unusual 
manner. No one took any hint from the actions of the dog, 
though the cause of its distress was plainly enough afterward 
made manifest. Old Mr. Judy was the first to discover the 
dead bodies, and shed tears when he told the sad story of the 
murder. The neighbors went out and buried the dead all in 
one grave, and on the night of the same day funeral services 
were held at the house of James Lemen. At nine or ten 
o'clock, just as the meeting closed MeMahan entered the 
house from Prairie du Rocher. The little dog at first did 
not know his master, so changed was he by his hardships and 
sufferings, but the moment he looked into his face he leaped 
into his lap with extravagant demonstrations of joy. The 
whole assembly was profoundly aflected, and McMahan burst 
into loud lamentations over the fate of his family. 

After McMahan's escape the Indians traveled with their 
remaining captive, Sally McMahan, to the home of tha 
Putawahs, southwest of Lake Michigan. Here she was 
transferred to an Ottawa Indian named Sukkonok, who had 
become a chief in the Putawah tribe and whose wife was 
the sister of the three who had been concerned in the 
massacre. By the treaty of Greenville, following Wayne's 
victory over the Indians in 1795, the Indians engaged to 
bring to the white settlements all the captives in their pos- 
session. In accordance with this agreement Sukkonok, in 
April, 1796, brought Sally McMahan in a canoe,, down the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers to Cahokia where she was de- 
livered to the white people. It was during the session of the 
court, and a great many people were present. The Indian 
chief made a speech in which he said that he had no hand in 
the massacre and had paid a considerable sum for the captive, 
and had brought her from a great distance to the white 
settlements. He therefore appealed to the liberality qf the 

white people to make him a just compensation. A subscrip- 
tion paper was drawn up, and one hundred and sixty-four 
dollars raised, which amount, in goods, was advanced to Suk- 
konok by Mr. Arundel, a merchant of Cahokia. Robert 
McMahan married a second wife, and raised a large family. 
He lived for some years on Ralls' ridge, near Red Bud, in 
Randolph county, and was justice of the peace and judge of 
the Randolph county court. He afterward removed to the 
vicinity of Troy, in Ridge prairie, in Madison county, where 
he died in the year 1822 at the age of sixty-three. Sally, 
his daughter, who was born in March, 1785, married David 
Gaskill, in Ridge prairie, Madison county, where the greater 
part of her life was spent. She died in the city of Alton, ou 
the tweuty-lhird of January, 1850.* 


The first water mill in the county seems to have been 
Judy's mill, built a short distance east of Whiteside's 
station by Jacob Judy in 1794. It was of great 
service to the pioneer settlers. A few years afterward a 
number of mills were built in the same neighborhood. Some 
were propelled by water, and some were the old band mills. 
George Valentine was the builder of a mill on a stream nearly 
west of Judy's mill. On Fountain creek, west of Waterloo, an 
Irishman, named Halfpenny, one of the early school teachers 
in Illinois, built a water mill about the year 1795. On 
Ryan's creek, between Monroe City and the bottom, a mill 
was built by Josiah Ryan in the year 1798. All traces of 
this mill, and that on Fountain creek, have long since dis- 
appeared. Andrew Kinney was the first builder of a mill 
on the site of Monroe City. It did a prosperous business in 
early days, and made considerable quantities of flour for the 
St. Louis and other markets. Soon after the opening of the 
present century more mills were built. Two men named 
Tate and Singleton built a good stone mill on Fountain 
creek, a few miles southwest of Waterloo, in the year 1802. 


The most terrific hurricane that ever swept over the county 
occurred on the fifth of June, 1805 It moved from the 
northwest to the southeast, and crossed the Mississippi about 
a mile below the mouth of the Merrimac, passing through 
the present Moredock precinct. Its track was about three- 
quarters of a mile in width. It prostrated trees, and even 
swept the water out of the river and the lakes in the Ameri- 
can Bottom. W^illiam Blair, who had a boat moored in the 
river, near the place where the storm crossed it, asserted that 
for three-quarters of a mile the water was raised out of the 
river by the violence of the tempest. Fish from the river 
and lakes were scattered all over the prairie in its course. 
It occurred about one o'clock in the afternoon. The sun 
previously had been shining, and the atmosphere had been 
clear. Col. James A. James, resided with his father nearly 
in its course, and was an eye-witness to the terrible storm. 

Reynolds' Pioneer History of the McMahan ma9s»cre 
lorrect. He states that two daughters were taken 
IS only one. The facts, as above narrated, .-igree with 
the statements made by the daughter, Mrs. Gaskill, to George Churchill, a 
careful and aocurate writer of Madison county, who prepared an account of 
the affair in 18&5. 

* The account given : 
is, in some instances, i 
prisoners, when there i 



The family fled from its track. Dr. Cairnes and his family 
were directly iu its course and saw it approaching, and suc- 
ceeded in saving their lives A.s the Doctor and his family 
were running for safety the storm overtook them. His wife 
was behind, and she lay flat on the earth and held to a bush. 
Kails, tree-tops and almost every movable thing were dashed 
around her with great force, and she was wounded in the 
head, but not fatally. The rest of the family escaped unhurt. 
Dr. Cairnes' cattle came running home before the hurricane 
reached the house and barn, bellowing and much terrified. 
They all peri.^hed. A hors3 iu a lot near the house was 
killed by a fence rail running through him. Every log in 
the house and the last rock in the foundation of the chimney 
were swept away. Everything movable was destroyed and 
torn to pieces. A large bull was raised high in the air, and 
after being carried a considerable distance, was dashed to the 
ground with every bone in his carcass broken. By the time 
the storm reached the Mississippi bluffs, its force was nearly 
spent, and no injury was done on the hills. The clothes and 
all the household furniture of Dr. Cairnes were destroyed, 
and scattered far and near. One of his waistcoats was found 
in the Little prairie, where his father resided, si.'i or eight 
miles distant. Tops of pine trees from Missouri, which did 
not grow nearer than fifty or sixty miles from the American 
Bottom, could be seen. In the midst of the storm it was 
very dark. 

The eaily settlers chose the timbered sections of the place 
where they chanced to locate in preference to the open 
l)rairie. ]\Iany ascribe as a reason for such choice, that 
they believed the prairies were so poor that they would 
not produce timber, and hepce were too barren to yield 
crops for the sustenance of themselves and families. This, 
however, is an error. The true reason for the selection of 
homes iu the timber may be thus enumerated : First, the 
pioneers put U|) their cabins where wood was plentiful for 
building and fuel, and where the timber afforded shelter 
from wintry blasts and the scorching sun of summer ; 
secondly, in the early days the prairies were covered with a 
dense growth of grass, and during the greater portion of the 
year the surface was covered with water, thus preventing a 
supply of that article in a wholesome state, which could be 
readily obtained in the timber ; thirdly, the prairie sod was 
so strong that they were unable to break it up for cultiva- 
tion, owing to the primitive nature of their agricultural 

The first white man to h)cate permanently iu Perry 
county, of which we have any reliable data, was John Flack, 
who settled in Four Mile prairie, with his family, in 1799. 
He built his rude log cabin on the southwest quarter of .sec- 
tion eleven, iu township six, south of range three, in what is 
now a part of Pinckneyville precinct. When John Flack 
came to his new home, he found but one white man in the 
county. This man's name was Cox, and with his family, he 
had taken up his temporary abode on claim No. 1,410, sur- 
vey No. 459— the only survey or claim within the limits of 

the county. The claim was located in sections seventeen 
and eighteen, iu towushipsix, range two, on Bjaucoup creek ; 
and also in Pinckneyville precinct. The abode of Cox, 
prior to his advent to this county, or whence he removed, is 
no longer known. The old pi'ineer, John Flack, left a son, 
John Flack, whom the later settlers found living in the Four 
Mile prairie. 

B A Brown and family were among the early settlers 
and neighbors of John Flack. They lived in the Six Mile 
prairie; bat all traces of the family have long since been 
lost. We find an entry of the west half of the northeast 
quarter of section nineteen, in township six south, of range 
three west, in the name of Benjamin Brown, as early as 
Mf>rch 16, 1819. The next to locate permanently in the 
county was the Hutchings family. In May, 181G, John afld 
William Hutchings. brothers, with their families, camped 
upon the banks of Beaucoup creek, in what is now Beau- 
coup precinct. They were on their way from Tennessee to 
Missouri, and had no intention of remaining psrmauently. 
After a few days rest they pushed onward, and on reaching 
Katcliff's or Sawyer's point, in Washington county, fifteen 
miles distant, they abandoned their journey, and returned to 
their old former camping place, where they had found game 
and honey in abundance, and where the productive appear- 
ance of the surrounding country had favorably impressed 
them during their transient sojourn. John Hutchings' 
family consisted of a wife, four children, and three slaves, 
Landon Parks and Agis, his wife, and a colored woman 
named Dinah. William Hutchings' family was composed of 
a wife, six children, and a young woman named Dv.dilah 
Jones, who afterward became the wife of John R. Hutch. 
ings, his eldest son. This party of emigrants had made the 
journey in old-fashioned wagons, drawn by horses, and com- 
prisec" eighteen persons iu all. The Hutchings were natives 
of North Carolina, where they married. John Hutchings 
built his first cabin on the northwest quarter of section uiue- 
teen, in township four south, of range two, which he entered 
July 2-5, 1817. He sub.sequently built a two story frame 
house near his cabin. This was known for many years as 
the " Travelers' Inn." William Hutchings built his first 
house in the south edge of the prairie, which took his name. 
Here he resided until 1819, on what is now known as the 
Watson place, and died in 1820. The Hutchings family 
were prominent and useful citizens, and the eldest son of 
William, John K. Hutchings, was one of the earliest 
teachers and Baptist ministers. He was also one of the 
commissioners chosen to se'ect the site of Piuckneyville, and 
held many of the county offices, among the number that of 
judge. Wesley W. Hutchings, born at the pioneer home, on 
the 4th of October, 1822, is the only survivor of William 
Hutchings' family, and now resides in the Three Mile prai- 
rie, Washington county, this state. Mrs. Mary Ivice, widow 
of Hiram Kicp, and daughter of John Hu'chings, is the only 
survivor of the eighteen pioneers, and was but five years old 
when brought to the territory by her father iu May, 1816. 
The nearest trading points at the time of the settlement by 
the Hutchings, were Kaskaskia and St. Louis, and the only 
articles of trade were deerskins, honey and beeswax, which 



were exchanged for such necessaries as were required. John 
Huggius, who was au early settler of Cutler, came to Illinois 
in 1802. He yet lives in section tweuty-one, and is a native 
of South Carolina. 

The first to seek a home within the limits of what is now 
Du Quoin precinct, was Jarrold Jackson, who exacted a toll 
from travelers for crossing a bridge over Little Muddy, in 
1803, on the road leading from Shawneetown to Kaskaskia. 
Thomas Taylor, a native of South Carolina, came into this 
precinct =n 1812, from Jackson county, to which place he 
had emigiated in 1803. Lewis Wells, also a native of South 
Carolina, an old neighbor of Taylor, and one of the early 
county commissioners, moved to Jackson county in 1804 ; 
and fjom there came with Taylor, to what is now Perry 
counly, in 1812. Mr. Wells resided in Du Quoin precinct 
until 1846, the yeflr of his death. He had reached the ripe 
age of ninety-six years. John Campbell, who, at his death, 
left his children, John, Washington, Isaac, Alexander and 
Charles living in the precinct, came from Tennessee in 18] 2, 
and gettlrd in the neighborhood of Wells and Taylor. In 
1815, Tamaroa precinct received its first permanent resident 
in the person of the parents of Edward T. Rees. They 
settled near a water course, now known as Rees' creek. 
Edwaid T. Rees has been honored with the responsible 
position of County Judge, by his fellow gitizens. 

Du Quoin precin"t received within its borders as perma- 
nent citizens, in 1816, Hiram Root and Ephraim Skinner 
and their families. They were natives of New York. Mr. 
Skinner lived but four years after their arrival. 

Simon Wiiliard and family settled in the southwest in 1817. 
He located on section two, township six south, range four; 
and when the land came into market, he entered it January 
19, 1819. There were 504.60 acres in the tract. His 
neighbor, James Craine, improved and made his hoae 
on the nrrthcast quarter of section thirteen, township 
six ran we four. Mr. Craine entered this tract in the 
land office in Kaskaskia, May 14, 1818. Benjamin Brown 
was also a neighbor in 1817. His home was on the west 
half of the southeast quarter of section eleven of the same 
township. Richard Green, Robert Crow and Robert John- 
son with their families, were living in the neighborhood. 
William H. Threlkel, Jacob Short and John Stuart were 
also residents of this section, and their names are intimately 
interwoven in the earlier civil history of the county as 
men of unqucsliontd honesty and ability. They were 
natives of New York, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Stephen 
Kelly was also a pioneer of this neighborhood. The Pyle 
family, whose names appear prominently in the civil history 
of the county, in pioneer days, and many of whose descend- 
ants are now respected citizens of the county, came to what 
is now Du Quoin precinct, from Tennessee, in 1819. There 
were three brothers, John, William and Abner, all men with 
families of well-grown children. Grand Cote received its 
first settler in 1819. Thomas Swanwick, a native of 
Chester, England, entered the northwest quarter, and the 
east half of the southwest quarter of section eleven in town- 
ship four south of r nge four, on the thirteenth day of 
February, 1818. The land entered by this old pioneer is 

now occupied by his son, Joel J. Swanwick, now past the 
meridian of life. James McMurdo came with Mr. Swan- 
wick, and now resides in Randolph county. The next ac- 
cession to the settlement of Grand Cote, was Wil'iam P. 
Elliott, who came from Georgia in 1820. He located on 
the twentieth section, built his cabin, and in the spring of 
1821, brought his family to his new home. He was an en- 
terprising citizen, and was the first to operate a mill in this 
section of the county. He built a tug or band mill as early 
as 1822. The burrs were made from boulders picked up on 
the prairie. 

In 1822, Shadrach Lively made an improvement in the 
southwest corner of Holt's Prairie. Between the years 
1820 and 1830, Du Quoin precinct received a large number 
of settlers, among whom were Robrrt McElvain, Rodney 
Bolin and others. The widow of Rodney Bjlin died a few 
years since, being past ninety years of age. In this decade, 
Daniel Dry, the first county treasurer, after the organization 
of the county, arrived iu Du Quoin precinct. It is said 
that Mr. Dry, in company with his wife, made the entire 
journey from Pennsylvania, on foot, bringing his entire 
worldly wealth in an old barrel, mounted on two wheels. 
This improvised cart he propelled before him as he trudged 
on his wearisome way in search of a home in the western 
wilds. He spent the remainder of his days in the county, 
leaving behind him an unsullied reputation, and a large 
number of descendants, who have kept the family name un- 
tarnished. David H. Mead was also a pioneer of the same 
neighborhood. His name appears prominently in the civil 
history of ihe county. In the year 1824, Du Quoin re- 
ceived other permanent and enterprising settlers in the per- 
sons of Zachariah Clinton, Green Durriugton and Micajah 
Phelps, all with familifs, who came direct from their 
homes in Kentucky. Also, Dr. Joseph Brayshaw, an En- 
glishman ; Avery Chapman and Joshua Davis, who settled 
upon what is now the site of Old Du Quoin. Cutler pre- 
cinct was colonized in 1825, by a band of sturdy pioneers, 
who made permanent settlements. They were natives of 
Smith county, Tennessee. Enoch Eaton, who still lives upon 
his old homestead, the northeast quarter of section- twenty- 
four, in township five south, range four, was the first of the 
company to arrive with his wife and two children. Oneofhis 
sons, R H. Eaton, is now a resident of Pinckneyville. He 
made the journey with the old-fashioned wagon, drawn by 
horses. He was soon followed by his father, who brought his 
family in a cart drawn by a bull. With Eaton, Sr , came 
John Murphy, father of Robert, James, Richard G., and 
William C, all of whom came with their iiUher and were 
prominent in the early histoty of the county. Hon. Wil- 
liam K. Murphy, of Pinckneyville is a grandson of this 
pioneer, Richard Green and family of New York ; Hugh 
Brown from South Carolina; Matthew Vann of Tennessee; 
Andrew Cooper of South Carolina were among Enoch 
Eaton's first and early neighbors. James Brown, also a 
native of South Carolina, settled near Galum as early as 
1825. The next accession to Grand Cote was Jonathan 
Petit, who came from the " Irish settlement " in Randolph 
County, in the spring of 1825. He settled on section thirty 



of township four south, of rauge four. In the same fall, he 
disposed of his improvement to Absalom Wilson of Wash 
ington County, Virginia. Sir. Wilson did not occup)' his 
new house, however, until 1840. George Cherry from the 
Chester District, South Carolina, also came into Grand 
Cote the same year, and settled on section five, where he 
continued to reside until his death, which occurred in 
March, 1857. 

The year 1826 brought so many permanent settlers into 
the territory now comprising the county, that toward the close 
of the year the necessary steps were taken to secure the organi- 
zation of the county. Among the number who took up their 
abode within its limits were : David Deal, a native of Ten- 
nessee. He brought a wife and family of six children, two 
sons and four daughters ; two of the latter are now residents 
of Franklin county, this .state, the rest being dead. He 
built his humble cabin on section twenty-eight. He subse- 
quently purchased the improvement of David Rees, who had 
made his appearance about the same time as Mr. Deal, and 
had built his cabin on section twenty-one. After purchas- 
ing Jlr. Rees' improvement, Mr. Deal entered the land. 
Abraham Jlorgan and family made themselves houses in 
what is now Taniaroa precinct, as early as 182G. They 
lived upon, and were the first occupants of what is now 
known as the Samuel Benson place; and there entered the 
southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 
eighteen of township four south, range one west. 

Fiyckneyville precinct received numerous accessions in 

1826. Among the number were Ephraim Bilderback and 
Charles Garner, who came from Randolph county and 
settled in the southwestern portion of the Four-mile prairie, 
in the spring of that year. Matthew Jones settled on the 
west side of Holt's Prairie in 1826. John Hazzard and 
John Berry came with Jones and made themselves houses 
in the same prairie. All were natives of Tennessee. Abner 
Flack, a native of South Carolina, took up his abode in the 
Four-mile prairie the same year; and George Franklin 
made his house, one-half mile south of the present site of 
Piuckneyville at the tame time. The year 1827, brought 
with it some of the pioneers, whose names are interwoven 
inseparably with the early political history of the county. 
Chief among the number was Humphrey B. Jones. Mr. 
Jones was a native of Kentucky and first came to Jackson 
county, Illinois, ia 1821. There he continued to reside 
until the twenty-first daj' of April, li-27, when he changed 
his residence to the new county of Perry. His first house 
was in Pinckueyville, near the site of the "old spring." 
Among his surviving children is the wife of Charles H. Roe, 
the efficient Circuit Clerk of the county. Mr. Jones held 
many of the official positions in the county, as will be seen 
by a reference to the civil chapter. He was a scholarly 
gentleman, an able lawyer and successful physician. He 
died at his home in Piuckneyville, his aged wife following 
but a few years since. Fergus Milligan, another of the 
more prominent early settlers, first came to the county in 

1827. He was a native of Iredell county. North Carolina, 
and arrived in the .spring, first settling the land now known 
as the Harmony place, three miks northwest of Pinckney" 

ville. When he came to the county, his family cons'sted of 
a wife and nine children. Not being satisfied with the 
selection first made, in the fall of the same year, he removed 
to Four-mile prairie, and seltctid a house on the southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter of section eleven, township 
six south, of range three, and there died some years since. 
Afton Crawford settled in the south end of the Four-mile 
prairie, in 1827, and improved what is now known as the 
'' old Bill Murphy " place. Jonathan Petit, from Randolph 
county, improved what is now the county poor farm, as 
early as 1827. 

The population of Tamaroa precinct was largely increased 
in 1828. Nathan G. Curlee, one of the pioneer local 
preachers, found a home on section seventeen of township 
four, rauge one. The first neighbor of Mr. Curlee was 
Benjamin Hammack, who brought his family, and selected 
a portion of section seventeen, township four, range one, as 
hid home. Mr. Hammack was a native of Virginia, but 
came to Perry from Jackson county. His family consisted 
of a wife and four children. Lewis Hammack, a prominent 
lawyer of Pinckueyville, is a son. Immediately following 
Mr. Hammack came Stephen Brown, who settled on the 
same section. 

Paradise precinct received as pioneers in 1828, Edward, 
Minyard i\nd Robert Gilliam, brothers, with their families 
from Bradford county, Tennessee. The prairie in which 
they settled now bears their name. The two first named 
died in the precinct and Robert in Te.xas. James Jones, a 
brother of William Jones who first came into the township 
in 1827, and bought the claim of a settler nan)ed Alexander 
Clark, arrived from Tenne.ssee with a wife and family of 
several children in 1828. With James Jones came an old 
Tennessee neighbor, by the name of John M. Haggard, who 
came along to see the country. Being well pleased he 
immediately returned to his old home and brought out his 
fomily — a wife and child. To the little settlement of Grand 
Cote was added in 1828, James Kirkpatrick and family of 
South Carolina, » ho made their home on section nine. 
Among the number of pioneers of 1^28, settling in Pinck- 
ueyville, \vere James Steele, who settled in the Four-mile 
prairie; and William Craig who found a home in the 
immediate vicinity. Joshua M Rice, a native of Tennessee 
arrived in 1829. and settled in Hutchings' prairie, where he 
raised one crop ; and changed his home to township four 
the following year. Peyfam Brown was also a settler in the 
immediate neighborhood the same year. Among the 
numerous accessions to the county from the years 1829 to 
1838 inclusive, were Reuben Kelly and Isaac McCollum, of 
Paradise; the Blands of Taniaroa; John White, Robert H. 
Allen, William M. .\dair, Hugh Cooper, Alexander Crsig, 
William Jvainey, Benjamin Ragland, Solomon Maxwell, 
John jNIcMillen, John Hughey, Newton FiankKn ib\ 
Joel Rushing, all in Grand Cote. The last named, Joel 
Rushing, was a native of Anson County, North Carolina, 
and while a mere boy was taken to Bedford County, Ten- 
nessee. Here he grew to manhood, found a wife in the 
person of Miss Susannah Hale, and came to Pcriy County 
in December, 18.38; and bought one hundred and twenty 



acres of land from James McMillan's father. Evan B. 
Rushing, one of the leading lawyers of the Perry county 
bar, is a son of this pioneer. Jeremiah Dennis, Jacob 
Walker; Campbell Stuart, James Meadows and Edmund 
Hodges sought homes in Beaucoup precinct during this 
period. Among the earliest pioneers who attained deserved 
political prominence was Hawkins S. O^burn, who ably 
represented his people in the General Assembly of the 
state, both in the House and Senate. He was a lover of 
fine horses, accumulated a handsome property and died a 
few years ago at a ripe old age. His sou, Thomas Osburn, 
now lives upon the old homestead, and is said to be a 
counterpart of his honored father. 

We have thus briefly sketched the early pioneer history 
of the county ; and the reader desirous of obtaining a more 
extended history of those named in this chapter, or whose 
names do not appear, will find what they seek in the 
several precinct histories. 


The early American settlers were principally from the 
Southern States of Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. 
Some came from Pennsylvania and Maryland. A New 
England emigrant was rare. Their sense of independence 
was one of the marked traits of their character. By the 
necessities of their situation they were forced into singular 
and different employments. They were compelled to act as 
mechanics, to make their plows, harness and other farming 
implements, to tan their leather, to hunt game, while at the 
signal of danger they unhitched their horses from the plow, 
and were ready to march to any part of the territory in 
defence of their homes. 

While the majority of settlers were without means, pov- 
erty carried with it no crushing sense of degradation like 
that felt by the very poor of our day. They lived, it is 
true, in a cabin, but it was their own, and had been reared 
by their own hands. Their house, too, while inconvenient 
and far from water-proof, was built in the prevailing style 
of architecture, and would compare favorably with the 
homes of their neighbors. They were destitute of many of 
the conveniences of life, and of some things that are now 
considered necessaries ; but they patiently endured their lot 
and hopefully looked forward to better. They had plenty 
to wear as protection against the weather, and an abundance 
of ivholesome food. They sat down to a rude table to eat 
from tin or pewter dishes ; but the meat thereon spread — 
the flesh of the deer or bear ; of the wild duck or turkey ; 
of the quail or squirrel — was superior to that we eat, and 
had been won by the skill of the head o*' the house or of 
that of his vigorous sous. The bread they ate was made 
from corn or wheat of their own raising. They walked the 
green carpet of the grand prairie or forest that surrounded 
them, not with the air of a beggar, but with the elastic step 
of a self-respected freeman. 

The settler brought with him the keen axe, which was 
indispensable, and the equally necessary rifle ; the first his 
weapon of offence against the forests that skiited the water- 
courses, and near which he made his home ; the second that 

of defence from the attacks of his foe, the cunning child of 
the forest and prairie. 

The manner of building was as follows : First, large logs 
were laid in position as sills ; on these were placed strong 
sleepers, and on the sleepers were laid the rough-hewed 
puncheons, which were to serve as floors. The logs were 
then built up till the proper height for the eaves was 
reached ; then on the ends of the building were placed poles, 
longer than the other end-logs, which projected some 
eighteen or more inches over the sides, and were called 
" butting-pole sleepers ;" on the projecting ends of these 
was placed the " butting-pole," which served to give the 
line to the first row of clap-boards. These were, as a 
matter of course, split, and as the gables of the cabin were 
built up, were so laid on as to lap a third of their length. 
They were often kept in place by the weight of a heavy 
pole, which was laid across the roof parallel to the ridge- 
pole. The house was then chinked, and daubed with a 
coarse mortar. 

A huge fire-place was built at one end of the house, in 
which fire was kindled for cooking purposes, for the settlers 
were generally without stoves, with which to furnish the 
needed warmth in winter. The ceiling above was some- 
times covered with the pelts of the raccoon, opossum, and 
of the wolf, to add to the warmth of the dwelling. Some- 
times the soft inner bark of the bags wood was used for the 
same purpose. The cabin was lighted by means of greased 
paper-windows. A log would be left out along one side, and 
sheets of strong paper, well greased with coon-grecse or 
bear oil, would be carefully tacked in. 

The above description only applies to the very earliest 
times, before the rattle of the saw-mill was heard within our 

The furniture comported admirably with the house itself, 
and hence, if not elegant, was in most perfect taste. The 
tables had four legs, and were rudely made from a puncheon. 
Their seats were stools having three or four legs. The bed- 
stead was in keeping with the rest, and was often so 
contrived as to permit it to be drawn up and fastened to the 
wall during the day, thus attbrding more room to the 
family. The entire furniture was simple, and was framed 
with no other tools than an axe and auger. Each was his 
own carpenter; and some displayed considerable ingenuity 
in the construction of implements of agriculture, and 
utensils, and furniture for the kitchen and house. Knives 
and forks they sometimes had, and sometimes had not The 
common table knife was the pack knife or butcher-knife. 
Horse collars were sometimes made of the plaited husk of 
the maize sewed together. They were easy on the neck of 
the horse, and if tug-traces were used, would last a long 

The common dress of the American pioneer was very 
similar. Home-made wool hats were usually worn. The 
covering of the feet were, in winter, mostly moccasins made 
of deer skin and shoe-packs of tanned leather. In the 
summer, the greater portion of the young people, male and 
female, and many of the old, went bare-footed. The sub- 
stantial and universal wear was the blue linsey hunting- 



shirt. Gov. Reynolds says that this was a most excellent 
garment, and that he never felt so healthy and happy after 
layicig it off. Many pioneers wore the white blanket coat 
(the French rupot) in the winter. These were made loose 
with a cap or cape to turn over the head in extreme cold 
weather. The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The 
coliirs were made with alum, copperas and madder, boiled 
with the bark of trees in such manner and proportions as 
the old ladies prescribed. The shirts worn by the Americans 
were generally horn? made, of flax and cotton material. 
Some voyagtrs and hunters among the Americans wore 
calico and checked shirts, but these were not in common 
use. The pantaloons of the masses were generally deer- 
skins and linsey, and sometimes a coarse blue cloth was 
used. In early times factory made goods did not 
These goods, from New England and Kentucky, reached 
Illinois about the year 1818, and then looms and spinning 
ceased. Every pioneer had a rifle and carried it almo.'it 
wherever he went. On the Sabbath a stack of rifles might 
be seen outside the house of worship while within the 
congregation were attending service. Almost everybody 
was a hunter, and a deer was as likely to be seen on Sunday 
as on any other day of the week. Neat and fine linsey, 
manufactured at home and colored and woven to suit the 
fancy, composed the outside garments of the females. A 
bonnet of calico or some gayly-checked goods, was worn on 
the head, in the open air. Jewelry was unusual. A gold 
ring was an ornament not often seen. 

The style of dress began to change about the year 1820. 
The blue linsey hunting-shirt with red or whit^ fringe gave 
place to the cloth coat. Boots and shoes supplanted the 
deer skin moccasin. By the year 1830 a man dressed in 
the costume of the territory, raccoon-skin cap, hunting- 
shirt, buckskin breeches and moccasins, with a belt around 
the waist to which a knife and tomahawk were appended, 
was rarely to be seen. The female sex made still more 
rajjid progress in adopting modern costumes. 

The pioneers were exceedingly friendly and sociable. A 
new comer was heartily welcomed. When a log cabin was 
to be raised, whether invited or not, they gathered together 
and enjoyed a backwoods frolic in putting it up. At these 
house-raisings much sport and amusement were indulged in. 
The young men and boys tried their strength and skill at 
jumping, wresiling, and running foot-races. Old and young 
took part in the game of leap frog. Shooting at marks was 
practiced among those most skilled in the use of the rifle. 
Among a group of older men would figure a Kentuckian 
relating his adventures on flat-boats, " the old Broad Horn," 
to New Orleans. At times, a bottle, called " Black Betty," 
filled with Monongahela whiskey, made its appearance, and 
then was told the "hair-breadth escapes" and thrilling 
adventures of the pioneers. A log-rolling, corn husking, or 
bee ( f any kind, called the settlers together for miles around. 
The whole neighborhood assembled and split rails, cleartd 
land, plowed up whole fields, and the like. Pioneer amuse- 
ment generally clo.sed the day. With the invitation to the men 
commonly came one to the women, to come to a quilting. 
The good woman of the house where the festivities were to 

take place, would be busily engaged for a day or more in 
preparation for the coming guests. Great quantities of 
provisions were to be prepared, for dyspepsia was unknown 
to the pioneer, and good appetites were the rule and not the 

"The bread used at these frolics was baked generally on 
Jonny or Jouniiij cake-boards, and is the best corn-bread 
ever made. A board is made smooth, about two feet long, 
and eight inches wide — the ends are generally rounded. 
The dough is spread out on this board, and placed haning 
before the fire. One side is baked, and then the dough is 
changed on the board, so the other side is prcfeented, in its 
turn, to the fire. This is Joiiiii/-cake, and is good, if the 
proper materials are put in the dough, an<l it is properly 
baked." — ReynnUlf' Pioneer Hidury. 

At all logrollings and house raisings it was customary to 
provide liquor. Excesses were not indulged in, however. 
The fiddler was never forgotten. After the day's work had 
been accomplished, out doors and in, by men and women, 
the floor was cleared and the merry dance began. The 
handsome, stalwart young men, whose fine forms were the 
result of their manly out door life, clad in fringed buckskin 
breeches and gaudily colored hunting-shirts, led forth the 
bright-eyed, buxom damsels, attired in neatly-fitling- linsey- 
woolsey garments, to the dance, their cheeks glowing with 
health and eyes speaking of enjoyment, and perhaps a 
tenderer emotion. 

The following description of a "Shucking " of the oldea 
time is taken from Reynolds' Pioneer History of Illinois: 

" In pure pioneer times the crops of corn were never 
husked on the stalk, as is done at this day; but were hauled 
home in the hu.'-k and thrown in a heap, generally by the 
side of the crib, so that the ears, when husked, could be 
thrown direct into the crib. The whole neighborhood, male 
and female, were invited to the slmelrimj, as it was called. 
The girls, and many of the married ladies, generally 
engaged in this amusing work. 

'• In the first place two leading expert buskers were 
chosen as captains, and the heap of corn divided as nearly 
equal as possible. Rails were laid across the pile so as to 
designate the division ; and then each captain chose, alter- 
nately, his corps of buskers, male and female. The whole 
number of working hands present were selected, on one side 
or the other, and then each party commenced a contest to 
beat the other, which was in many cases truly exciting. 
One other rule was, that whenever a male husked a red ear 
of corn, he was entitled to a ki.s from the girls This 
frequently excited much fuss and scuffling, which was 
intended by both parties to end in a kiss. It was a 
universal practice that iaffia or Jlonongahela whiskey was 
used at these husking frolics, which they drank out of a 
bottle, each one, male and female, taking the bottle and 
drinking out of it, and then handing it to his next neighbor, 
without using any glass or cup whatever. This custom was 
common, and not considered rude. Almost always these 
corn-shucks ended in a dance. To prepare for this amuse- 
nunt fiddles and fidillers were in great demand; and it 
often required much fast riding to obtain them. One violin 


and a performer were all that was conteraplated at these 
innocent rural games. 

" Towards dark, and the supper ladf over, then it was that 
a bustle and confusion commenced. The confusion of tongues 
at Babel would have been ashamed at the corn-huskings. 
The young ones hurrying off the table, and the old ones 
contending for time and order. It was the case, nine 
times out of ten, that but one dwelling-house was on the 
premises, and that was used for eating as well as dancing. 

" But wlien the fiddler commenced tuning his instrument, 
the music always gained the victory for the young side. 
Then the dislies, victuals, table and all, disappeared in a 
few minutes, and the room was cleared, the dogs driven out, 
and the floor swept off ready for action. The floors of these 
houses were sometimes the natural earth, beat solid, some- 
times the earth, with puncheons in the middle over the po- 
tato-hole, and at times the whole floor was made of pun- 

" The music at these country dances made the young folks 
almost frantic, and sometimes much excitement was dis- 
played to get on the floor first. Generally the fiddler on 
these occasions assumed an important bearing, and ordered, 
in true professional style, so and so to be done ; as that was 
the way in North Carolina, where he was raised. The de- 
cision ended the contest for the floor. In those days they 
danced jigs and four-handed reels, as they were called. 
Sometimes three-handed reels were also danced. 

" In these dances there was no standing still ; all were 
moving at a rapid pjce from the beginning to the end. In 
the jigs the by-standers cut one another out, as it was called, 
so that this dance would last fur hours. Sometimes the par- 
ties in a jig tried to tire one another down in the dance, and 
then it would also last a long time before one or the other 
gave up. 

"The cotillion or stand-dill dances were not then known. 

"The bottle went around at these parties as it did at the 
shuckings, and male and female took a dram out of it as it 
passed round No sitting was indulged in, and the folks 
either stood or danced all night, as generally daylight ended 
the frolic. The dress of these hardy pioneers was generally 
in plain homespun. The hunting-shirt was much worn at 
that time, which is a convenient working or dancing dress. 
Sometimes drassed deer-skin pantaloons were used on these 
occasions, and mawkaAsins — rarely shoes — and at times 
bare feet were indulged in. 

"In the morning all go home on horseback or on foot. 
No carriages, wagons or other vehicles were used on these 
occasions, for the best of reasons — because they had none." 

Reynolds states it as his sincere conviction that the early 
pioneers of Illinois were more moral and free from crime 
than the people of a later day. Thefts were of rare occur- 
rence, and forgery, perjury, and similar crimes were seldom 
perpetrated. A white man was hung for murder in Kas- 
kaskia in the year 1802, and an Indian in lb04 ; no further 
instance of capital puni-hment in Illinois occurs till 1821, 
when Bennett was hung at Belleville for the murder of Stu- 
art. In the early history of the county, the courts were in 
session four times each year at Cahokia, but the grand ju- 

ries frequently adjourned without finding a single indict- 
ment. While the higher crimes were of rare occurrence, 
the lesser violations of law were not unfrequent. 

The use of into.xicating li(]Uors was indulged in then more 
than now. Drinking was fashionable and polite, and liquor 
was considered an elemeut in the conviviality of all circles. 
The French seldom carried the use of liquor to excess, In- 
temperance, on the part of the Americans, was greatest in 
the village of Cahokia and there, as also at Kaskaskia, 
many good citizens were injured by the excessive use of 
ardent spirits. 

The Sabbath, among the American pioneers, was often 
employed in hunting, fishing, getting up stock, hunting bees, 
breaking young horses, shooting at marks, and horse and 
foot-racing It was, however, a custom to cease from ordinary 
labor, except from necessity, on that day, and when a far- 
mer cut his harvest on Sunday, public opinion condemned it 
more severely than at present. There was no dancing, and 
but little drinking. In many localities there were no reli- 
gious meetings. The aged people generally remained at 
home and read the Bible and other books. The French ob- 
served Sunday in a different manner. After the conclusion 
of their religious service?, the rest of the day was passed in 
amusements, merriment and recreation. Dancing was com- 
mon on the Sabbath, and frequently houses were raised and 
the militia trained. Public sales of land and Other property 
were held, in early times, by the French at the church door 
on Sundays, after the close of the service. The French 
rarely engaged in common broils and disturbances. They 
detested a quarrelsome, fighting man. With the Ameri- 
cans personal combats were frequent. A slight dispute led 
to a fight ; but the combatants often good-humoredly made 
it up before parting. These combats scarcely ever occurred 
unLss the parties had been drinking. No rules were ob- 
served. At times eyes and ears were much injured, and were 
sometimes destroyed. 

All species of gaming were commim. Card-playing was 
sustained by the best classes. A person who could not, 
or would not, play cards, was considered destitute of one of 
the accomplishments of genteel society. The French delighted 
much in this amusement, and thus assisted in giving card- 
parties more standing and popularity among the Americans. 
During the hot summer months, in early times, the French 
played cards incessantly in the shade of the galleries of their 
houses. They frequently played without betting, but at 
times wagered heavily. The most common game of cards 
was called "loo." The voyageurs indulged in this sport 
more than any other class of citizens. The ladies often 
amused themselves at the game. 

Horse racing was one of the most popular amusements. 
The quarter races were the most common, and at these the 
most chicanery and juggling was practiced. The most 
celebrated and famous horse-race in Illinois, in early times, 
was run in the upper end of the Horse prairie, in Kandolph 
county, in the spring of the year 1803. The two horses 
which made the race were of the same size. They ran three 
miles and repeat, for a wager of five hundred dollars. The 
bye-bets and all must have amounted to a thousand dollars. 



or more, which in those days was considered a very large 
sum. In 1806 Robert Pulliam, of Illinois, and a Mr. Mu- 
sick, of Missouri, made a bet of two hundred dollars on a 
race between two horses, of a quarter of a mile, to be run on 
the ice in the Mississippi river, a short distance above St. 
Louis. The race came off, and was ran without injury to 
either the horses or riders. Foot-racing, jumj)iug and 
wrestling were much practiced by the Americans. Bets of 
some magnitude were made on foot-races as well as horse- 
races. Governor Reynolds, in his youth, was one of the best 
in a foot-race, and won many wagers in Randolph county, 
then his residence. 

With the Americans shooting-matches occurred frequently. 
These were generally held on (Saturdays, and as often as 
every week, in summer. A beef was usually the prize. A 
keg of wiiiskey was generally carried to these shooting- 
matches, on horseback, and sometimes a violin made its 
appearance, and the crowd d.iuced for hours. Aged matrons 
frequently attended, with a neat, clean keg of metheglin, 
which they dirpensed to the thirsty. This drink was made 
of honey and water, properly fermented, was pleasant to the 
taste, and had no power to intoxicate. The old lady some- 
times brought her knitting and sewing with her, and would 
frequently relate tales of the tories '' back iu North Caro- 
lina," during the Revolution. 

Agriculturf was at first, of course, carried on only to a 
limited extent. The inhabitants of the New Design settle- 
ment were the first to begin, about the year 1800, the culti- 
vation of fall wheat to an)' considerable extent. In cutting 
the wheat, sickles, or reap-hooks, were the only implements 
used. There were no cradles. Reaping with a sickle was a 
severe labor. Wheat at that day sold for one dollar a bushel. 
A short distance from the farms, on the prairies, or in places 
in the timber, patches of grass were selected and mowed, 
and this, as well as reaping wheat, was hot, hard work. 
The Americans at that day, generally stacked their hay and 
wheat out, but the French had barns which they Ured for 
this purpose. The French barns were made of large cedar 
posts, put in the ground some two feet, and set apart four 
or five feet — the space between filled up with puncheons put 
in grooves on the posts, and the whole covered with a 
thatched rotf. Threshing and cleaning the wheat wsis in 
olden times a great trouble. The process of winnowing with 
a sheet was slow and hard work. 

Considerable quantities of corn were shipped from Illinois 
in flat-boats to New Orleans before the purchase of 
Louisiana. It was an uncertain market, and the navigation 
of the river was more uncertain still. Stock, cattle and hogs 
were raised for the New Orleans market The commerce 
on the river and the Indian trade consumed the small 
surplus product of the farms. Irish potatoes were raised 
in abundance, and the crops scarcely ever failed. Only 
small quantities of cheese and butter were made, scarcely 
enough for home consumption. The French scarcely ever 
troubled themselves with milking cows, but turned the 
calves out with the other cattle, and made little or no 
butter. That portion of the population .scarcely ever used 
a ohurn, a loom, or a wheel. The apple orchards in propor- 

tion to the population were numerous. The French also 
cultivated orchards of pears, but the peach-tree was entirely 
neglected. The greater portion of the merchants made the 
Indian trade their main object. The furs and peltries were 
articles in great demand, and were generally shipped to 
Mackinaw, i'hiladelphia, and New Orleans. The French 
horses, known as " French ponies," were sold in great num- 
bers to the Indians. Guns, powder, lead, and all Indian 
goods, blankets, blue strouding and made-up calico shirts, 
formed large items in the commerce of the day — as the 
Indians were much more numerous than the whites. 




OON after the capture of the British mili- 
tary posts north of the Ohio river by 
George Rogers Clark in 1778, the au- 
thorities of Virginia, in whose name 
Clark had made his conquests, effected 
arrangements for the organization [of 
a civil government of the newly acquired 
territory. The General Assembly of 
Virginia, in October, 1778, passed "an 
Act for establishing the County uf Illitwis and for the more 
eflTectual protection and defense thereof." That County of 
Illinois "embraced all that territory out of which in subse- 
quent years were formed the States of Ohio Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin. The State of Virginia, then in 
its infancy, and with the twelve sister States engaged in the 
terrible struggle for independence, hastened to provide a gov- 
ernment for this immense territory, and selected the ancient 
French village of Kaskaskia as the seat for such govern- 
ment. The Act mentioned above authorized the governor 
to appoint a County-Lieutenant or commandant, who could 
appoint and commission deputy commandants, militia offi- 
cers and commissaries. The religion and customs of the 
inhabitants were to be respected and all civil officers were 
to be chosen by the people of the respective districts. The 
County Lieutenant had power to pardon all offenders, ex- 
cept murderers and traitors. The governor was authorized 
to levy 500 men to garrison and protect the county, and 
keep up communication with Virginia and with the settle- 
ments on the Spanish (West) side and to take measures to 
supply goods to the inhabitants and friendly Indians. 
Patrick Henry, the honortd patriot, was then governor of 
Virginia: he selected his friend, John Todd, for the diffi- 
cult and responsible position of County-Lieutenant on the 
12th of December, 1778. The letter of appointment was 
dated at Williamsburg, then the cai)itol of Old Virginia. 
It is spread in full on the first five pages of Todd's Record 
Book, signed by Patrick Henry himself This Record- 
Book was found among a number of documents removed from 
Kaskaskia to Chester in 1847, aud is now in possession of 



the Historical Society of Chicago. Robert G. Detrick, 
Esq., of Chester, tooii the precaution of making a complete 
copy of the contents of said record-book, before placing it 
in the custody of said Society, and to him the writer is 
indebted for ihe following complete abstract, to wit: 

" P.iTEicK Henry's Letter to John Todd, Esq. 

Williamsburg, December 12, 1778. 
To John Todd, Esq : 

By virtue of the act of the General Assembly which 
established the county of Illinois you are appointed County- 
Lieutenant or commandant there, and for the general ten- 
nour of your conduct I refer you to the law. 

The grand objects which are disclosed to the view of your 
countrymen will prove beneficial or otherwise according to 
the value and abilities of those who are caljed to direct the 
affairs of that remote country. The present crisis rendered 
80 favorable by the good disposition of tlie French and 
Indians may be improved to great purposes, but if unhap- 
pily it should be lost, a return of the .same attachment to us 
may never happen ; considering therefore that early preju- 
dices are so hard to wear out you will take care to cultivate 
the affections of the French and Indians. 

Although great reliance is placed on your prudence in 
managing the people you are to reside among, yet consider- 
ing you as unacquainted in some degree with their genius, 
usages and manners as well as the geography of the country, 
I commend it to you to consult and advise with the most 
intelligent and upright persons who may fall in your way. 

You are to give particular attention to Colonel Clark 
and his corps, to whom the State has great obligations. You 
are to cooperate with him on any military undertaking when 
necessary, and to give the military every aid which the cir- 
cumstance of the people will admit of. The inhabitants of 
the Illinois must not expect settled peace and safety while 
their and our enemies have footing at Detroit and can inter- 
cept or stop the trade of the Mississippi. If the English 
have not the strength or courage to come to war against us 
themselves, their practice has been and will be to hire the 
savages to commit murders and depredations. Illinois must 
expect to pay in these a large price for her freedom, unless 
the English can be expelled from Detroit. The means of 
effecting this will not perhaps be found in your or Colonel 
Clark's power, but the French inhabiting the neighborhood 
of that place, it is presumed, may be brought to see it done 
with indifference or perhaps join in the enterprise with 
pleasure. This is but conjecture. When you are on the 
spot you and Col. Clark may discover its fallacy or reality, if 
the former appears. Defense only is to be the object of the 
latter or a good prospect of it. I hope the Frenchmen and 
Indians at your disposal will show a zeal for the affairs 
equal to the benefits to be derived from establishing liberty 
and permanent peace. 

One great good expected from holding the Illinois is to 
overawe the Indians from warring on our settlers on this 
side of the Ohio; a close attention to the disposition, char- 
acter and movements of the hostile tribes is therefore neces- 
sary for you. The forces and militia at Illinois, by being 

placed on the back of them, may inflict timely chastisement 
on these enemies, whose towns are an easy prey in absence 
of their warriors. 

You perceive by these hints that something in the military 
line from you, so far as the occasion calls for assistance of 
the people composing the militia, it will be necessary to 
cooperate with the troops sent from here, and I know of no 
better general direction to give than this, that you consider 
yourself at the head of the civil department, and as such 
having the command of the militia, who are not to be under 
the command of the military until ordered out by the civil 
authority and to act in conjunction with them. 

You are on all occasions to inculcate on the people the 
value of liberty, and the difference between the state of free 
citizens of this commonwealth and that slavery to which the 
Illinois was destined. A free and equal representation may 
be expected by them in a little time, together with all the 
improvements in jurisprudence and police which the other 
parts of the State enjoy. 

It is necessary for the happiness, increase and prosperity 
of that country that the grievances that obstruct these 
blessings be known in order to their removal ; let it, there- 
fore, be your care to obtain information on that subject that 
proper plans may be formed for the general utility. Let it 
be your constant attention to see that the inhabiiants have 
justice administered to them for any injury rec'd from the 
troops ; the omission of this may be fatal. Col. Clark has 
instructions on this head and will, I doubt not, exert himself 
to curb all licentious practices of the soldiery, which, if un- 
restrained, will produce the most baneful effects. 

You will also discountenance and punish every attempt 
to violate the property of the Indians, particularly in their 
land. Our enemies have alarmed them much on that 
score, but I hope from your prudence and justice that no 
grounds of complaint will be administered on this subject. 
You will embrace every opportunity to manifest the high 
regard and friendly sentiments of this commonwealth 
toward all the subjects of his Catholic Majesty for whose 
safety, prosperity and advantage you will give every possi- 
ble advantage. You will make a tender of the friendship 
and services of your people to the Spanish commandant 
near Kaskaskia and cultivate the strictest connection with 
him and his people. I deliver you a letter which you will 
hand to him in person. The details of your duty in the 
civil department I need not give you, its best direction will 
be found in your innate love of justice and zeal to be in- 
tensely useful to your fellow-men. A general direction to 
act according to the best of your judgment in cases where 
these instructions are silent and the laws have not other- 
wise directed is given to you from the necessity of the cases 
for your great distance from government will not permit 
you to wait for orders in many cases of great importance. 

In your negotiations with the Indians confine the stipula' 
as much as possible to the single object of obtaining from 
them touch not the subject of land or boundaries till par- 
ticular orders are received ; where necessity requires it 
presents may be made, but be as frugal in that matter as 
possible, and Jet them know that Goods at present is scarce 



with us, but we expect soon to trade freely with all the 
world and they shall not want when we can get them. The 
matters given you in charge are singular in their nature 
and weighty in their consequences to the people imme- 
diately concerned, and the whole state they require the 
fullest exertion of your ability and unwearied diligence. 
From matters of general concern you must turn occasionally 
to others of less consequence. Mr. Iluseblave's wife and 
family mus; not suffer for want of that property of which 
they were bereft by our troops, it is to be restored to them 
if possible, if this cannot be done the public must supijort 

I think it proper for you to send me an express once in 
three months with a general account of affairs with you and 
any particulars you wish to communicate It is in con- 
templation to appoint an agent to manage trade on public 
accounts to supply Illinois and Indians with goods. If such 
an appointment takes place you will give it every possible 
aid. The people with you should not intermit their en- 
deavors to procure su[)plies on the expectation of this, and 
you may act accordingly. 

P. Henry." 

Hon. Edward G. Mason, in his " Illinois in the 18th 
Century " comments on the contents of said letter as follows; 
" This letter is notsu h a one as territorial governors would 
be likely to receive in our days. It deals with higher things 
than those which occupy the modern politician. The Lieu- 
tenant's care must be to remove the grievances that obstruct 
the happiness and prosperity of that country, and his con- 
stant attention to see that the inhabitants have justice ad- 
ministered. He is to discountenance and punish every 
attempt to violate the property of ihe Indians To the 
Spanish Commandant near Kaskaskia be is to tender friend- 
ship and services, and he is warned that the matters given 
in his charge are ' singular in their nature and weighty in 
their consequences to the people immediately concerned, and 
to the whole state.' Then with that high .sense of justice 
and humanity which distinguished the man, Henry turns 
from state affairs to right the wrongs of the helpless wife 
and children of his country's enemy. The family of Mr. 
Koseblave, the late British commandant at Kaskaskia, had 
been left among the hostile people there, while the husband 
and father was a prisoner in Virginia and their possessions 
had been confiscated. 

Conciliatiiin of the newly enfranchised inhabitants, selec- 
tion of competent advisers, defense against foreign and 
native enemies, subordination of the military to the civil 
arm of the government, establishment of Republican insti- 
tutions, administration of equal justice to all, an alliance 
with friendly neighbors, encouragement of trade, and the 
exertion of the commandant of unwearied diligence, zeal 
and ability in behalf of his people ; such are the principal 
heads of this able and, for its time, extraordinary State 
paper. It shows ua that the man, who had taken the grave 
responsibility of the secret instructions which led to the cap- 
tureof the Illinois country, was competent to direct the next 
step in its career. He could wisely govern what had been 

bravely won. With all the cares of a new state engaged in 
a war for its independence resting upon his shoulders, pro- 
scribed as a traitor to the mother country, and writing 
almost within sound of the guns of the British fleet upon 
the James, he looked with calm vision into the future and 
laid well the foundations of another commonwealth beyond 
the Ohio." 

John Todd arrived at Kaskaskia on the first day of May, 
1779, as stated in the journal of Col. Clark who says : " The 
civil department in the Illinois had heretofore robbed me of 
too much of my time that ought to be spent in military 
reflection. I was now likely to be relieved by Col. John 
Todd, appointed by government for that purpose. I was 
anxious for his arrival and happy in his appointment, as 
the greatest intimacy and friendship subsisted between us ; 

and on the day of May, 1779, had the pleasure of 

seeing him safely landed at Kaskaskia to the joy of every 
person. I now saw myself happily rid of a piece of trouble 
that I had no delight in." 

Col. Todd was not slow to assume his labors, as will be 
seen from his record book, page 6, containing his first entry 
in reference to appointing and commissioning deputy-com- 
mandants and otticers of the militia, dated May 14, 1779, to 
wit : (copied verbatim.) 

Made out the military commissions for the district of 
Kaskaskia, dated May 14th, 1779: Richard Winston, 
Commandant, as Capt. ; Nicholas Janis, First company, 
captain ; Baptiste Charleville, 1st Lieutenant ; Charles 
Charleville, 2nd Lieutenant; ]\Iichael Godis, Ensign. 

Second company : Joseph Du Plassy, ca|)tain ; Nicholas 
Le Chance, 1st Lieutenant; Charles Danee, '2d Lieutenant; 
Baptiste Janis, Ensign. 

" 17th May, sent a commission of commandant of Prairie 
du Rucher and captain of the militia to Jean B. Barbeau. 

The District of Kohokia. — Francois Trotter (should be 
Trotier), commandant ; Tourangeau, captain l?t com- 
pany ; Girardin, lieutenant; C. Marthen, lieutenant; 

Sausfaron, ensign. Commission dated 14th May, 1779, 

"'Myear of th-. Conimonweixlth." (This latter clause is not 
without significance. How firmly must the patriots of those 
days have been convinced of their success, to commence their 
reckoning of time from the date of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, years before it was established !) 

The attention of Todd was next directed towards estab- 
lishing the courts. The statutory provision to have all civil 
oflicers elected by a majority of the people, was carried out, 
as appears from the entries made on pages 7 and 8, to which 
the reader is referred. This election was held in the month 
of May, 1779, and was the first election ever held in Illinois. 
We have spent days in search of those election returns, 
which would have furnished a list of names of the voting 
population of the territory and been almost equivalent to a 
census. The search was in vain. The documents had been 
lost ordestroycd. An cft'ort to save them, made by Hon. W. 
C. Flagg, while senator of Ma<lison county, in 18G9, proved 
abortive, for the oflicer in custody of those documents per- 
emptorily reined to let Mr. Flagg have them. The latter, 
fully aware of the hi^torical value of many of those docu- 


nients, pledged himself to return them, arranged in throno- 
logical order, and substantially bound at his own expense, 
as soon as he had copied the most interesting documents. 
All was in vain. S. St. Vrain would listen to no proposals 
of the kind, although the county authorities had made an 
order to transmit those documeuts to Mr. Flagg. Was it 
a sense of duty that prompted St. Vrain to disobey? Who 
knows ? The result of his refusal is in any event very much 
to be deplored. 

The entry above referred to is as follows : " List of the 
Court of Kaskaskia, as elected by the people: 1. Gabriel 
Cerre ; 2. Joseph Du PlaFsy ; 3. Jaques Lesource ; 4. Ni- 
cholas Janis ; 5. J. B Barbeau ; 6. Nicholas Le Chance ; 
7. Charles Charleville ; 8. Antoin Duchafours de Louvirres, 

and 9. Girradot (probably Girardin). Carbo- 

neau, clerk ; Richard Winston, sheriff. Court of Kohokias : 

1. Touranjeau (Godin) ; 2. Frangois Trottier ; 3. Charles 

Gratiot ; 4. Gieradin ; 5. B. Saucier ; 6. M. Beau 

lieu ; 7. C. Martheu. Fran9ois Saucier, clerk ; J. B. Le 
Croix, sheriff. The Court of St. Vincennes : 1. P. Lfgras; 

2. Francois Bosserau ; 3. Perrot ; 4. Cardinal 

(refused to serve) ; 5. Guerry La Tulippe ; 6 P. Gamelin ; 

7. Edeline; 8. Degeuest ; 9. Barron. 

Legrand, clerk ; , sheriff. 

Militia officers of St. Vincennes : P. Legras, lieut- col. ; F. 
Bosserou, major ; La Tulippe, 1st captain ; Ede- 
line, 2d ; M. Brouilet, 3d (rank not settled) [capt.] ; P. 

Garmliu, 4th; 1. ; 2. Godin, lieut. ; o. 

Godin, lieut. ; 4. . 1. ; 2. 

Joseph Rougas ; 3. Richerville ; 4. Richerville. 

The reader will observe that by far the greater number 
of those ofhcials elected as well of militia officers appointed 
are French. Anglo-American names are but few. The 
fact that many of the nnlitia officers are also members of the 
courts, leadj us to infer, that the material for "officers" was 
not as plentiful as in our days, and strange to say, one of 
the judges of Vincennes, Monsieur Cardinal, refused to 
serve. The reason for his refusil is not stated, but what 
" Cardinal" would be satisfied with the fourth place on the 
bench ? 

The attention of Todd is next given to the encouragement 
of trade and business, for page eleven contains a copy of a 
license of trade issued to Richard McCarty. (The reader 
will find this name again in the subsequent chapter on 
Monroe county). 

The document introduced here is the first of its kind 
issued in Illinois, from it the reader will learn, that to 
become a trader, a man had to be a patriot first, and also to 
prove his integrity, etc. We further learn, that the loyal 
citizens of those days were '■ liege subjects." Here follows 
the license : 


To all to whom these presents shall come. Greeting: 
Know ye, that whereas Richard McCarty, gentleman, hath 
produced a recommendation from the Court of District of 
Kohokia, certifying his patriotism, integrity and knowledge 
in trade and merchandizing. These are, therefore, to 
licBDEe and permit the said R. McCarty to traffic and 

merchandize with all the liege subjects and friends of the 
United States of America, of what nation soever they be, 
and to erect factories and stores at any convenient place or 
places he shall think proper within the commonwealth 
aforesaid. Provided, that by virtue hereof, no pretence 
shall be made to trespass upon the effects or property of 

Given under my hand and seal at Kaskaskia, the 5th of 
June, 1779, in the third year of the commonwealth. 

The financial question of the day now claimed the atten- 
tion of the indefatigable lieutenant. The paper money of 
the young commonwealth of Virginia, as well as that of the 
United States, was " cried down " in the streets of the 
villages. The rapid depreciation of this curreiicy was 
severely felt in the county of Illinois, and attracted Todd's 
attention. His letter to the court of Kaskaskia on the 
subject is worth preserving, to wit: 


"Gentlemen: The only methcd America has to support 
the present just war is by her credit. That credit at present 
is her bills emitted from the different treasuries, by which 
she engages to pay the bearer at a certain time gold and 
silver in exchange. There is no friend to American Inde- 
pendence who has any judgment but soon expects to see it 
equal to gold and silver. Some disaffect-d persons and 
designing speculators, discredit it through enmity or 
interest; the ignorant multitude have not sagacity enough 
to examine into this matter, and merely from its uncommon 
quantity and in proportion to it arises the complaint of its 
want of credit. This has for some years been the case near 
the seat of war, the disorder has spread at last as far as the 
Illinois, and calls loudly for a remedy. In the interior 
counties this remedy is a heavy tax now operating, from 
which an indulgent government has exempted us. One 
only remedy remains which is lodged within my power, that 
is by receiving on behalf of government such sums as the 
people shall be induced to lend upon a sure fund, and 
thereby decreasing the (|uantity ; the mode of doing this is 
alread}' ])lanned and shall be always openlo your inspection 
and examinatiou with the proceedings, and I must request 
your concurrence and assistance, I am gentlemen, your most 
obedient servant. John Todd." 

The record book next contains a plan or mode of relief, 
as follows : 

Plan for borrowing 33,333i dollars of Treasury Notes 
both belonging to this State and the United States. Where- 
as, owing to no other reason than the prodigious quantity 
of Treasury Notes now in circulation the value of almost 
every commodity has risen to most enormous prices ; the 
preserving of the credit of the said bills by reducing the 
quantity requires some immediate remedy it is therefore de- 
clared : 

1. That 21,000 acres of land belonging to this common- 
wealth shall be laid off as soon as may be boundeel thus: 
Beginning on the bank of the Missii-sippi in the district of 
Kohokia at Richard McCarty 's corner, thence running up 
the said river 3,500 poles, when reduced to a straight line 



from the extrcmeties of wliich at right angles with the 
former on the Virginia side, two lines of equal length shall 
run so far, that with another line parallel with the course 
of the river plat shall contain the quantity aforesaid. 

2. That the said 21,000 (except one thousand to be here- 
after laid off by the government for a town in the most 
convenient part thereof within and out lot.s) shall be a fund 
for the purpose aforesaid. Provided that every adventurer 
be subject to all laws and regulations in cultivating and 
settling, to which settlers in the county of Illinois shall 
hereafter be subjected. 

3. That the lender of money take a certificate from the 
commissioner for the purpose appointed, for the sum but not 
being less than 100 dollars, for which, he, his heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators, or assigns shall be entitled to demand 
within two years, a title to his proportion of the laud in the 
said fund or the sum originally advanced in gold or silver 
with 5 per cent, interest per annum at the option of the 
State. Provided first that no assignment of such certificate 
shall be made but in open court by deed to be recorded. 
2 That a deduction shall be made for all money hereafter 
discovered to be counterfeited. 

4. That all persons may have reasonable inducements to 
lend, the lender shall have assurance that no greater sum 
shall be received than 33 333* dollars on said fund. That 
government shall comply with the above enjoyment, and 
this Plan be recorded in the Recorder's office of Kaskaskia. 

Joiix Todd. 
Todd's plan must have found favor with court, he ap- 
pointed Henry Crutchcr commissioner and his record book 
contains the following : 


'■ Sir : You are hereby appointed a commissioner for borrow- 
ing money upon the Kohokia Fund. Inclosed is a copy of 
the Plan ; the design you'll observe is to abridge the quantity 
in circulation. The money paid in you will preserve until 
you shall be called upon for it. Let every man's money be 
kept apart with his name and quantity endorsed thereon. 
Keep a book to register the number, the person's name, the 
quantity of money, the dates your receipt thus : 


I do certify that I have received of the 

sum of Dollars which entitles the said 

to a proportionable quantity of land in the Kohokia Fund, 
or gold and silver, according to the Plan recorded in the 
Recorder's office of Kaskaskia. Witness my hand this — 

day of ,1779. 

Henry Critcher, Commissioner." 

Mr. Crutchcr's bond, in words and figures as follows is 
also recorded in said book, to wit: 

" Know all men by these presence that we, Henry Crutcher, 
George Slaughter and John Boberts, are held and firmly 
bound unto Jno. Todd, Esq , Commander-in-Chief of the 
County of Illinois in the sura of thirty-three thousand three 
hundred and thirty-three dollars and one-third to be paid to 
the said John Todd or his successors, to which payment 

will truly be made, we do bind ourselves and each of our 
heirs, executors firmly by these presence. Sealed and dated 
this 14th day of June in the year 1779. 

The condition of the above obligation is such if the above 
named Henry Crutcher, Commissioner of Funds, for bor- 
rowing certain sums of Continental and State currency 
shall at all times when required pay and account for all 
sums so received, and in all things comport himself agree- 
able to such rules and regulations as shall be adopted for 
prosecuting the same then the above obligations to be void 
otherwise in full force. 


Rich'd Harrison. 

Rhii'd Winston. 

Henry Crvtchek. 

Geo. Slaughter. 

John Roberts. 

From a proclamation issued by the county-lieutenant on 
the same day, it would appear, that a number of adventurers 
had made their appearance in his county for the purpose of 
laying claims to its most desirable lands, which Col. Todd 
would rather have reserved for actual settlers. The fertil- 
ity of his brain, backed by an unceasing activity, is truly 
admirable. The proclamation read as follows : 

" lUinoh to wit : 

Whereas, from the fertility and beautiful situation of the 
lands bordering upon the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, and 
Wabash rivers, the taking up the usual quantity heretofore 
allowed for a settlement by the Governors of Virginia would 
injure both the strength and commerce of this country in 
future : 

I do, therefore, issue this proclamation, strictly enjoining 
all persons whatsover from making any new settlements 
upon the flat lauds of the saiil rivers, or within one league 
of said lands, in manner and form of settlement as heretofore 
made by the French inhabitants, until further ordtrs given 

And, in order that all the claims to lands williiii the said 
country mav be fully known, and some method provided for 
perpetuating by records the just claims — eveiy inhabitant 
is required, as soon as conveniently may be, to lay before the 
persons in each district ajipointul for that jiurpose a aemo- 
randum of his or her land, with copies of all their vouchers 
and where vouchers have never been given or are lost, such 
deposition and certificate as will best tend to support their 
claims. Such memorandum to mention the quantity of 
land, to whom originally granted, or by whom stttkd, and 
where; reducing the title through the various occupants to 
the present proprietor. The number of adventurers who 
will soon overrun this country renders the above method 
necessary, as well as to ascertain the vacant land as to 
guard against trespasses which will proliably be committed 
on land not of record. 

Given under my hand and seal at Kaskaskia, the I4th 
day of June, 1779. 

John Todd." 



Meanwhile, the newly-elected judges of the court at Kas- 
kaskia and Cahokia had held sessions. The records of their 
proceedings are not in existence, but our commandant's 
record-book sheds some light on what the judges had done. 
The first entry on page 18 contains the following : 


Illinois to wit : 

To Richard Winston, Esq., Sheriff in-Chief of the District 
of Kaskaskia. 

Negro Mannel, a slave in your custody, is condemned by 
the court of Kaskaskia, afier having made honorable fine at 
the door of the church, to be chained to a post at the water- 
side, and there to be burnt alive and his ashes scattered, as 
appears to me by record. This sentence you are hereby 
required to put into execution on Tuesday next at 9 o'clock 
in the morning, and this shall be your warrant. Given 
under ray hand and seal at Kaskaskia, the 13th day of June, 
in the 3d year of the Commonwealth. 

There is no record of the crime which was to be atoned 
for by the wretch Mannel, nor can it be told if this awful 
sentence was put in execution. Some person having access 
to the record-book, has drawn heavy lines across the lieu- 
tenant's order, so as to efface it forever. There is no doubt, 
however, that the court had fixed the inhuman penalty, for 
the order to execute it is certainly in Todd's handwriting, 
who, under the law of Virginia, mentioned above, was de- 
prived of the power to pardon in such cases. It is therefore 
very probable that ihe sentence was duly executed. 

The following order bears witness that the court at Caho- 
kia had also been at work : 

" To Capt. Nicholas Janis : 

You are hereby required to call upon a party of your 
militia to guard '• Moreau," a slave condemned to execution 
up to the town of Kokas — put them under an officer. They 
shall be entitled to pay, rations and refreshments during 
the time they shall be upon duty to be certified hereafter 

by you. 

I am, sir, yr Hble servant, 

Jno. Todd " 

15th June, 1779. I recommend 4 or 5 from your 
compy, and as many from Capt. Placey's, and consult Mr. 
Lacroix about the time necessary. J. T. 

It is not unlikely that both of these negroes had been 
tried on a charge of Voudouism, or Witchcraft, and found 
or even pleaded guilty of an imagined crime. Reynolds, 
in his Pioneer History says : " In Cahokia about the year 
1790, this superstition got the upper hand of reason, and 
several poor African slaves were immolated at the shrine of 
ignorance for this imaginary offense. An African slave, called 
Moreau, was hung for this crime on a tree not far south east 
of Cahokia. It is stated that he had said he poisoned his 
master, but his mistress was loo strong for his necromancy." 

There cannot be any doubt that the " Moreau " of Todd 
is -identical with Gov. Reynolds' man "Moreau." Rey- 
nolds, who writes from tradition, is not correct in his dates. 

It would seem that " Moreau " had been kept confined at 
Kaskaskia, as there was not any prison at Cahokia (Kahos) 

prior to 1791, and m Captain Janis was instructed to confer 
with Mr. Le Croix (sheriff of the district of Cahokia as 
stalel abjve) we miy infer, thit Croix hung said negro. 

The county-lieutenant, after his labars of 4 or 5 weeks 
at the settlements on the Mississippi, now prepared to enter 
upon his duties in other parts of his "empire county." Be- 
fore leaving, he addressed the following letter to his sheriff, 
to wit : 

" Sir: Djring my absence the command will devolve upon 
you as commander of Kaskaskia — if Col. Clark should want 
anything more for his expedition, consult the members of 
the Court upon the best mode of proceeding. If the people 
will not spare willingly, if in their power, you must press 
it, valuing the property by two men upon oath — let the mil- 
itary have no pretext for forcing property. When you order 
it and the people will not find it, then it will be time for 
them to interfere. By all means keep up a good under- 
standing with Col. Clark and the officers. If this is not the 
case you will be unhappy. I am, sir, 

Yr. hble. servt, 

John Todd." 

To Rich'd Winston, Esqk. 

June 13, 1779. 

The expedition of Col. Clark referred to in this letter, 
was the one planned against the English at Detroit, but was 
never carried out. Todd was back at Kaskaskia on the 
27th of July, 1779, on which day the following proclama- 
tion in reference to the continental currency was inserted 
into his record book. 

" IlliuoLS to wit : 

Whereas the emissions of continental money, dated the 
20th May, 1777, and April 11th, 1778, were required to be 
paid into some continental treasury by the first of June, 
which was a day impossible to the people of Illinois : 

I do therefore notify all persons who have money of the 
said emission, that unless they shall as soon as possible com- 
ply with the said resolution of Congress and produce vouch- 
ers of such, their impossibility, the money must sink in their 
hands. The vouchers must be certifyed 'by myself or some 
deputy commandant of this county, and have reference to 
the bundle of money numbered and sealed. 

Signed by order of the commandant-in-chief at Kaskaskia 
July 27th, 1779. 

( Copy. ) John Todd." 

Hy. Crutcher. 

Soon after his return, the county-lieutenant issued a per- 
emptory order to the judges of the Kaskaskia district to 
hold court, any adjournment to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing. The easy going of his French judges seems to have 
irritated the restless and ever working spirit of Todd, who 
" slightly interfered with the court's prerogative" by issuing 
this order : 

" To Gabriel Cerre ,i Co., Esqs., Judges of the Court for the 
District of Kaskaskia. 
You are hereby authorized and required to hold and con- 
stitute a court on Saturday, the 21st of July, at the usual 



place of holding court within your district, any adjournment 
to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided that no suitor or party be compelled to answer 
any process upon said day unless properly summoned by the 
clerk and sheriff. 

Given under my hand and feal at Kaskatkia, 1779. 

Jdhs Todd." 

It is to be presumed that Monsieur Gabriel and his "con- 
freres" took the hint and held court on the '2]st of July 
(Atigust is meant), no matter how much they disliked to sit 
in court during the reign of the dog-star ; but it would be a 
treat to be allowed to read the minutes of that court. Old 
Gabriel and his clerk Carboneau have certainly given the 
lieutenant a model cudgeling in grand French eloquence. 

In the month of August, 1779, the commandant addressed 
himself, in obedience to Patrick Henry's wise suggestions, to 
Monsieur Cartabonne, commanding at St. Genevieve, and 
also to Monsieur Leyba at St. Louis. These letters, originally 
in French, were cojied by parlies not conversant with that 
language, and are therefore not very intelligible. It will be 
remembered that all the region west of the Mississippi then 
belonged to Spain, at that time at war with England. In 
these letters Todd proposes an arrangement concerning the 
commerce of the Illinois country, for the mutual advantage 
of their respective governments, — his Catholic majesty on 
the one hand and the State of Virginia on the other, and for 
the disadvantage of the British, their common enemy, promis- 
ing at the same time to aid his neighbors by sending troops 
at his (Todd's) disposition, if the Spaniards were attacked 
and needed help. 

Tcese troops were then on tluir march to Illinois. Todd 
had to overcome many difficulties in procuring the necessary 
supplies for those troops, even in this most fertile region of 
the continent, but less on account of scarcity of the neces- 
saries of life, than on account of the sluggishness of the 
newly-made " freemen " of French descent, who still pre- 
ferred the Royal Louis d'or to the Republican " promise to 

The record-book is again reftrred to for explanation (see 
page 2- ), to wit : 

The inhabitants of Kaskaskia are for the last time invited 
to contract with the persons appointed, for provisions espe- 
cially "fou'tr," for the troops who will shortly be here. I 
hope they'll use properly the indulgence of a mild govern- 
ment. If I shall be obliged to give the military permission 
to press it will be a disadvantage and what ought more to 
influence free men, it will be a dishonor to the people. 

Published by order of the Commander in Chief at Kas- 
kaskia, 11th Aug. 1779. 

In order to facilitate matters the contracting officers were 
instructed to file vouchers with the county lieutenant and 
obtain orders on th» governor of Virginia in payment of 
supplies thus furnished. The record book contains only one 
such order, to wit : 

To his excellency the Governor of Virginia please to pay 
to J. B. La Croix or order the sum of 78 dollars which is 

due to him from the state of Virginia for sundries furnished 
the militia and Indiansas appears by vouchers to me rendered. 

Given under mv hand at Kaskaskia, the 11th of August, 

Being convinced that this appeal met with but indiflVrent 
responses, a harsher measure was tried. 

todd's emh.vroo. 

Illinois to wit : Whereas the demands of the State require 
that a stock of Provisions be immediately laid for the use 
of the troops of the C'ommonwealth and that an embargo 
be laid upou such provisions for a limited time. I do there- 
fore issue this Proclamation strictly enjoining all inhabitants 
and others in the county of Illinois from exporting either by 
land or water any provisions wh.itsoever for the space of 
sixty davs unless I shall have assurance before that time 
that a sufficient stock is laid up for the troops or sufficient 
security is given to the contractors for its delivery whenever 
required. The offender herein shall besubjected to imprison- 
ment for one month and mcrever forfeit the value of such 
exported provi.-ion. 

Given under my hand ami seal at Kaskaskia .\ugust "iL'nd, 

This order is also recorded in French, apparently 
the French were so very reluctant in aiding the struggling 
state, and becoming weary at the delay of the people as to 
the voluntary surrender of continental money he gave the 
following notice, in both languages. 

Illinois to wit : The Public are notified that after to mor- 
row no more certificates will be granted at Kaskaskia to per- 
sons producing the called in emms<ions. 

Published by order August 22nd 1779. 

It is verv questionable, whether the French in the settle- 
ments in Illinois had large amounts of continental money. 
They were a careful race, and from the numerous sale bills 
on file it would appear that they did not sell anything for 
any other currency than coined money, except on compul- 
sion. Now they were called on to deposit their money in 
the public treasury, for no other purpose than to drive it out 
of circulation. They could not understand the benefit to be 
derived from such an arrangement, and consequently pre- 
ferred to keep in their own cash box the little stock of con- 
tinental scrip they had hoarded up. 

How slow the residents were to furnish the authorities 
with the so much needed supplies is made apparent from the 
fact, that the following or record order on the governor 
to wit : 

"October 7. 1779. Order given Pat McCrosky on the 
Governor for 140 dollars dated at Kaskaskia October 7., 
17i9, [No. 2. 140] by certificate from M. Helm," was i.ssucd 
nearlv two months since Croix had drawn his order for 

A short and simple method of forfeiting realty is illus- 
trated in the proceedings set forth on pages 25 and 26 to wit : 

"Advertised by notifying at the door of the church of 
Kaskaskia the half a lot above the church, joining Picard 
on the east, and Langlois on the west, that unless some per- 
son should appear and support their claifu to the said lot 
within three days it should be condemned to the use of the 



commonwoalth. Said notification was dated Octuber 4tli, 

This advertisement is succeeded ten days later b}' the 
following, to wit : 

" 7///»o/V, to ivil : Whereas, after publicly calling upon any 
person or persons to show and make appear any claim 
which they might have to a certain lot of laud containing 
one half acre, be the same more or less, lying in the town of 
Kaskaskia, near the church adjoining Mons' Pickard on 
the east, and Mons' Langlois on the west, and after delaying 
and waiting the appointed time, and no person yet appear- 
ing to claim the same against the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, I do declare and adjudge the said lot to the said 
commonwealth, and that all persons whatever be thence- 
forth debarred and precluded forever from any claim thereto. 
Given under my hand at Kaskaskia, the 13th of October, 
in the fourth year of this Commonwealth, a. d. 1779. 

John Todd. 

And thus the commonwealth of Virginia became the 
owner of said tract. 

The last entry in Todd's handwriting has reference to a 
land grant to Col. Montgomery, but the pages are torn out 
of the book and nothing is left but the words : " Copy of a 
grant of land to Col. Montgomery." 

Some other entries were made by others in Col. Todd's 
record liook during his term of office 1778 to 1782. (Todd 
fell in the celebrated battle with the Indians at the Blue 
Licks, Kentucky, August 18, 1782;. On two pages, near the 
end of the book, is kept his "peltry account," which is charged 
with his drafts on the governor of Virginia, in favor of 
Mons' Beauregarde, to the amount of $30,000, dated at St. 
Louis, September 14, 1779, the value thereof having been 
received, one-third in paper currency and two-thirds in 
peltries. The account is credited with payments made 
for supplies for the garrison at Kaskaskia, purchased by 
Col. John Montgomery, and for the garrison at Cahokia, 
purchased by Capt. McCarthy. Taffia * seems to have been 
the most desired article of supplies bought, for it was laid in 
by the hogshead. 

On page 26 is an oath of allegiance taken by James 
Moore at Kaskaskia, to the United States of America. 

James Moore's Naturalization. 

I do swear on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God that 
I renounce all fidelity to George the Third, King of Great 
Britain, his heirs and successors, and that I will bear true 
allegiance to the United States of America, as free and inde- 
pendent, as declared by Congress, and that I will not do or 
cause to be done any matter or thing that may be injurious 
or prejudicial to the independence of said States, and that I 
will make known to some one justice of the peace for the 
United States all treasonous, all treacherous conspiracies 

*Taffia is mentioned as late as 1800, when the court regulated the priees to 
be charged by innkeepers for commodities furnished to guests— taifia or rum 
25 cents per one lialf-pint. Webster allowed the word a space in his unabridged, 
but casts out one f, and defines the word " A variety of rum, so called by the 

which may come to my knowledge, to be formed against said 
United States or any one of them. So help me God. 
Sworn at Kaskaskia, July 10th, 1782. 

James Moot:e * 

During the frequent absences from his " county," Todd 
seems to have been represented by Monsieur De Montbrun, 
his deputy and acting commandant, who^ a little vain per- 
haps, took pains to have posterity learn his temporary 
dignity, for he wrote on the inside of the covers of this book 
the following words : " Nota bene, Mons. Thiraothe De Mont 
Brun Lt. Comd't par interim." This mixture of Latin and 
French (Take notice. We, De Mont Brun, Lt. Corad't for the 
time being) is written in a bold beautiful hand. 

On the last page are two memoranda iu the same hand- 
writing. They read : 

February, 1782. Arrived, a small tribe of«the Wabash 
Indians, imploring the paternal succor of their father, the 
Bostouians having their patent from Major Linctot. In 
consequence, I did, on behalf of the Commonwealth, give 
them six bushels Indian corn, fifty pounds of bread, four 
pounds of gunpowder, ten pounds of ball, and one gallon of 
taffia from Carbonneaux. 

The circumstance that these lodians called the whites 
" Bostouians" would indicate that said small tribe was made 
up of fragments of tribes of New England Indians. The 
second Indian visit is reported on the next page, to wit : 

March 22d. Came here deputies from the Delawares, 
Shawnes and Cherokee nations of Indians, begging that the 
Americans would grant them peace, as likewise the French 
and Spanish ; and after hearing their talk, smoking the pipe 
of peace and friendship with th°m, and from their conduct 
while here, as well as many marks they gave us of their 
sincerity, I could not avoid giving them, on behalf of the 
Americans, the following articles, viz. : 10 bushels Indian 
corn, lOO pounds flour and 100 pounds biscuit, 6 pounds 
tobacco, 1 gallon taffia, 5 pounds wampoun, and canoe which 
cost me S2U. 

An entry on the fly-leaf of the record-book recalls to us 
Todd's former deputy, Richard Winston, the sherift"; and the 
contents of this entry explain why Timothy had taken Dick's 
place. Winston must have forgotten the warning of Todd 
to keep on terms with the military chief, and thus was found 
in bondage. While imprisoned he must have found the 
Record Book in his prison, and iu order to let future gener- 
ations know why he was not longer dtputy and acting com- 
mandant, he wrote out the following statement : 

'Kaskaskies in the Illinois, the 29th April, 1782. 
This day ten o'clock, A. M., I was taken out of my 
house by Israel Dodge on an order given by Jno. Dodge, 
in despite of the civil authority, disregardless the laws and 
on the malicious accusation of Jas. Williams and Michael 

* 1782. Among the immigrants to Illinois we note the names of Jamea Moore, 
Shadrach Bond, James Garrison, Robert Kidd and Larlcen Rutherford, the 
two latter having been with Claris; they were from Virginia and Maryland. 
Jama Moore, the leader, and a portion of his party, located afterwards on the 
hills near "Bellcfontaine," while Bond and the rest settled in the American 
Bottom (from which circumstance the name is derived), near Carthage or Har- 
risonville, subsequ-ntly known bs the "Block-House Fort."— (Davidson * 
Stuvo's History of Illinois, chapter 18.) 

nisronv of haxixili'II, Masum: .wn ri:i:i;y cnr.Mii-s, ii.i.ixois. 

IV'raiile a.-; may u]>i)oai' by tlieir ilepcisitioiis. I was rniiliiuil 
by Tyi-aiiiiick iijilitary force without making any ic^'ai 
application to the civil magistrate. .'inth tlio alt^'iiuy 
for the state, La Jiui<uiere, preieiited a petition to the cuirt 
against Richard Winston, state prisoner in llnir cnslndy. 
the contents of which he (the attorney foi- the staid ''iighl 
to have conimunicateil to me or my attorney if any I had. 

(The entry here ends abruptly). 

The remaining pages of this book arc occupieil uiiji a 
brief record (French) of the proceedings of the court. Ii ini 
JuneSth, 17^7 to i''eliruai-y l"'tli, 17-''^. I)uiingtliis piii.Hl 
the court seems to have Ineii pi-'iiy nnnh in the hands nt 
one family, as thn'C of tin' li\e jiistiees are named l;i_iuiv;d~ 
The proceedings are void ot' interest. 

The county "Illinois" remaineil a part ol' N'irjinia until 
March 1st, 1784. when Virginia ■' deeded "' ih' \;i-i domain 
to the United States. From 17'S4 to 17'S7. Illinois was 
practically without a civil government. The celebrated 
ordinance of 1787 (passed July loth), (jrganized the north- 
west territory, and General Arthur .St Clair was, by (Con- 
gress elected governor of the territory, October 5tli, 1787. 
(iov. St. Clair arriveil at Kaskaskia, in February, 17U0, 
and on tlie 14lh of April of that yrar, issued his proclama- 
tion, organizing the county of St. Clair: "Beginning at the 
mouth of tiie little Jlichilliakinack (now Mackinaw creek) 
running thence southerly in a direct line to the mouth of the 
little river above Fort Massac upon the Ohio, thence with 
the .said river to its junction «ith the Mississippi, thence up 
the Mississippi to tlie mouth of the Illinois river and up 
Illinois river to the place of beginning, etc. 

A court of Common I'leas was establisheil, and .Tnhn 
Edgar of Kaskaskia, John Baptiste Barbeau of Prairie du 
Ilocher, and John Dumoulin of Cahokia appointed judges, 
each of whom held court in the district where he resided. 
William St. Clair was appointed clerk and recorder of 
deeds, and William Biggs, Sheriff. Thus the interregnum 
of sixteen years gave way to a better order of things. 
Immigration had however continued uninterruptedly, as 
will be seen in our chapter on pioneers and early settlers. 
In 1795 the governor saw fit to form a second county. It 
was done by drawing a line from the Jlississijipi due east 
through New Design settlement to the Wabash. All the 
territory south of this line to the Ohio River was, in honor 
of Edmund Randolph, the Virginian statesman and 
philanthropist, named 


At the time of its organization, the vast area of the 
country cjutained, in its western part, the following distinct 
settlements, to wit: The ancient French villages of Kas- 
kaskia, Prairie du Rocher and St. Philij) with FortChartres 
and the purely American settlement at New Design. The 
" French " villages and adjacent districts were inhabited by 
the descendants of the colonists arrived in the beginning of 
the 18th century, and by a number of English and American 
emigrants, who, in a spirit of adventure or speculation had 

• E. J. Moiitii^'uu ill hi.s liistoiicnl sliutdiM of Kiimlolpli County, ;i.ssoils thiit 
when Col. Claik tuoli possession of tlie emintry in 1778, tic immoit llic ilistrict 
iwonml Kiiskaskia " Riiiul<ilpli County" in complinii-nt to F,.linniia R;in.|olpli, 


I'ounil their wav to those ilis'ant regiiins since 17G3. The 
cession of the eiuntry to Kngland had induced many of 
the wialtliier French eol''ii'-|s lo aliandoii their homesteads 
on the ea-t sideot' tli.' .^l:~>i-sippi, seeking refuge in the ter- 
ritory -.vest of the- river, then in possession of his Catholic 
Maje-ty, the King of Spain. This exodus of the French 
alarnud the lOnglisli Authorities to some extent, and induced 
tlieiu to pronnse to the inhabitants the liberty of the 
■ ( aili .lie," etc, bv proclamation, at the same 
time granting those wishing to emigrate, the right to .sell 
their propertv, provided tlie purch;isers were loyal to the 
!\ing of I'lngland. The e>:odus, however, continued; and it 
i-- 'inesiioiiublc whetlur the arrival of r'nglishmeu and later 
of .\MMrieans was sniiii'ien! to till the gaps. The popula- 
li'in ■■:' tiie new eonn.ty in 17'.'i was in ;tll probability less 
than in 17i!-;. The inh;sl)ilants of the county at that period 
il7'.'o were for the njev-t pait farmers and hunters. The 
nnndji.r of traders was limited, and the trades were repre- 
sented by a few blacksmiths and here and there a tanner; 
the fact was, that the American jiioneers were, almost with- 
out exception, skilled mechanics and artisans. 


The French colonists held the land granted to them pretty 
much in the same style in which the rural population of 
their mother land hold it to this day. Each villager had a 
strip assigned to him, some more, some less, according, pro- 
bably to the number of his family or to the favor in which 
he stood with the dispensers of the grants These strips 
were surrounded by a ftnee owned and constructed in com- 
mon by all the villagers, each of whom had to render a 
certain amount of labor for the commuiuty or forfeit tl.e 
right to his strip. At Kask.askia these strips extended from 
river to river, while at St. Philip and other colonies they 
extended from the river to the hills. Besides fields 
held in common, the villagers possessed large tracts of lands 
as commons, where to procure fuel, hunt, fish and pasture 
their stock. A large part of these commons have in our 
days been leased in smaller parcels to settlers, and for the 
benefit of the vUlwjcrs, while some por.ions still remain 
" commons " as of yore. Individual grants were also made 
by French missionaries. The French ( ioverunient made 
first mention of their pos.sessions in " Louisiana " in 1712, 
on the 14th of September, when Antoine Croziit was granted 
letters patent to the whole commerce of the country. In 
1723, on the 14th of June, a grant of land was made to 
Francois Philip Renault (Renaud) in fee simple in order to 
enable him to support his establishment at the mines in 
Upper Louisiana. This grant was made by Boisbriaiit, the 
King's lieutenant, and governor of the province of Louisiana, 
and by Des Ursins, principal secretary of the Royal India 
Company. The grant was located near Fort Chartres, 
bounded on the south by lands of the Illinois Indian.^, one 
league in front of the Mississippi, and extending back into 
the country two leagues. 

Other individual grants exteudeil throughout the Ameri- 
can bottom for a distance of many miles. The English, 
wheu in possession of the territory, 17(53 to 1778, exercised 
the privilege of making grants to a great extent, and in some 



instances conveyed lands which had for years been the pro- 
perty of individuals.* Virginia, when in possession of the 
territory granted the so-called improvement rights, 400 
acres each ; all these grants properly authenticated, were 
recognized by the United States when succeeding Virginia 
in the possession of the territory. In their turn the United 
States granted the so called family head rights of 400 acres 
each, to heads of families having held permanent residence 
in the territory in 1783, and militia rights of 100 acres 
each to all who had actually served in the militia in 1790 
and prior years. 

When the country was organized in 1795 these land grants 
called for mauy hundred thousand acres of land, as will 
be seen below, but the thousand and odd individuals to 
whom these grants had been made, had divested themselves 
of them prior to the first assessment of taxable property of 
the county, probably in 1808, when these broad acres were 
owned by less than three hundred individuals. 

Among the numerous assessments of the property of Ran- 
dolph county, filed away in the court-house at Chester, we 
have selected one from which to quote, as it appears to be 
the oldest on file. It has no date ; the lands assessed were 
described by metes and bounds only ; not an acre seemed to 
have been properly managed. This assessment was in all 
probability made by David Robinson, Sr., who was ap- 
pointed county assessor March 12th, 1808. 


Extrnci from the Assessment of probably 1808 — This ap- 
parently oldest assessment of Randolph county kept on file 
is not dated, nor signed, yet it is very carefully made up, 
and shows that 435,800 acres of land were in the possession of 
individuals. None of the tracts owned had been surveyed, 
and they are described in the following way as for instance : 
Situated "on the Kaskaskia, seven or eight miles above the 
village," or "on the Okaw, si.\ miles below Horse Prairie," 
or "adjoining the Jesuits' land," or " on the road to fort 
Charters, opposite the village of Kaskia," or ''situation un- 
known," or " ten leagues up the Ohio River," or " on the 

Confiscation of Umds by the authorities of His Majesty, the King of Great 

The Britisli authorities, in malving tlic land grants and donations, would 
occasionallydispo-sess the original owners of their homesteads and donate the 
same to loyal siittjects of His Majesty. 

The first document of this kind was made out at Fort Chartres, November 
]2th, 1767, by Gordon Forbts, Captain 34th Regimei.l, in manner and form as 

By virtue of the power and authority in me invested, Ido herelty grant unto Mr- 
James Ruinsey, late lieutenant of His Majesty's 34th Regiment, a certain tract 
of land containing acree in front from the river Kaskaskia to tlie Missis- 
sippi, once the j roperty of one La Bauhon, whereon formerly did stand a water 
mill, the remains of which are now to be seen. The whole being agreeable to 
His Majesty's Proclamation, confiscated to the King and is hereby given lo James 
Rumsey in consideration of His Excellency. General Gage's Recommendation, 
and for the good exampleo{ a speedy seltlement of His Majesty's colony, as like- 
wise the frame of a house with a lot of land thereunto appeitaining opposite 
the Jesuit college in the village of Kask.i.«kias. 

In many instances the original owners were allowed to sell their property, as 
will appear from the following: 

Fort Chartres. ss. (no date.) 

Permission is hereby granted to Alexis La Plante, inhabitant of Kaskaskias 
in the Illinois country, to sell, or dispose of, the house, and granted him from 
Colonel John Reed, latecommandant of the said country of the Illinois. ,\nd I 
do hereby declare that whomsoever of His Majesty's iifjj Subjects may pur- 
chase the same that he or they, etc. shall be and are hereby declared to be 
legally possessed of the same without any hindrance, let, incumbrance or tax 

Mississippi some thirty miles above the mouth of the Ohio," 
or " right below Tower Rock," or "on Clark's trail to Vin- 
cennes," etc., etc. This land was owned by less than 300 
individuals, and in parcels ranging from two or three to over 
100,000 acres. The largest land-holders were Gen. John 
Edgar, who paid tax on 130,400 acres; Robert Morri- 
son had 34,000, William Morrison 24,800, James O'Hara 
15,200, John Rice Jones 1(3,400, Pierre Menard 12,000, 
Richard Lord 11,200 acres, etc. Linds in cultivation were 
assessed at 12.00, lands " improved " at 81 50, " wild " lands 
located at $1.00, and wild lands not located at 75 cents per 
acre. The assessed value of all those lands amounted to 
§418,072, and the tax levied, at 75 cents per 100 dollars 
value, to $3,135.54. 

26,262 acres are mentioned as fields and are assessed at 
$2.00 per.acre, and one three acre tract, owned by William 
Murray, is assessed at $2 00 per acre.* 

The present limits of the county did not contain much 
more than one-fifth of those 435,800 acres, as will appear 
from the following lengthy statement of lands of Randolph 
county owned by individuals in 1820. The 26,262 acres in 
fields were principally located in and around Katkas^kia 
and Prairie du Rocher, with the exception of about one-fifth 
located in the south part of Monroe. 

List of lands entered and occupied by individuals in 
Randolph county in 1820. 

TOWN.SHIP 4 S. 3 W. 

Mar, (i,l«1') \:ilV,:in T'lvi., K JS.W.S, m .Sept. Id, l«l« 
A^g.,^,l-I^ I r,;,,. rl,\\v 17, 160 ; Aug. :■., 1 • 1 - - 
NdV.lT. 1-1- I ,i: ■ - ' : ' 'i- 1 :NB.l8, 80 ; Oct.l. 1-1- r 
Nov.l7,l-l-> -inl.l. 1. 1.1, N JS 13.1!), 8U i Oct. 1, 1-1- I 
Sept. lO.ISls John M, liill, N,E. 21, ICO ! Oct. I, Islx F 
Apr. .30, lsl« John McDill, S.E. 21, 
Sept. V.I, 1818 John McPill, .N'.W. 22. 
Sept. I'.i, ISIS Hugh McKchy, W. 2 

-Kolvy, N,E, 27, KiO 

lili, Ji- s w. :i", IM 

iti>-, E,2 N E,3ll,S0 

ii.ny. W. 2:.3, 320 

patty, E. 2S,E, 33, 80 

160 Apr. 30,1810 Joseph Cathcart, N.W.35, Ico 

ICO j 

:r., 320 I Total, 2oo4 


Acres. Acres. 

Dec. .31, 1819 John Dickev. Jr. .S.W.3, Ico ' June 30, 1817 N. Pope A W.Harrison, 
Dec. 3, 1818 James Munford, S E. 3, ir.) j N.E. 20, 160 

Oct, 1. 1818 VVm. Marshall. W.2 N.W.4, 70 , June 30, 1817 N. Pope * W. Harri.«ori, 
Oct. l,i,1818 J. McMillan, W.2S.W. 5, so S,K, 2(i. 1(X) 

Dec. 17, 1818 J. McClurken, S.W. C, 
Dec. 17, 1818 J, McCUlrken.S.W, 7, 
Feb. 25, 1819 A I.- \- AIi-mi^.I ■> . \ K 

Dee. 27, 1819 ■^■■'■' '- ' . . :, ■ - r.T, b," \u'- JI, l-l- An-- 
Apr. 7,1818 ]::■" V , ■,, u : \ r -, -II ,lnlK J", 1,-1- K Ih 
Mar.3,1818 .Iiuiu - Ami, :-,,n, ~ W s, b,(i Mil-. ,-, IMS ,1. Mi 
July29,1818 J.i J. lluggiii", \V.2S.ES,80 Aug, 8. Isls J. Mii 
Nov.2«,181SSamuel Xeviit.S.W.lO, ICO , May 27, 1818 Mi.;i. 
May 2C, 1819 Wm. Vann, W, 2 X.E. 17, 80 June2.'i,isi7 A. L:ui.k-iall, W, 2 N-\V.32, so 
Aug. 20, 1818 Wm. Vann, W. 2 N.W. 17, ICO Feb, 24, 1819 J, Uo« .rman, W, 2 S, W, :l;t, 80 

Mar. 3, 1818 James Anderson, N.E. 18, ICO I ■ 

Apr. 10, 1815 Wm. Morrison, 19, Oil ', 3835 


151 June 311, 1817 N. Pope .t \V. 

ept, 2?, 1«IS M. B..W.-ITI1II 

, K, 21, 160 

, 111, irn 


Feb. 21, IM'i .1 I' 


1-1 ,,1, 

n r II-. 






i-r> ,1. 

11 IvIl' 





ISlC J. 



, S.W 




1818 E 

i Short 


E, 11, 



1818 S. 







1818 E 

i Short 


2 N.W. 12 



181C J. 



,N. 2 


n, N.E. j, 160 I Oct. 12, 1816 George Steel, N. E. ir., ici) 
, E, 2 N.W. 5, 88 I July 31, 1816 J. Ilowerman, N.W. 16, icil 
N.2N.W.C, 94 Oct, 12, 1816 George .Steele, S. 2, 16, 320 
320 I Sept. 30, 1814 James White, AV. 2, 17, 320 
320 j Apr. 11, 1818 John. Steele, E. 2 S.W. 21, 80 
160 I Sept 30, 1814 John Steele, S.W. 28, 160 
160 I Apr. 14, 1818 John Layne, W. 2 N.E. 29, 80 



« Murray bought this three-acre tract as the agent of the firms of Moses and 
Jacob Frank.s of London, and David and Moses Franks, of Philadelphia, on 
the 8th of August, 1771, of Charles Cadron, dit. St. Pierre of St. Philip, village 
in the Illinois country, yeoman and M:rrie Jeanne Merrier, his wife, for 300 
poumls. On it was a water-mill and a large stone dwelling-house, on the road 
from Fort Chartres to St. Philip. 



TOWNSHll" , ! 

Oct. 3, 1818 Adam Storm, E. 2, S.W. 3 SO 
Nor. 18. 1817 .John CrPnslmw. N. 2, U. 3-2i) | j^,^ 
Jan. 1, islli .lolin .1. Honry, S.E. 14, 100 | ' 
Aug. 3M, Isls TI10.S. li..l.i-its, S.E. 31, IGO 


Claims and Surveys — not tlatetl. 
B. Thelwo, O. l.Vio, S. 732 


Apr. . 


, IKU \V rtuil.lprlmck,S.W.17, 121 
isu W. A c. nuildoiliafk, N.K. 18, 106, Win. M.-In(..sli, N. 2, N. 

K. 20, 80 

Total :«1 


Acres. 1 ; 
,, ISIS .lolin Miiiifonl, S. W.IO, 145 ' Aug. 1.'., Lsls .In... M.-Millan. N. V. -.^ 
I. 1.S1S H. L.'Sli.-. K. 2. S.W. 20, sol Oct. 7,1818 Jumes c .ui'll, S.W. 31, 
, 181S H. l.c^li... W. 2, S.E. 20, 80 , A. HudKe, A J. Murd.ic 
,, ISIS W.f. Mallard, E.2,S.K. 2.1, So] E.2.S.|.:.:i 
,, 1818 \V. C. Ballard, N. 2, 24, 320 Aug. 18, 1S18 A Hodge i A. i 
., 1818 W. C. Ballard, N. W. 2>, 100 W. 2, S. W. :! 
:7, 1818 W. E.l^ar, \V. 2. S.W. 25, 80 Aug. 18, 1818 .1 McMillan, S. E. 3.'., 
17, 1818 Samuel Little, N.W. 20, ICO 
17, 1518 Patrick Hanus, W. 2, X. I Total 



July 12. 
Feb. 10. 
Aug, V,. 
Oct. 1, 
Aug. 20. 
Aug. ir., 
Apr. 2.1. 
July 2, 
July 2, 
July 2, 


Acres. [ 
Ihivi.l Mi-MillanS. E. 3, 100 | Oct. 13, ISI7 .li.lin Wiley. S. E. 1 
Andrew H.irdera N.E. 4, 135 ; Sept.Al. 1.^17 J..lin Heaty, S. W. 
lohn Lively S.W. 4, 100 Sept. 20, 1817 Jas. .Mcfhirken.S.] 
vVm. Elli.itt, E. 2, S E 4, 80 \ Sept. 22, 1813 W. Morris, E. 2, N.V 
lohn Lively, N. E. 0, 100 ! Apr. Z\ ISl.'i Wm. Melntosli, Ser 
Francis Beatly, S. W. 9, 100 Oct. 2tl, 1817 WillianiMorris.S.V 
John Lively, S. E. 0, 100 Dec. 12, 1S18 John Miller, N. W. 
Joseph Weir, N. W. 10, 160 IJec. 12, 1818 Jolin Wiley, N. E. :> 
Wm. Mcintosh, sec. 12, 040 | Dee. 12, 1818 John Miller, N. W. 
Jas. Patterson, N. W.13, 100 Sept. 20, 1817 S.Crawford, E.'2,S.\ 
John Mc Dill, S. E. 13, 100 
Jas. P.atter.son, N. 2, 14, 320 1 Total 

TOWNSHIP 6 s. G w. 

Jan. 10, 1818 D. Looney. E. 2, N. W. 3, 71 Apr. 10, isi.i Wm. Morrison, S. 2, 
Apr. 10, 1810 Wm. Morrison, S. 2.3, 320 : Sept. 24, 1814 KeuI.en Lacev. X.W 
Oct. 3, 1818 C. Glover, W. 2, S. W. 4, 80 ; Sept. 24, 1814 John La.-ey, X. W. 1 
Apr. 21, 1815 .Tohn Pillars, S. E. 4, 100 j Xov. 8, 1817 Cath. Coddle. S.W. 1, 
June2C, 1819 John Taggart.S.W. 7, 151 [ Apr. 10, 1815 Wni. Morrison, X. 2, 
i John Pillars, N. E. !!, 100 „, - 

■"- --■ ^- 2' W. 32" Pierre Menard' 

Apr. 21, 1 
Apr. 21,1 
Apr. IS. 1 
Apr. 18, 1 

and Suirei/s. 

I J.Mcnonough,X.E.ll, 

iJ.McD. ngh,X.W.I2, 100! Total.. 

Claims and Snrveyt. 

? Mcnanl 

,ar.l, hrs 


I Acres. 

Acres. Aug. 19,1818 A. Smith, E. 2, X. E. 20, no 

Sepl.2l,lsH HenjaminCrain,S.W..22, lOo 

Dee. 10, ISl'J Pierre Menaid, X.W. 27, loo 

McRoberts 300 

Total 2IUO 

June 12, 1818 S.amuel Man.s: 
Jan. '23, 1819 Henry Kcil, fra 




.Smith, hrs. clain 

Mar. 4, 181s Gc 

JulyC, 1818 

Jan. 12, 1819 
July e, 1818 
Ocl.lo, 1817 
Sep. 9, 1810 
July 6, 1818 
Jan. 4, 1815 
Jan. 21, 1818 
Jan. 7. 1SI9 
Nov. 3.1817 
Apr. 20, 1818 

William lliggs 

Elisha C.Hickox,X2,of 2, 
Same. W2, N.W. 
A. W. Snider, X.E. 4, 
Jas. Morrison, W. 2, of 4, 
Wm. Morrison, S.E. 4, 
Jas. Morrison, N. 2, 5, 
David Kulton, N. 2, 0, 
Robt, Morrison, E.2,X. E.7, 
Jas. Morri.son, X.W. 9, 
Thomas Fulton. S.E. 9, 

Jns.|ill (Mlllni, N W.19, 
TI...IU 1- r.illl. , - W. 19, 
J..hM \.|.iin.. 1: :,\,W. 20. 
W. .M. L. Le Ll.apelle, 
N.W. 21, 

Apr. 20, 
July 18, 
(Sep. 1, 
! Apr. 25, 

1819 .' 

1818 1 
1817 ' 

1819 .: 

>rge Wilson.N.E. 23, lUO 
Thompson, jr. E. 2, 

S.W.23 80 

.Sam. Douglass, W.2,S.E.23, so 
Wm. McBride, S.W. 24. 1.50 
Thomas McBride. N.E.2C, 100 
John Anderson, E. 2, 

N.W. 20 80 

100 ' Mar.2.->,1815 Otha Levens, S.W. 29, 144 
Paul Harlson, N.W. 30, 129 
Otha Levens, S.E. 30, loo 
Thomas Levens, N.W. 31, 12!l 
David Anderson, jr. S.W.32, 44 
A. St. Francisco, hrs. N.E. 

N.W. .33 11 

Andrew Beatty, S.E. 30, 100 

Total. 5218 

270 I Apr. 24, 1815 
I Mar. 25, 181.: 
Apr. 28, 1815 
Sep. 30, 1816 


'. 400 Sep.30,1816 A. St. Francisco, hoirs. 

John Edgar, " " 300 | S-W. 17 160 

John Pettit, " " 100 Sep. 28, 1816 Robt. Morrison. S.E. IS, 100 
Dec. .30,1818 .loseph Pratton.S.E.of 3, 100 Aug.21. 1818 Henry Conner, N.E. 21, 100 
Apr.22, 1815 DavidAnderson,W.2,of5, 320 I May 1, 1S15 Jas. Thompson, S.E. of 22, 160 
Dcc..30,1819 Joseph Pratton.N.E.of 10, 1,56 Jan.2G, 1819 Thos. Sirahan, N.W.of 27, 100 
I>ec..30,lsn Wash'g'nSt..rrets.S.W.10,107 I •' " John Irvin, S.W. 27. 160 

•Sep. 23. 1814 Jas. Patterson. S.E. 10, li;o 1 Aug. 3. 1819 Wm. Th.jmpson.S.E. 28, 160 
.Same, S.W. 11, liai ; Jan. 0, 1815 A. .McCormack, W. 2 33, 320 

Jan. 6, IslS Robert McMann.N.E. 14. 100 Jan. 0. 1S15 Wm. Tumbrell, .S.E. 33, 99 

Dec.l..i,lsl8 John Rankin, N.2,N.W.l.-., so | 

Tolal 3,642 

TOWNSHIP G s. 7 w. 

Acres. 1 Arces. 

Heirs of J. Anderson, I May 1, 1810 Thos. 18, 79 

claim and survey 400 j Jun.10,1810 John sr., S.E.ia. 143 

Urather and Similey, [ Ap. 20, 1816 John Edgar, fr. sec. 19, 168 

400 Ap. 29, 1815 Staecy McDonough, 

Stacy McDonough, 

claim and survey 

John Pettil, claim anil 

survey 100 , Fl. 

Heirs of Henry Si 

N.E. 20 . 


Legal representatives 
of .1. Montgomery, 

John Rii 
and sui 


John Edgar 

Pierre Menard I,; 

Heirs of C. 4 R. Dniry 
Village tract of Kas- 

P. 11. Roberts 

Robert Reynolds 

Diego Kodreique 

May 15, 1817 Jacob Harnian, fr., 

S.W. 7 

.Mr. 24, 1S19 Stacey McDonough, 

X.E. 8 

Jan. 14,1818 Amos Anderson. S.E. 12, 
Oct. 10,1818 William Coddle, X.E. 1:1 
Ag. 31.1S10 llb.a.liah, S.E. l:i, 

400 : Ap. 10, 1817 John Edgar, bal. sec. W, 459 

Ag. 31, 181S Henry Conner, X.E. 21, 160 
1,1817 Stacey McDonough, 

N.W. 21 100 

400 Mr. 1.5, 1817 C.iIvinLawrence,S.W.2I, 160 

Ag. 10, 1817 Edward Coles, fr. S.E.21, 93 

A p. 4, 1818 Joseph Jay, E. 2, N.E. 23. 80 
4110 Jan.20,lslS Silas Crisler, W. 2, 

N.E. 24 80 

200 No. 17, 1810 Aaran (Juick, X.W. 24, li»l 

.I11I. 4, 1817 Joseph Harman,S.W.24, 100 

1,415 Ai-. 30, 1817 Jonathan Petii', S.E. 24, 160 
2.22..1 Oct. 17, 1818 John Hannard. E. 2, 

S.E. 26 80 

.250 Jul. 30, 1819 John Richardson, sr., 

W. 2, S.W. '27 80 

232 Xo. 21,1817 William Morrison, fr. 

BOO E. 2, 28 108 

:i,50 Ag. 10, 1817 Edward Coles, fr.N.W. 




' Sep. .30.1810 P. Menard 4 A. Perry, 

X.E. 29 147 

Ap. 22. 1817 Abijali Levett. W. 2, 29, 203 
Sep. :iii, 1810 Pierre Menard and A. 

I'erry, fr. S.E. 29 30 

Sep.3n.lsl.i John fr. W. 2, 30. 59 

Fb. 11), 1,^17 .lano Rippey, S.E. 30, 145 


2. ISl- 

James Hughes. W. 2. 17. 310 

A p. 


.>7. 1.<1. 

J..lni K.lgar. S.K. 17. Ifio 
.lohn X.E.IK, 120 
John R. Jones, cl. ,t sur., 2098 
John, 39 
Wm. Morrison, cl. and 

sur. in 7-7 A 7-.8 277 

John Edgar.el. and sur. 

in 7-7 .1- 7-8 12'JO 

Joseph McPherson, cl. 
andsur. in7-7.t7.a... 134 

T..lal . 

and sur. in 7-7 i 7-8 

Widow Godin. .alias Go 

angeau, cl. and sur. ; 

. 13,35: 



7 7 ,1 : 


Michael Danie, cl. and Ale.iis Blaurais, cl. and 

sur. in 7-7 * 7-8 31 sur. in 7-7 A 7-8 45 

Antoinc Bienvenue, .1. James Morrison, cl. aud 

and sur. in 7-7 ,1 7-8... HI sur. in 7-7 i 7-8 94 

James llaggins, cl, aii.l J. li. Laderout. el. and 

sur. in 7-7 and 7-s li«i sur. in 7-7 ,(: 7-9 36 n.l II, 1S17 Clendenin. N.W.2, 160 

sur. in 7-7 and 7-8 lai Inc. 2. Isl7 Henry Pettit, X.E. 3, 100 

Pierre Menard, cl. and July 7, 1818 Wm. Morrison, X.E. 4, 100 

sur. in 7-7 and 7-8 941 X... 27, 1817 Rachel Green, W. 2, 

L.iuis Ladcr..iil, cl. and S.E. 4, 80 

sur. ill 7-7 and 7-8 127 0,1818 Elijah C. Berry, fr. s. 5, 272 

Louis rhaml.erlanl, cl. Jan. 7, 1818 Jolin McFerron, W. 2, 

and -iir. :u 7-7.1- ,V 7-8 13.5 S.W. 4 80 

Joseph Archambeau. el. Apl. 0, 1818 W. T. Williams. S.W. 13, 100 

and 7-7 .V 7-8.... 90 Jan. .5. 1817 Wm. Oliver. W. part. 14. 154 

Joseph Devignc's heirs, Ap. 18, 1815 John .VcFerron, pt. S.W. 

cl. A sur. in 7-7* 7-8... 67 U liU 

L. G. Chamberlant, cl. Fb. 16,1818 William Oliver, S.E. 14, loo 

and sur. in 7-7 A 7-8... 114 Sep.28,1814 Saml. Cochran, X.E. 15, 100 

J..hnRice Jones, cl. and 

sur. in 7-7 .t 7-8 105 T.ilal 8317 

TOWNSHIP 4 s. .S W. 

.\i'r.'8. Acres. 

Henry Levens, cl. ami Ap, 11, 1815 W. Rector A E. Barcrofl. 

siir.4A5S. 8 3i«) S E. 1 ICO 

John, cl. and sur. Jul 24, 1819 Wm. Peach, W. 2, S.E. 2, 80 

4-8 loO Jul. 24, 1819 Saml. Abbolt,E.2,X.W..5, 80 

My.20,1817 BinlardA Nove,, 280 Oct. 30. 1818 G. Taylor, Jr.,S.E.-N.E.O, 38 




Mnr.e, 181« Samuel Crozier, N.E. 8, 160 

Jan. 2.1S18 Jb. B. Bull, E. 2, N. W.8, 80 
Ap. 21, 1817 Naney Garner. W. 2, 

S.W. 9 SO 

Ap. 29, 1815 Cliecqueur and others, 

S.E. 12 100 

De. 24,1817 Isaac Husband, S.E. 24, 100 
De. 12, 1817 Paul Haralson, \V.2, N.E, 

of 25 8(1 

Ap. 24. 1815 Paul Haralson, S.E. 25 160 

Jnn.10,18'0 Robert Foster, S.W. 29, 100 
Jan.11,1819 James Kinney,W.2,S.W. 




Robert Reynolds, cl. A 

survey, 40( 

Pierre Menard, cl 

No.22,1817 Abner Koek.N.E. 3.'i IGO 

Ap. 28, 1815 Thomas Levens, N.E.31, 100 

De. 23, 1817 Isaac Husband, N.W. 30, 100 

Ap. 28,1815 Thos. Levens, fr. S.W. 30, 02 

Mr. 30, 1810 Caldwell Games, S.E. 36, 100 

Total 3-240 

8 w. 

Apr. 28, 1815 Thos. Levens, S E 2.., 
Dec. 22, 1818 Henry 0'Hara,fl ac.S( 

rvey .. 


John Bl.iird (probably 

Dralrd),cl. and survey 400 
Levin Cropper, cl. and 

Jno. Rice Jones, cl. and 
survey 400 

Peler Menard, cl. & snr., 
in 5-8 4 6-8 340 

P. D. Roberts, el. S sur., 
in 5-8 A C-8 

PiatlieriSmily, cl. 

. 3300 

i .t I 



du Rocher, cl. A sur., 

in 5-8 ,t 5-0 0102 

L. & B. Laderoute, cl. & 

sur., in 5-8 A 5-9 337 

John Edgar, part in 5 A 

C S.— S A 9 W 002 

Wm. Morrison, part in 

6 A OS.— 8 A 9 W 040 

Apr. 28,1815 Caldwell Carne.=, frac. 

W2of 1 1S7 

Dec. 24, 1817 Isaac Husband, S E of 

Apr. 28, 1815 Thos. Levens, N E 2.... 
Jan. 2, 1819 David Lanson, E 2S W 2 

Sep. 18, 1819 Peter Smith, N E of 9... 
Aug. 7, 1819 Jas. Whelan, E 2 N W 9 
Sep. 30, 1814 Thos. Levens, N 2 12.... 
Aug. Ill, 1814 David Fulton, fr. S.2 of 

13 195 

Aug.29,1815 John Edgar, N. 2 of 14.. 320 

Jan. 5, 1818 Jos. H. Orr, S.W 15 160 

Oct. 19, 1818 Wm. Steel, pts. of sec- 
tions IS and 19 302 

Oct. 0, 1818 J. 4J. Dunlop,N.E,of 19 160 
Dec.l2, 1818 Henry Kinnel, W. 2 N. 

W. SO 80 

Apr. 17, 1815 Amos Paxton, E 2 S.W. 

TOWNSHIP 5 S. 9 w. — Continued. 

Monsieur Denegro he 
Widow Dennyer heirin 
Widow Hebert heirs . 
Anloine Riviere, clain 

5-9 and 5-10 237 

J. B. Boquette heir.s claim and sur. 

part 5-0 and 5.10 03 

Henry Carpenter heirs claim and 

sur. part 5-8 and .5-10 35 

Joseph Hortiz heirs claim and sur. 

part 5-9 and 5-10..: 42 

John Edgar heirs claim and sur. 

part 5-9 and 5-10 85 

Deb. 10, 1818. Samuel LeardS.W. of 1 160 



June 8, 1818 Edwd. Mudd, W. 2 S W. 

of 20 80 

June 1,1818 Norton Hull, E.2S.W.21 80 

May 22, 1818 Thos. Orr, S.E. 21 160 

May 1,1815 J. Dodge, S.W. 22 160 

Aug.10,1818 James Wilson, N.2of24 294 
Sep. 14,1819 John Hathorn,fr. N.-2 of 


Jan. 9, 1815 Archibald Thompson, fr. 
S.2 of 2.-, 

Apr. 29, 1815 Wm.Reclor,parts of sec- 
tions 34 and 35 

Jan. 19, 1815 A. Thompson, parts of 
sections 'Ad and 30 

Joseph Belle 
part in 5-! 

Joseph Lamii 
part i 




Pierre R. Gidin heirs claim and sur. 79 
August Allard heirs claim and sur. 90 
lias Jarret heirs claim and sur. 88 
George Wiimer heirs claim and sur. 89 
Joseph Bellcour heirs claim and sur. 93 
Antoine Riviere Heirs claim and sur. Gli9 
Jacques Routillet heirs claim and sur. 50 
Pierre Le Compte heirs cl. and sur. 280 
Andree Barbeau heirs claim and sur. 51 
Louis Peareau heirs claim and sur. 60 
John Edgar heirs claim and sur. 431 
Ambrose A Vasseur hs. cl. and sur. 136 
Du Boiher vill»ge sq. hs. cl. and sur 397 
R. Robinson and R. Morrison 

heirs claim and survey 147 

Jean B. Boquette heirs claim and sur. 85 
Ignace Laroche tieirs claim and sur. 213 

John Edgar and J. Murray cl. and 

Jr. part in 6-9 and 0-9 1677 

John Edgar heirs cl. and sur. part 

in .6-9 and 0-9 : 1589 

B. Barbeau heirs claim and sur. 

part in 6-9 and 6-9 260 

P. G. dit Peaureau heirs claim and 

ar. part in 69 and 0-9 58 

August Allard heirs claim and sur. 

part in .5-9 and C-9 116 

A. A L. Lapeur heirs claim and sur. 

pact in .6-9 and 0-9 309 

Louis Pettit heirs claim and sur. 

part in 5-9 and 6-9 117 

Clement Dniry heirs claim and sur. 

part iu 5-0 and 6-9 241 

Saurier Louvier heirs claim and sur. 

part in 5-9 and 6-9W 481 

John Edgar claim and .sur. Island 

opposite Fort Chartres 1047 

Widow Hebert part in Monroe Co... 370 

John Edgar part in Monroe Co 260 

M. Philebot part iu Monroe Co 142 

jands in Randolph county owneil by individuals prior to lli 



. and £ 

. part 




d 6-9... 
heirs cl. and sur. 

6-9and6-9 192 

claim and sur. 

part in ,6-9 and 0-9 131 

A. Roy neirs claim and sur. part 

in 6.9 and 6-9 373 

Jacques Boutillet heirs claim and 

sur. part in 6-9 and 0-9 117 


sur. part in 5-9 and ( 

.iutoine de Louvier h* 

s claim and 


part in 5-9 and 0-9.. 

Unappropriated heirs claim and 

sur. part iu 5-9 and 6-9 105 

. 1205 

John Edgar, cl. A 
Timotliy Demonbro 

claim and survey 
Not located els. & si 
Pierre Menard, cl. A 
Kaskaskia Indians, cl. 

and survey 443 

Jt)s. Person and others, 

claim and survey . ... 160 
Widow La Chapelle, cl. 


. 7l>84 

J as. Mo 

, cl. A ! 

Wm. Mcintosh, cl. A sur 
Heirs Etienne Pevard, 


nd survey.. 

Robt. Asl 
Jas, Kinltaid, cl, A si 
AntoineBuyat, nl. A si 
Heirs of B. Richard, 



Antoine Bien 

cl. and survey 

Jacob Judy, cl. A sui 
Jo-. Morrison, cl. Asm 
Hens of Michael Dan 

claim and survey 

Wul■l^^ ToiTongeau, c 

and survey 

Wm. Morrison, cl.Asu 

Antoine La Chapelle, cl. 

an 1 survey 22 

Genevieve Buyat, claim 

and survey 49 

1 Lafaruqtie, cl. 

and survey, G-S A C-9... : 

Jos. Tullieur A others, 

cl. A survey, li-8 A G-9., 

Nov. 13, 1816 Geo, Fislier, fr, S,W of 

Nov. 13,1810 Geo, Fisher, fr, N,W. of 

Nov, 13,1816 Gei 
June 10, 1816 Jas 

ction 9 

., Fisher, fr, S, pt, of 


fr, 8,E, of 

J, B. Boquette part in Mo 
Ignaoe Le Grass part in I 
Joseph Bellccour part iu 



2004 T" 


■ W. 

I 7 - 7 W 



,. 13,347 
.. 8317 
.. 3240 
.. 18,824 
.. 13,008 


Township 1. S. 8 W, 

Township 7 S. 8 W 240 

Township 5 S. 9 W 5568 

Township G S. 9 W 0448 

Township 6 S. 10 W., pt. in Monroe 2911 


. 102,8! 

o, heir 

Sept. 30, 1816 A.St. Francis 

fraction S.E. of 14 101 

Sept. 30, 1810 A.St. Franciac , heirs, 

fraction N.E, of 23 40 

Sept. 30, 1816 Jno,Edgar,parts of 23 A 


Sept, 30,1810 Jas. Slatter, fr. N.E. of 


Sept. 30, 1816 Shadrach Bond, fr. pts. 

of 25 

Sept. 30, 1810 Shadrach Bond, fr. pts. 

of 36 


IchabetCamp, he 
Antoine Bienvei] 

Total 13,000 


Menard, claim and survey 240 

Total ■■■ 2« 



) and survey 800 

1 and survey 715 

Town«hip4 S. 5 W 

Townships S. 5 W 

Township G S. 6 W 

Township 7 S. 5 W 

Township 8 S, 5 W 

Dship 4 S, 6 W 

nship 5 S, 6 W 4076 

Township G S, 6 W 3087 

nship 7 S, GW 2100 

nship 8 S, W 304 

Township 4 S, 7 W 3218 

Township 5 S, 7 W 3042 


The administration of the county in its infancy, from 1795 
to 1803, was entrusted to a court of common pleas, organized 
in 1795, and composed of John Edgar, William Morrison, 
Pierre Menard, Robert McMahan, George Fisher, John 
Beaird, Robert Reynolds, Nathaniel Hull, Antoine Louvier, 
John Grosvenor, James Finney and Samuel Cochran. These 
gentlemen were territorial or United States justices of the 
peace, and as such members of the court of common pleas. 

The minutes of this court could not be found, and so it is 
impossible to give an account of the earlier transactions, 
1795 to 1803. From subsequent minutes it may be inferred, 
however, that the first " court-house," probably built by 
Todd in 1779, was not longer inhabitable; that it, together 
with the lot on which it had been erected, had been sold to 
William Morrison and Dr. George Fisher, who, in 1803, 
were dunned by the county officials for balances due by them 
to the county on account of said purchase. Morrison owed 



a balance of $25 for the lot, aud the Doctor owed $60 for 
the stone of the court-house. 

James Dunu, sheritl" prior to 1803, built the first county 
jail at Kasfeaskia, and received $j70 35 for it July 12,1803. 

C'onrity Commmionrr.% 1803 to 1809. The first meeting 
of these oflicers was held July 4, 1803, at the dwelling-house 
of Robert Morrison, where he and his colleagues, Paul Ha- 
ralson and James Gilbreath, took the oath of office before 
John Edgar, Esq., ami then adjourned. Their next meeting 
was held at the house of Mrs. Turcott. on the 12lh of July, 
1803, when William Wilson, county surveyor since 1795, 
was appointed secretary of the commissioners, in place of 
Paul Haralson, who had declined to act any longer. (Paul 
had acted as secretary at the 4th of July meeting, and writ- 
ten twenty-one words as secretary ) From the minutes of 
the I'Jth of July, it would appear that William Kelly was 
the first coroner of the county, for he was then allowed a 
claim of 8-9.89, for holding an inquest over the body of a 
man found dead on the Massac road in 1796. 

The court held their subsequent meetings in the house of 
Louis Laderout, and paid him 811.50 rent October 18, 1803. 
The county had been divided into five townships by the court 
of common pleas, and the county commissioners retained 
this subdivision. The townships were named Kaskaskia, 
Prairie du Rocher, Williamsburg, Mitchie and Springfield. 

An assessment of personal property was ordered on the 
13lh of January, 1894, and the following forces put to work : 
For Kaskaskia — John Grosvenor and Joseph Pago ; for 
Mitchie — James McRoberts and William Cliafhu ; for 
Springfield — William Kelly; for Prairie du Rocher — Nico- 
las Mya (Meyer), John Evert, Sr., and Prince IJryan. 

This seems to have been the last term of the county com- 
missioners' court, as it adjourned " without a day," after 
allowing wolf-scalp premiums — to John Griffin for 14, Otho 
Levens and Jonathan Petit for 4 each, John Hornbeck for 2 
and Parker Grosvenor, Robert McMahan and Robert Hug- 
gins for 1 each. 

The administrative functions of the county were next 
performed by a court, styled orphans' court, compo.sed of 
the following justices : Pierre Menard, John Bcaird, George 
Fisher, Robert Reynolds, Robert McMahan and John Gros- 
venor, from 1804 to 1808. From minutes kept by this court 
it would appear that it devoted its atteution to probate busi- 
ness almost exclusively. Once only, on March 7, 180b, some 
political measures are mentioned. Same territory of the 
county, heretofore a wilderness, had gradually been settled 
and become the home of a few families possessed of " taxable " 
property, whereu|)on the court deemed it proper to organize 
tliese parts as townships. The five original townships were 
retained and the following new ones added : 

Rocking Cave. — To commence at range Hue 7 east of the 
3d principal meridian, running north with said line until it 
intersec s the county line between Randnlph and St. Clair. 
Tliis description ij vague. The new township must have 
comprised the present counties of White, Gallatin, and Har- 
din, and eastern parts of Hamilton, Saline, and Pope. 

Massac. — To commence at range line 2 east of the 3d 
principal meridian; running due north till it strikes Big 

Muddy river. This township comprised the present coun- 
ties of Massac, Johnson, and Williamson, also west parts of 
Hamilton, Saline, and Pope. 

Mississippi. — To commence on the Mississippi, below Big 
Muddy, and bounding on Massac township, running to the 
mouth of the Ohio. This township contained the present 
counties of Pulaski, Alexander and Union, and southeast 
part of Jackson. The order for formation of these townships 
is immediately followed by another, appointing assessors, to 

wit : Samuel Omelveny for Rocking Cave, Hughes 

for Mississippi, and f homas Ferguson for Massac. 

Marie, or Marij. — Springfield township was divided by a 
line beginning at Colonel Edgar's Ferry, on the Kaskaskia, 
along the road leading to Harralson's ferry, on the same 
river, until oppo. ite the house of Thomas Fulton ; thence 
east to the Vincennes road with the same until it strikes the 
boundary line of Knox county. 

Scraps from the records of the period, 1795 to 1809. — 
The first official mentioning of the name of Randolph county 
is found in a record of deeds, when, November 7, 1795, 
Lewis Germain and Mary his wife, of Kaskaskia, Randolph 
coi.nty, in the Territory of the United States west of the 
River Ohio, sold to William Mclutosh a one-sixth interest 
in a tract of land at a place called the Big Spring, near the 
road from Kaskaskia to Prairie du Rocher, about six miles 
from Kaskaskia, containing in front 12 acres, and 90 acres 
deep, between Pierre Lauglois and John Edgar, for twenty 

The prices at which lands sold in those times are very 
irregular. 400-acre head rights were sold at from thirty to 
two hundred dollars, and were frequently paid for in goods 
at enormous prices. Militia rights, 100 acres, brought from 
six to fourteen dollars; other donation rights sold at similar 
rates, while the so-called improvement rights were seldom 
sold for less than fifty cents per acre. 

The largest land sale made in those days was that of 
Pierre and Therese Menard to Charles Choquier and John 
Holmes of Baltimore, wherein, for the sum of $9,000, nine 
thousand two hundred aud thirty-three and one-third acres 
were conveyed February 12, 1799. Menard's lands thus 
sold consisted of twenty-one and one third head of family 
rights, of 400 acres each ; and seven militia rights, of 100 
acres each. His profits must have been considerable. 

Lardner Clark sold his mill, distillery, dwelling-house, 
and "gardens." situated east of the Kaskaskia river, to John 
Edgar for S20 50, November 10, 1798. John Edgar had 
apparently monopolized the purchasing of lands, the de- 
serijition of which fills 172 consecutive pages iu the land 
records of the county. 

Marriages recorded during said period. 

Nichola Jarrot and Marie C. Barbun, Sept. 22. 1795 — 
solemnized bv Gabriel Richard. Curate of St. Joseph of 
Prairie du Rocher. Joseph Danguiue and Marie Reine 
Filet, Sept. 29 1795 — by the same. Antoine C. LaChance 
and Jeanne Felicitee d'Amour Louviere, Nov. 9. 1795 — by 
same. Antoine d'Amour Louviere and JIarie Louise Lang- 
lois, Feb. 8. 1796— by same. Louis Allaire and Magdalene 



Degagnee, Feb. 5. 1796, by "Janin," Curate at Kaskaskia. 
Alexis Paquin and "Archangel", April 21. 1796 by same. 
Joseph Devigne and Julie Godin Tourangeau, Nov. 8. 1795, 
by same. Joseph Langlois and Marie B. D. Toulons, Oct. 
27. 1796. J. B. Perrin and Marguarete Grannon, Nov. 14, 
1796, Joseph Sylvain and MarianeNuillier Devignie, Feb 
28. 1797. Etienne L'Anglois and Cecile Candere, January 
23. 1798. Francois L'Anglois and Marie Godin, Joseph Blai 
and Marianne Lavone— same day by Gabriel Richard Curate. 

The estate of Louis La Sand deceased was put under ad- 
ministration on the 20th of November 1795, when his will, 
dated Prairie du Eocher June 23. 1790, was proved. The 
will is void of interest. The personal property consisted in 
6 cows, valued from 15 to 20 dollars each, 1 yoke of steersi 
60 dollars, 10 head of young cattle, valued from 7 to 12 
dollars each, 3 horses, valued 40 dollars each. 

The common law cases adjudicated during the period, 
although quite numerous, are without any special interest, 
and criminal cases there are none, except now and then an 
assault and battery or liquor case, as for instance the Indict- 
ment and fine of Ephraim Carpenter, innkeeper at Kaskas- 
kia, who had sold liquor without license — in defiance of law 
and to the evil example — for which misdemeanor he paid a 
fine of five dollars and costs. 

The election returns of that period h;.ve not been pre- 
served. From documents preserved in the sister county St. 
Clair, it appears that Shadrach Bond of Randolph defeated 
Isaac Darneille of Cahokia [St. Clair] for "a representative 
for to be sent to the General Assembly of the Territorry," 
at an election held in January 1799. Another election, 
after the organization of the territory of Indiana, held on 
the 7th of December 1802, to elect three representatives to 
go to Vincennes and there to meet the convention to be held 
there on the 20. of December for the purpose of sending our 
grievances to Congress, resulted in the election of Shadrach 
Bond sr., Jean Fran9ois Perry and John Murdock. May 21. 
1805, Shadrach Bond, sr., was elected representative to the 
territorial legislature of Indiana, and becoming a member 
of the legislative council [senate] resigned in 1806, when 
Shadrach Bond, jr., his nephew wa« elected to fill this va- 
cancy. He was reelected in the following year, remaining 
a representative of Randolph county until Illinois waa 
formed into a separate territory. 

The officers of the county during this period have been 
mentioned above. The dates of their commissions could not 
be ascertained. The sheriffs of that period were James 
Dunn, 1795 to 1800, George Fisher from 1800 to 1803, James 
Edgar 1803 to 1805 and James Gilbreath from 1805 to 
1807. Robert Morrison was clerk of the court (.f quarter 
sessions. William Wilson was county surveyor from 1795 
to 1808, William Kelley coroner 1795 to 1808 and Lardner 
Clark recorder of deeds. The organization of the territory 
of Illinois, February 3. 1809 gave cause to a reorganization 
of the two counties then existing, St. Clair and Randolph, 
which was done by proclamation as follows : 

Apbil 28, 1809. 
Nathaniel Pope, Secretary of the Territory of Illinois, 
and exercising the government thereof. 

By virtue of the power vested in the Governor for the 
prevention of crimes, injuries, and for the execution of 
process, civil and criminal, within the territory, I have 
thought proper, and by this proclamation, to divide the 
Illinois territory into two counties to be called the county 
St. Clair and the county of Randolph. The county of 
Randolph shall include all that part of -the Illinois 
Territory lying south of the line dividing the counties of 
Randolph and St. Clair, as it existed under the govern, 
ment of the Indiana Territory on the last day of February 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and nine, — and the 
county of St. Clair shall include all that part of the 
Territory which lies north of said line. 

Done at Kaskaskia, the 28th day of April, 1809, 
and of the Independence of the United States, 
the thirty-third. Nat. Pope. 

The territory of the county remained the same as 
heretofore. The population of the county, 1103 in 1800, 
had now increased to about 7000. (The United States 
Census of 1810 gave the county then a population of 
7275.) The people were scattered over a vast area, but 
fully one-half of the total population were located at Kas- 
kaskia and its vicinity. 

A reorganization of the county government took place 
on the 3d of July, 1809, when William Arundel, Philip 
Fouke and John Edgar, Esquires, Justices of the Peace, 
with William C. Greenup as clerk, and Benjamin 
Stephenson as sheriff, assembled at the house of Thomas 
Cox and " held court." 

1809 TO 1819. 

In reading and examining the proceedings of the first 
courts of various and diverse counties the writer observed 
that the licensing of taverns is the first step usually taken. 
The absolute want of public funds in all these new bodies 
politic must have compelled the authorities to grantthose 
licenses as the easiest and quickest mode of obtaining a 
"revenue." And thus the records again show that Philip 
Fouke was licensed as innkeeper at Kask^kia, taxed $12.00 
per annum, and, being a man of " good character and 
reliable withall," he was excused from giving the usual 
bond; he was allowed to charge as follows: breakfast, 25 
eta., dinner 37 i cts., supper 25 cts., lodging 12i cts., horse 
to hay at night 25 cts., corn or oats 12* cts. per gallon, 
French brandy, 50 cts. per half pint; whiskey, 12i cts. J 
taffia or rum, 37* ; peach brandy or cherry bonnie, 25 cts. 

William Morrison was licensed to keep a ferry from 
opposite the "Little Rock" across the Mississippi, and 
allowed to charge the following rates : four-horse team, 
$3.00 ; two-horse team, $2 50 ; two-wheel carriages, with a 
pair of horses or oxen, $2.00 ; with single horse or ox, $1.75 ; 
man and horse, 62 J cts. ; single horse, 50 cts. ; single 
person, 25 cts; "plunder," 12V cts. per 100 lbs.; neat 
cattle per head, 50 cts ; hogs or sheep, 12* cts ; and planks, 
25 cts. per 100 feet. The Kaskaskia ferry rates were lower, 
to wit: Single person above 77 years of age, 6i cts.; man 
and horse, 12* cts.; single horse, 6i cts. ; cart and oxen or 
horses, 25 cts ; wagon and team, 50 cts. ; grown cattle, 61^ 



eta ; cattle under two years of age, sheep or hogs, 3i cts. 

The labors of the county court were performed by 
justices of the peace, three of whom would form a quorum, 
until January, 1810. A territorial law, pa.ssed December 
22d, 1809, created county courts, to be composed of three 
judges who were appointed by the governor. Before pro- 
ceeding further we would here introduce a 


Justices of the Peace. — The early Justices of the Peace 
held their offices by appointment, and it was not until 182" 
that the people were deemed competent to elect their town- 
ship judicial officers. The general view on the subject seems 
to have been that the dignity of the " Squire " would be 
or was in danger of being lowered by the vulgarity of elec- 

The governor of the territory appointed the justices at 
the suggestion of the county commissioners, or " at will," 
and the commissions issued to those dignitaries smack of 
monarchical origin, his excellency the governor using the 
plural number of the personal pronoun when referring to 
his own persou. 

The following gentlemen seem to have acted as justices in 

Philip Fouke, William Arundel, Henry Levens, Pierre 
Le Coute, P. Harralson, David Anderson, Jean B. Bar- 
beau, Robert Gaston, Archibald Thompson, John Guithing, 
John Edgar, James M. Roberts, John McFerron, John 
Bradshaw, i^amuel Omelvany, George Robinson, George 
Hacker, Jas. Lemon, Thomas Ferguson, Hamlet Ferguson, 
John Phelps, and Marion Fuller. 

Overseers of the Poor. — Ralph Drury, John Evert fur 
Mitchie ; Clement Drury, Pierre Le Conte, fur Du Rocher; 
John Gibson, A. Langlois, for Kaskaskia ; Joseph Clen- 
denin, Henry Leven, for Williamsburg ; John Beaird, Paul 
Heilston, for Springfield; George Hecker (Hacker), and 
Squire Green for Mississippi ; Hamlet Ferguson and Fred- 
erick Grater for Massac ; James Ford and Samuel Omel- 
vany for Rocking Cave. 

Overseers of the Highways. — Jesse Reynolds for Mitchie, 
Pierre Auguste for Du Rocher, Jesse Griggs for Kaskaskia, 
Thomas Levin for Williamsburg, James Hughes for Spring- 
field. For the newly organized townships Rocking Cave, 
Massac, and Mississippi, no appointments were made. 

Constable''. — Jesse Griggs and Samuel Davis for Kaskas- 
kia ; Michael Masterson for Mitchie; John Langston for 
Mississippi ; Joseph M. Courtney for Marie ; Autoin Le 
Chance for Du Rocher; James Laird, Springfield. 

Licensed Taverns in 1809. — Pierre IjC Compte, at Prairie 
du Rocher ; Philip Fuuke, at Kaskaskia ; Thomas C x, at 
Kaskaskia; Jonathan Taylor, at the United States Saline ; 
James Truesdale, on the road leading from U. S. Saline to 
Shawneetown ; James Lane, do. do. 

The first county court of Randolph county, composed of 
the Worshipful Philip Fouke, William Arui-del and John 
McFerron, met at the tavern of Thomas Cox on the 4th of 

January, 1810, and proceeded immediately to levy a tax 
for the county and also a territorial tax on lands located. 

The county tax levy was as follows : Each single man, not 
having one hundred dollars' worth of taxable property, was 
assessed one dollar ; owners of slaves had to pay for each 
slave one dollar per year ; horses were taxed fifty cents 
and neat cattle ten cents each ; each mansion valued 
at two hundred dollars or more, all mills and distilleries, 
were assessed at the rate of thirty cents per one hundred 
dollars valuation. The numerous ferrries were also a source 
of revenue, and the year 1810 saw the following ferries 
licensed, to wit : Ephraim Carpenter, William Cheek, John 
Edgar, Pierre Menard, James Ford, each ten dollars ; Ham- 
ilton Ferguson at seven dollars ; James Fulton and William 
Mirrison eac'i at six dollars ; Charles Bradley, Louis Baor- 
ke, Thomas Ferguson, John Robinson, RichanI and Waller, 
each five dollars; Jonathan Hampton at four dollars; 
John Morris, James McHorton and John May, each three 

The revenue of the county derived from these levies was 
small, as the land taxes proper were collected for maintain- 
ing the territorial government only. From a settlement 
mentioned in the county records of August term 1809, it ap- 
pears that the county revenue for the years 1807 and 1808, 
the collection of which was entrusted to sheriff James Gil- 
breath, amounted to §1,593.18, of which S944.97 had been 
collected and accounted for, while §213.50 of the revenue 
of 1807 and §435.71 of the revenue of 1808 were re- 
turned delinquent. The sherifl^s of those days had a 
hopeless task to perform in collecting a few hundred dollars 
of taxpavers, whose homes were scattered through all the 
territory between the Misaissisippi, the Wabash and the 
Ohio, nor is it to be wondered at that nearly every one is 
accused of being in default. The expenses of those infant 
counties, though insignificant in the whole, invariably ex- 
ceeded the revenue, and sufficed scarcely to defray court 
expenses, rent of rooms and salaries of officers; improve- 
ment of roads and buHding of bridges was out of the ques- 
tion; but let it be said in honor of those pioneers, that they 
contrived to find means to aid the poor and helpless. We 
mention here that the authorities in 1809 paid Thomas Cox 
8144 a year for keeping Thomas Branham, a blind man. 
Thus it is shown that about ode-sixth of the whole revenue 
was expended in support of one unfortunate fellow being! 
In extreme cases the aid of the territorial government was 
extended to the helpless, as for instance in the case of Julian 
Bart, who had been drafted to serve a tour of duty as a 
militiaman during the past summer, and while in service and 
obeying the orders of his officer, was shockingly wounded, 
having one arm shot off and the other broken in different 
places, his body lacerated and his eyesight greatly injured, 
and now lies in a most distressed situation in the town of St. 
Louis, dependent on the bounty of a poor family ; and 
whereas it would be cruel to permit him to linger out a 
miserable existence, rendered so in the service of his coun- 
try, without the support which it is able to aflford hira, 
therefore it is ordered by the governor that the auditor 
draw warrants for such sums of money as may from time to 



time become necessary for the support of said Julian Bart, 
and to provide for his removal from St. Louis to Kaskaskia, 
his home, etc , etc." Bart was soon after put on the U. 8. 
pension list. 


Before reciting some interesting criminal cases during 
territorial times, it may be proper to introduce here a brief 
sketch of 


We will allude to some features of the territorial code, 
which may give an idea to the reader of the progress and 
amelioration attained in criminal jurisprudence and the 
punishment for debt. Thus in the punishment of crimes, 
both felonies and misdemeanors, the barbarous practices of 
whipping on the bare back, confinement in stocks, standing 
in the pillory, and branding with hot irons were the penal- 
ties frequently prescribed ; besides fines, imprisonment and 
loss of citizenship. These summary modes of chastisement 
grew in part out of the condition of the country. It was but 
sparsely settled, the people were poor, they had no general 
prison or penitentiary, and the few jails were so insecure as 
to present scarcely any barrier to the escape of prisoners. 
Whipping upon the bare back, besides other punishments 
at the option of the court, was prescribed in burglary or 
robbery, 39 stripes; in perjury, larceny, the receiving of 
stolen goods, and obtaining goods by fraudulent pretenses, 
31 stripes ; horse stealing, first offence, from 50 to lOU lashes ; 
hog stealing from 25 to 39 lashes ; altering and defacing 
marks or brands on domestic animals at large, 40 lashes 
" well laid on"; bigamy, punished with from 100 to 300 
stripes ; for sodomy, from 100 to 500 lashes were prescribed ; 
forcibly taking away a female to marry against her consent 
was declared a felony and might be punished by whipping ; 
children or servants for disobedience, might upon complaint 
and conviction before a justice, be whipped not exceeding 
10 stripes. Fines were collected from those unable to pay 
by the sheriff hiring or selling them to any one who would 
pay the fine and costs for such terms as the court might 
deem reasonable, and if the delinquent should abscond, the 
penalty was double the term of servitude and 39 stripes. 
Standing in pillory was prescribed, in addition to other 
penalties, in perjury, forgery, and the altering or defacing 
of brands or marks on domestic animals. For this last 
offense, on second conviction the culprit was to have the 
letter T branded in the left hand with a red hot iron. To 
prevent the common crime of killing stock running on the 
range, every one, including the owners; was required to 
exhibit the ears of hogs or hides of cattle, killed, to a magis- 
trate or two freeholders within three days under a penalty 
of 810.00. For aiding the escape of a convict, the punish- 
ment was the same as that of the culprit, except in capital 
cases, when stripes, standing in pillory or sitting on the gal- 
lows with the rope adjusted about the neck, at the option of 
the court was the penalty. Besides in treason and murder, 
the penalty of death by hanging was pronounced against 
arson and rape, and horse-stealing on second conviction. 

For selling intoxicating liquors to Indians, slaves, apprentices 
and minors, severe penalties were enacted. For disorderly 
behavior at divine worship and hunting on the Sabbath, 
penalties by fines were prescribed. In 1810 a law was 
adopted to suppress dueling which made the fatal result of 
a duel murder, including the aiders, abettors or counselors 
as principals in the crime. 

In regard to the collection of debts the principles of the 
common law favored the creditor. All the property of the 
debtor, both real and personal, without any humane features 
as to exemption, might be levied upon and sold under exe- 
cution. The sale was absolute, no time of redemption. If 
the laud failed to sell for .want of bidders, it was the judg- 
ment creditor's right, at his option, to take it absolutely at 
the appraised value made by 12 jurors. But this was not 
all. If the property was insuffiiient to pay the judgment, 
the body of the debtor might be seized and cast into prison. 
Here he would be allowed the prison bounds, extending 200 
yards from the jail in any direction, on condition only of 
giving bonds in double the sum of the debt, not to depart 

The territorial revenue was raised by a tax upon lands. 
Those situated in the river bottems of the Mississippi, Ohio 
and Wabash, were called 1st class land and taxed at the 
rate of SI. 00 on every 100 acres; uplands were called 2d 
class lauds, and were taxed at the rate of 75 cents per 100 
acres. Uulocated, but confirmed land claims were taxed at 
the rate of 37 J cts. per 100 acres. The county revenue was 
raised chiefly by a tax upon personal property, including 
slaves or indentured servants, not to exceed SI each. The 
only real property taxed for county purposes was lots and 
houses in towns, mausion houses in the country worth 8200 
and upwards, mills and distilleries. There was levied also a 
capitation tax of $1.00 on every able-bodied single man of 
21 years and over. Tavern keepers, merchants and owners 
of ferries were licensed at from S3 to S15 per annum. 
Horses and cattle were taxed by the head, not exceeding 50 
and 10 cents respectively — not according to value, as at 

The entire territorial revenue, between the 1st of Novem- 
ber, 1811, and the 8th of November, 1814, was reported by 
the legislative committee on finance, in 1814, to be S4,875 45. 
But of this amount only 82,516.89 had actually been paid 
into the treasury ; the balance, nearly half, — 823,58,50 re- 
mained in the hands of delinquent sheriffs. The delinquen- 
cies of sherifls in their capacity as collectors of the revenues, 
remained a curse to Illino's, not only during its territorial 
existence, but for many years after it became a State.* 

The courts established in 1779 by the county lieutenant 
were superseded by Governor Arthur St. Clair in 1790, and 
three judicial districts established to wit : Kaskaskia, Judge 
John Edgar; Prairie du Kocher, Judge Jean Baptiste Bar- 
beau, and Cahokia, Judge John De Moulin. After the or- 

*These delinquencies of sheriffs as collectors of revenue are to be excused. 
The compensation of the officers, 10 percent, of amounts collected, would for 
the whole territory amount to $487.50 if all the revenue were collected. There 
were then 2 sheriffs, and if they had taken the pains of calling on each tax- 
payer in their respectivi districits, their travelling expenses would have ab 
sorbed twice the amount of their prospective compensation. 



ganization of the territory of Illinois, the whole territory 
formed one judicial circuit until 1818. The judges during 
this period were Obadiah Jones, Alexander Stuart and Jesse 
B, Thomas, appointed March 7, 1809. Stuart resigned in 
March, 1810, and was succeeded by Stanley Griswold. 
William Sprigg was appointed July 29, 1813, and Thomas 
Fowles October 28, 1815, and reappointed January 16, 1816. 

This General Court of the Illinois Territory held its first 
term at Kaskaskia on 12th day of Sej)tember, 1809. Pre- 
sent: The Honorable Judges Alexander Stuart, Obadiah 
Jones, Jesse B. Thomas. The names of the grand jurors were : 

Isaac White, foreman ; Samuel Cochran, William Simp- 
son, William Daniels, John Manis, John Hibbins, William 
Chaffin, John Worley, Ephraim Bilderback, Josiah Cox, 
Jacob Bowerman, William Stiles, John Murphy, John 
Phelps, Thomas Griflin, Samuel Omelvany, James Steele, 
Gershora demons, Alexander Blair, William Alexander, 
John Bradshaw and Owen Evans. 

The grand jury thus assembled had a vast amount of labor 
before them. The most interesting case was that of The 
Uuited States versu* James Dunlap, a physician at Kaskas- 
kia, and Michael Jones, "gentleman," also of Kaskaskia. 
Before going into the details of the indictment and subse- 
quent trial, a few words should be said in reference to inci 
dents preceding the indictment. 

Rice Jones, son of the well-known John Rice Jones first 
lawyer of Illinois, had had difficulties of a political nature 
with several gentlemen at Kaskaskia, and in consequence a 
duel between him and Shadrach Bond had been arranged. 
The parties met on an island between Kaskaskia and St. 
Genevieve. When the principals had taken positions and 
the word was about to be given, Jones' pistol went off by 
accident. Dr. James Dunlap, Bond's second, claimed that 
it was Jones' fire, and that Bond might now fire at Jones; 
'but Bond, the chivalrous and high-hearted Marylauder, dis- 
dained doing so; in fact, the duel ended right there and the 
controversy was amicably settled on the spot. The incident 
gave rise to a bitter quarrel between Rice Jones and Dr. 
James Dunlap, who was urged on by Michael Jones and 
others to persecute Jones in every way imaginable. The 
threats against Rice Jones' life had become verv loud 
towards the close of the year 1808, so that John Rice Jones 
saw proper to address the following note to Elija Bachus : 

K.\sKASKrA, Nov. 25, 1808. 
Sir— I have just heard of your threats of yesterday, that 
if my son did not go out of the country, he should in a few 
days be put out of existence— "i< will he done, it ahnll be 
done." I now inform you that he will remain hfre, and if 
he should be murdered either by you or through your insti- 
gation, I shall know where to apply. I must, however, con- 
fess that the threats of poltroons can be considered in no 
other light than as those of assassins. 

Yours, John Rice Jones. 

On the 7tli day of December, 1808, while Rice Jones was 
standing in the streets of Kaskaskia, in conversation with a 
lady, Dr^ Dunlap stole up behind him and shot him dead 

with a pistol. This murder created great excitement in the 
community, and Duulap had to flee the country. 

The grand jury J after bringing in an indictment against 
Dr James Dunlap for murder, also indicted Michael Jones, 
" gentleman," because he did, on the 6th of December, 1808, 
incite, move, abet, etc, feloniously and with malice afore- 
thought, the said James Dunlap to commit the crime of 

The prosecuting attorney, B. H. Doyle, obtained the con- 
sent of court for a continuance of the trial on the affidavit 
of Archibald IMcKnabb, an important witness, being sick 
and unable to attend court. A continuance was granted, 
and Michael Jones, who had insisted on a speedy trial, was 
admitted to bail in the sum of S3,000. His securities were 
John McFerron, Shadrach Bond, Jr., Thomas Leavens, 
Henry Leavens, Henry Connor and Samuel Cochran — all 
of the best people of the county, the f. f. of Randolph. 

Michael Jones was tried on the 10th of April, 1810, before 
a jury composed of William Rector, Paul Harralson, Thomas 
Wideraan, William McBride, John Anderson, George 
Franklin, David Anderson, John McFerron, Henry Connor, 
George Creath, Jacob Funk and James Fulton. It will be 
observed that two of his bondsmen, McFerron and Connor, 
were members of the jury that tried Jones' case. 

Michael Jones was acquitted, but the court exonerated 
the ''prosecutor" (John Rice Jones?) from paying the costs, 
as there were probable grounds for preferring the indict- 

Another Murder (Use. — James McGlaughlin, indicted for 
the murder of Thomas McGlaughlin, was tried on the 13th 
iif September, 1809, before the following jury: John An- 
dersoii, Robert Hill, Thomas Stubblefield, John McFerron, 
Joseph McCourtney, John Howell, Robert Penny, Thomas 
Leavens, William. Evert, Thomas Fulton, William Dees and 
Robert Huggin, who brought in a verdict of guilty, where- 
upon the court sentenced James McGlaughlin to be hung on 
the 23d day of September, 1809, in or near Kaskaskia. The 
writer could not ascertain if the execution took place or not. 

Two others, Robert Hays, " yeoman," and Jesse Canada, 
" laborer," indicted for the murder of Thomas Allen, were 
tried and acquitted. 

John Boren, " laborer," indicted by the same grand jury 
for clubbing Samuel Billingsley to death Nov. 20, 1808, aa 
also Hosea Boren, for aiding John, had their cases con- 
tinued and were nolle jiros. April 10, 1810. grievous cases of assault and battery were tried 
and ended in the conviction of the fighters, who had to pay 
pretty heavy fines, from 12 to 60 dollars. Francis King, 
indicted for breaking into and burglarizing the store of 
James Wilson, was tried by a jury and found guilty 
whereupon the sheriff was ordered to take King Francis to 
some " convenient" spot and there give him " 39 lashes on 
his bare back, well laid on." 

Moses Canada and John Gibson, indicted for stealing 
" one gelding of a black color" from sheriff Stephenson, 
were acquitted. 

Nelson Rector, the old surveyor, had had '■ difficultiea 
with Benjamin H. Doyle (U S. Attorney), and had admin- 



istered a terrible cudgeling to him on the first of June, 1809. 
The grand jury could not ignore this outrage, and so we 
read on the records of that term : 

Nelson Rector, surveyor, being a person of a terrible, 
cruel, fierce and inhumane disposition, and wickedly having 
in his heart rank malice and ill will towards Benjamin 
H. Doyle, on the 1st of June 1809, did beat the said Doyle 
with a round stick or cudgel, cruelly and barbarously, 
striking him diverse, terrible, grievous and dangerous blows 
upon the head and hands, to the manifest danger of life, etc. 
Kector had the case continued, and on the 10th of April, 
1810, confessed the allegations charged against him in the 
indictment, and put himself upon the mercy of the court, 
who fined him $60.00 and costs. Doyle was not satisfied 
with this sentence, and now brought suit against Rector for 
• damages. In his declaration he stated that Rector felled 
him to the floor with a blow of the cudgel, and then 
continued beating him mercilessly until he left him for 
dead, etc., etc. The case was subsequently dismissed, 
Rector paying costs. 

It is somewhat strange that neither the grand jury nor 
the petit jury had any French among them, but it also 
should be stated that no French names are to be found 
among those indicted. 


William C. Greenup, clerk of the county court, trans- 
acted the probate business of the county on his own 
responsibility. The entries made on the records are not in 
chronological order. The first one, dated July 9th, 1810, 
has reference to the estate of Jean B. Godfrey, deceased, 
and grants letters of administration to Louis Buatt in the 
following language : 

William C. Greenup, clerk of the county court of Ran- 
dolp to Louis Buatt, Greeting : 

Whereas, Jean Baptiste Godfrey, late ef this county, 
deceased, died intestate as it is said, /do therefore give and 
grant unto you full power and authority to administer, 
etc., etc. 

The estate of said Godfrey, consisted in a sorrel horse 
three years old, valued at $20.00, and one arpent of land in 
front extending from the bluff to the Mississippi, lying in 
the big prairie below Prairie du Recher, and was appraised 
at $60 00 by Jean Baptiste Gendron and John Doyle. 

Then comes an inventory of the estate of John Beaird, 
dated March 13th, 1809. Beaird must have been farming 
extensively ; the inventory mentions seventeen horses, worth 
from $45 to $100 each, two yoke of oxen, wagons, plows, 
six sets of harness, etc., a "mulatto negro" worth $350, and 
a black boy worth $250. 

Prices paid at the sale : Corn, ten cents per bushel, one 
barrel of pork, $10.00, one half dozen of pewter plates, $2.50. 
The negro boy " Berry " was sold to John Beaird, Jr., for 
$450, the other brought only $225. Mrs. Elizabeth Worley 
paid $120 for a bay mare ; twenty acres of wheat in the 
field brought $65, and a pot trammel $4.25 ; cows sold for 
nine, ten and twelve dollars, but a "muUey" brought $13. 15, 
purchased by Monsieur Archambeau; one yoke of oxen 

sold for $60.00 and the other for $17.50. The sale 
amounted to $2,273.20. 

On page twenty-five of said record is found the following 
will, which was in all probability drawn up by some justice, 
who had but recently written out a deed. 

Illinois Territory, ) 

Randolph County, j Know all men by these presents, 
that I, Isaac Allen of said county, being in a low state of 
health but yet in my right mind, do render ray soul to God, 
and my estate to my wife and children in the following 
manner, and this is my last will and testament to stand 
against all other previous to this. And I do hereby appoint 
John Anderson and David Anderson of this county my 
executors, and I do hereby bequeath unto my wife, Rutb, 
one black mare about thirteen years old and two colts, one 
a yearling and the other a spring colt, one bay horse about 
six years old, and all the neat cattle except steers; about 
thirty head of hogs, and all the household furniture, and all 
the corn in the cribbs and the land, and all the rest of the 
property to be sold on the 15th of October, at twelve 
months credit, ray wife Ruth to have a child's part of the 
vendue money, the other property which I have bequeathed 
to her, is to be for the use of her and the children while she 
remains a widow. 

This I acknowledge to be my last will and tfstament, in 
witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
19th day of May, 1810. Isaac-Allen. 

The testator seemed to have been sure of his early demise, 
inasmuch as he fixed the day of sale, nor was he mistaken, 
for the records show, that the will was probated on the 23d 
of June, 1810. 


Jean B. Godfroy, Ambrose Vasseur, Jean B. Barbeau, 
James Davis, Isaac Allen, Charles Burk, Joseph Danie, 
Nelson Montgomery, Henry Bowers, Margareta Cochon, 
Nathan Dever, Moses Stephans, Israel Bailey, Samuel Liv- 
ering, Abel Dewey, Isaac Baker, Robert Robinson, Elijah 
Bachus, Pelage Danie, Moses Harrisoii, Jesse Reynor, 
Henry Laughlio, Wra. McGlaughlin, James Anderson, 
James McNabb, John Lively, John Robinson, Francis Gar- 
ner, James Smith, Clement Drury, Elijah Benton, Joseph 
Lavoy, John Hicks, John Wooten, Joseph Laflambuis, 
Catharine Page Gasper Butcher, Samuel Wilson, John 
Fisher, Gregory Codel, John Mansker, James Fulton, John 
R. McGlaughlin, Michel D St. Pierre. William Arundel, 
Robert Gas'on, Samuel Blakely, Nicholas G. R. Rhea, 
James Edgar, Blissftt de Rouse, Samuel Vermillion, Eliza- 
beth Septante, and John Hochersmith. 

William C. Greenup attended to all the probate business 
of the county until August 6, 1821, when Hon. Curtis Conn 
appears as judge of probate of Randolph county. David J. 
Baker, succeeded Curtis Conn on the 24th of August, 1827. 
Dwight Hunt, probate judge, from March 7, 1831 to May 
16, L31. 

During his brief administration the Will of JohnEdgab 
was probated. This will was drawu up in the handwriting 



of Elias Kent Kaue, the seoator, and was also witnessed by 
him, James L. Lamb, and Patrick KSvenaugh. The will 
is dated Septr. 4, 182:>. Ttie coutents of the will are as 

In the name of God, Amen. I, John Edgar, of Kaskaskia, 
in the state of Illinois, being sick in body, but of sound mind, 
memory and discretion, knowing the uncertainty of life and 
the certainty of death, have made this ray last will and tes- 
tament, and do hereby declare and will as follows: 

Item first: Whereas on the 25th day of November in the 
year 1S23, I executed in contemplation of my late marriage 
with my dear wife Eliza, to the said Eliza a bond in the 
penal sum of 820,000, conditioned for securing to the said 
Eliza over and above her dower, the sum of $10,50(1, now 
therefore for the purpose of satisfying and fully complying 
with the conditions of said bond, and in order to provide a 
suitable maintenance and support for my said wife Eliza, 
I do hereby devise and bequeath to my said wife in full 
property and domain the house wherein I now reside, in the 
village of Kaskaskia. together with the lots adjoining the 
same and together with all my household furniture, I also 
for the same purpose give and bequeath to my said wife my 
mills, distillery and ferry on the East side of the Kaskaskia, 
together with all the lands belonging to and adjoining the 
same. Also my tract of land below the village of Kaskas- 
kia in the Common field of said village; also ray tract of 
land on the East side of the Kaskaskia river, called the gar- 
rison hill tract, in fee simple and full domain ; I also give to 
my said wife all my stock of cattle, hogs and other stock. 

Ittm Stfcond. — I do further will, that my debts be paid 
out of the remainder of my property. 

Il'iii Ihinl. — After all my just debts *hall have been 
paid, I do will and bequeath al the rest and residue of ray 
estate, real, personal and mixed, whether in possession, in 
action or in expectancy, to my said wife Eliza, to have and 
to hold the same absolutely in her own right forever. 

Item Fourth. — I do further hereby name and appoint my 
said wife Eliza sole executrix of this mj- last will and testa- 
ment, and that she be not required to give any security for 
the administration of my estate in any shape whatever, etc 

Jiimes Th'trnp^on, Probate Judge from May 16, 1831, to 
April 27, 1837, from aud after which day the judge signed 
his name as probate justice of the peace. He remained in 
office until after the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, 
when he was superceded by Hon. John Campbell, first 
county judge of Randolph county. 


Readers may wonder at this caption. Slavery in Illinois I 
AVhy, the very ordinance of Congress creating the territory 
northwest of the river Ohio, decreed that neither slavery nor 
invoAutary servitude shouhl exist in it. How, then, could 
thtt institution be established? The fact is, that the ordi- 
nance of July 13, 1787, found slavery in this us well as in 
other parts of the vast territory. 

The first slaves were brought to Illinois by Antoine Crozat 
and his followers about the year 1713. King Louis XIV. of 
France had, on the 14th of September, 1712, granted to said 

Crozat letters patent to the vast regions extending from 
Upjjer Canada to the (.iulf of Mexico. Crozat arrived in 
1713, and commenced mining operations in the vain hope of 
finding precious metals. Ilis followers were suflTering with 
climatic diseases, and therefore a number of blacks were im- 
ported from the French West India Islands. Crozat's ex- 
ploits, however, failed entirely, and he returned to France 
in 1717, surrendering bis patents to the crown. 

Frantjois Renault (properly Renaud), manager of the 
affairs of a company of adventurers, .sent out by the " Com- 
pany of the Indies," to whom the royal domain refused by 
Crozat had been granted in 1719, brought 500 negro slaves 
to Illinois, landing them at the site of the "ancient village 
of St. Phdip." His contract stipulated that he should 
bring at least six thousand whites and three thousand blacks 
to Illinois within tweuty-five years from the date of his 
grant (1719). 

By the condition of the peace of Paris, February 10, 1763> 
the territory was ceded to England, and on taking possession 
of it in 17G4, General Gage, commander in chief of the 
English troops in America and governor, issued aproclama. 
tion in the name of the crown of England, December 30, 
1764, in which all the rights and privileges heretofore en- 
joyed by the then inhabitants of the ceded territories were 
guaranteed to them. Sieur Stirling, captain of the High- 
land Regiment brought this proclamation to Kaskaskia in 
person. Virginia in her turn [1779] readily guaranteed to 
the inhabitants of the conquered territories all their prior 
rights and titles of whatsoever description, and when the old 
Commonwealth ceded and deeded the territory to the United 
States, the rights and privileges etc. were guaranteed again 
bv the latter. Hence it was afterwanls strenuously con- 
tended that the famous ordinance of 1787, prohibiting 
slaverv conflicted with the deed of cession and was therefore 
not binding in efl'eet, as slavery had legally and legitimately 
existed in the territory. 

This view, however was not taken by the judicial authori- 
ties of the territory at the earlier period as will appear more 
fully from the following proceeding and order of court of 
Sept. 1798. 

It appears that a certain negro, formerly a slave, had 
found his way into the territory aud that his case was taken 
into court, in order to make a test case of it. Guy, the 
negro in question ajjpeared before his honor. Judge John 
ClevesSymmes at Kaskaskia on the ■22d of September, 1798, 
when the following proceedings were had. Guy in making 
his application for certificate of freedom subscribed the fol- 
lowing affidavit, to wit : 

Guv, a negro man aged about .SO years who being duly 
sworn according to law deposeth and sayeth that he formerly 
lived with and belonged to Adam Lawrence of North Caro- 
lina who moved to and settled on Green River in 1793, and 
that his master and "him" agreed, that he [Guy] and his 
wife, also a slave of said Lawrence, should stay with him 
until they had made 1000 bushels of corn for him, but that 
after having raised and delivered 750 bu.-hels of corn on 
lauds first cleared by them, his master sold him to one Robert 
Mitchell of Massac who had come to his masters house with 



a load of lead, and that his master got into a great frolic and 
was drunk for sorae days, in which time said Blitchell had 
bought hiin [Guy] and his wife. Said Mitchell had then 
taken them to Fort Massac, promising never to sell them, 
and to set them free if they would clear off a piece of land 
[five acres] during the fall and winter and then plant it in 
corn and tend it well during the summer. In consequence 
of these promises, he had gone to work clearing the land, 
when all at once Mitchell had sold him and wife to one 
Nealy, bound to the Spanish dominion ; that they first re- 
fused to go, but as he knew they were too strong for him, and 
could bind him and take him by force, he consented to go, 
though determined to leave the boat if he could. The boat 
had landed 20 miles below Fort Massac during the night, 
when he and his wife made their escape, and after great 
difficulties and many sufferings and hardships he and his 
wife had arrived at the town of Kaskaskia in the county of 
Randolph. On the 22d. of Sept. 1798, the court there upon 
entered the following order : Guy's Freedom Papers. 

Territory of the United States } ^ ., 

Northwtstof the Ohio River ) 

Be it remembered that on this 24th day of September, 
1798, Guy, a negro man, and Abigail, his wife, being both 
severally brought before the subscriber, one of the Judges of 
the Territory, when they alleged, that by the Ordinance 
creating the government of said territory, there can be no 
such condition as slavery, therefore that the said Guy and 
Abigail, his wife, of right are and ought to be free, and the 
subscriber having maturely considered the premises does 
adjudge the said negro man, Guy, as well as his wife, 
Ahig&il, citizens of the United States, and that they ought of 
right to enjoy all and every privilege and franchise with 
relation to their personal liberty and protection of property, 
unmolested, subject only to the laws of the land. 

And all persons are hereby advised and forewarned not 
to invade or annoy the entire freedom of the said Guy and 
Abigail, which Inj this record is ahsu'ufe. 

Given under the hand and seal of John Cleves 
Symmes, at Kaskaskia, the day above written. 
John Cleves Symmes. 

All honor to the Judge! * 


Geoi-gG Morg.Tn, one of His Majesty's justices of the peace for the country of 
the Illinois, took the acknowledgment of one "Antoine Renand" to the 
followint; docnment .nft?r having fully explained the contents thereof to him, 
in the Frtuch languiise, to wit : 

To all people to whom these presents .«hall come, Antoine Eennud, of 
Kasliaski.T vill:ii;f, in Iho country of the Illinois, yeoman, sends greeting. 
Whereas the .«r>iil Antoine Rcnaud is now iu actual possession of a certain 
negress slave named Ton Ton, and, whereas, for causes and considerations 
hereinafter recited, he is very desirous that the said negress shall no 
longer remain in bondage as a slave to him, or any other person or persona 
whatsoever. Now, know ye tliat the said Antoine Renaid, in consideration of 
the great and signal services she, the said Ton Ton, hath done and performed 
for him, the said Antoine Eenaud, since she halhbcen his slave, as well as in 
consideration of his mcrsion to anj/ of ths human tpccics contimmnce in perpetual 
bmdagc and staicrj/, and also in consideration of £5 lawful money of Great 
Britain, to him, the said Antoine Renand, hy Ihe .said Ton Ton in hand paid, 
at and before the ensealing and delivering of these presents, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged, he, the said Antoine Renand, hath for 
himself, his executors and administrators, fully and amply released, liberated 
and forever disfhargr d her, the said Ton Ton, from all slavery, bondage and 
servitude whatsoever, either to h mself, the said Anioine Renaud, his 
executors or administrators, or to any other periion or persons whatsoever 

His decree, however, was no to the people of the 
territory, for the struggle to defy the stipulations of the 
ordinance of 1787 was then scarcely perceptible. The 
feeble efforts of several citizens of the colony to have 
Congress re-consider the anti-slavery proviso were ineffectual, 
and injured the very men who made them. The purchase 
of Louisiana in 1803 added a vast empire of slave terri- 
tory to the United States, the present state of Missouri 
being a part thereof And it was not until the ftw and 
scattering American settlers in Illinois saw well equipped 
emigrants from the slave States pass through Illinois, bound 
fur Missouri, where slavery was not prohibited, that the 
actual agitation for introducing or legalizing it here was 
inaugurated. It must have been provoking to see a 
desirable population turn their backs to the beautiful lands 
on the east bank of the Mississippi and cross over to 
inferior land for their settlements. A raw-boned Tennes- 
seean, passing with his family and " property" through the 
streets of Kaskaskia on his way to Missouri, being asked 
why he would not remain here rather than move further on, 
op&iied his big mouth saying: "Ynur'sile' is rich and 
fertile, and the country is fine ; but, God dern ye, a man is 
not allowed to own niggers here." 

But to return to the suljject ; it should be stated that the 
ordinance of 1787 was prospective only, and did not affect 
the condition of the French slaves or their descendants. 

The Legislature of Indiana passed various acts in Sep- 
tember, 1807, (Illinois then forming a part of Indiana terri- 
tory) by which at least a temporary and modified form of 
slavery was effected. Negroes were brought into the terri- 
tory and there held as indentured servants. Another act 
provided that the owner of a person " owning" labor (i. e. a 
slave) may bring such person into the territory and "agree" 
with him beforethe clerk of the Court of Common Pleas in 
the county, upon a terra of service, after the expiration of 
which the slave should be free. The ignorance of the poor 
blacks was taken advantage of, for many of them would as 
readily bind themselves for I'9 years as for 10 or 15 years. 

If an indentured slave refused to work, the owner was 
allowed to take him to another State or territory, i. e., to 
sell him to some slave trader in the south or west. Slaves 
under the age of 15 were held in servitude until the age of 
35 or 32 according to sex. Owners had to give bond that 
slaves who would become free after their 40th year of age, 
should never become a county charge. The children of 

lawfully claiming or to claim by, from or under him, them or either of them 
from the day of the date hereof, for and during the natural life of her, the 
taid Ton Ton, and by these presents doth for himself, his executors and 
administrators fully and amply release, liberate and forever discharge her, 
the said Ton Ton, from all ^lavery, bondage and servitude whatsoever, either 
to him, the said Antoine Renaud, his executors or administrators, or to any 
other person or persons whatsoever, lawfully claiming or to claim by, from or 
under him, them or either of them from tho day and date hereof, for and 
during the natural life of her, the said Ton Ton, giving and hereby 
granling unto the said Ton Ton full liberty to go and come 
whithersoever she shall think proper, without the least trouble, hindrance or 

In witness whereof, etc., tigned 22d of May, A. D. 1769. 

Antoine X R 


d by \Vi 


r Brown 

and Valent 

ne Thomas Da/ton. 



" registered or indentured "slaves remained in servitude until 
they were 28 and 30 years old, according to sex. 

The records in reference to the owners of slaves or inden- 
tured servants set forth that theie were 197 negroes and niu- 
lattoes regi-tered as slaves or indentured as servants during 
the territurial ])eriod of the county ; the slaves owned there 
prior to 1807 were not mentioned. Among the slaveholders 
of the county, the following well-known names are found: 
Jesse B. Thomas, the judge ; Alexander Stuart, Benjamin 
Stephenson, Frederick Bond, David J. Black, Kinian 
Edwards,* Nathaniel Pope, William and Elias Rector, 
James Gilbreath, William and Rdbert Morrison, 'Squire 
Garton, Elias K. Kent, Robert Shields and others. The 
terms of bondage and servitude vary from 8 and 10 years 
to 99 years. Jean Pierce was bound to Wright Pierce for 
99 years when he was 19 years of age, to wit, March 8, 1811, 
and thus Jean will be a free negro in 1910. Millv, a negro 
girl of twenty years of age was brought into the State from 
Kentucky, in May, 1811, and bound herself to Samuel Hall, 
her master, for eighty years; she will soon be free, to wit, in 
18. '1. Henry Kimniel, one of those slaveholders of the ter- 
ritorial period was a German, while there are quite anuipber 
of Frenchmen among them Rachel, the proper!)' of Amos 
C'hipps, reported to have been 15 yiars of age ou the 7th of 
April, 1811, is still living in the county. 

Colored people, who were not slaves nor bonded servants. 
bad to procure certificates to that effect, in order to be un- 
molested. We introduce here a few samples, to wit : 

State of North Carolina, | 

Guilford County. J This is to certify that Moses 
Tabon, a man of color, is a free born. Let him pass 
and ; his height is five feet nine inches; in the 25th 
year of his age. Let him pass through North Carolina and 
Virginia, this 14th of June, 1805. His character is equal to 
any of his color, since he has been ij) the county. 

Jehu Beeson, J. P. 

We hereby certify that the bearer, Mary Ann, an old 
negro woman, was this day made free by us. 

William Morrison, 


Recorded Feb. 25, 1813, at Kaskaskia, in Book M, p. 90. 
William ArundeLj Recorder R. C. 

Persons of color, whose time of indentured bondage had 
expired, were furnished certificates of freedom by the county 
authorities, in form following, to wit : 

May 19th, 1819. 

Dice, a negro woman, about 45 years of age, five feet seven 
inches high, of a stout make, a scar on her left cheek aLd 

* The Governor seems to have been one cf the principal slaveh jlders and 
.ilnve tr.iJers in tlic Territory. 

The Illinois Herald, in whii-h his name as Governor con-tantly app^-nred 
attached to various promulgations and otiicial documents, contained a'ao the 

Notice: I have for sale 22 Stavea; among them are several of both sexes be- 
tween the ages 6{ 10 and 17 years. If not stld i*hortly I shall wish to hire them 
in Miasourt Terrilury. I have also for sale a full blooded Stud Horse; a very large 
Eng'i'k Bu'l, and several young ones. 

OlTOBER 1, 1815. NlNIAN Edwabds. 

The Governor, in later years, whs an anti-slavery agitator. 

right breast, produced to W. C. Greenup, clerk of the circuit 
court of Randolph county. State of Illinois, one indenture 
of herself to John Edgar, dated the 7th of June, 1794, for 
twelve years next ensuing; whereupon a certificate was 
granted, under the seal of the court, to her of her freedom, 
pursuant to the act passed at the last session respecting free 
negroes, mulattoes, servants and slaves. 

In other instances the freedom papers assumed the form 
of a deed, and as a specimen illustrating this, the following 
is here introduced : 

Know all men by these presents that, whereas I, John 
Edgar, of Randolph county. State of Illinois, in considera- 
tion of the many valuable services rendered to me by my 
mulatto woman slave, named Celeste, originally owned by 
Louis Lasond and transferred by him to William Morrison^ 
and by Morrison to Joseph Gendr. n, and by him to me, I 
have released and by these presents do release, manumit, set 
free and at full liberty the said Celeste, from and after the 
date hereof, forever free from my service and the service of 
my heirs, executors and ailministratnrs forever, and from 
the service of all other persons whomsoever, hereby exoner- 
ating her from all bonds of service, freely to act for herself 
as any other free person of color ; and I do moreover, in 
consideration of said services rendered me by said Celtste, 
release, manumit, set free and at full liberty the children of 
the said Celeste, namely : Leonora, aged 14 years last Jan- 
uary ; Nerville, aged 9 years on the 4th day of July last; 
Virginia, aged 6 years ou the 26th day of April last ; Hil- 
laire, aged 4 years last May ; Mary Louise, aged 2 years 
last May ; Joseph, aged 1 year last August ; and I do hereby 
exonerate the said children from my servicte and place them 
respectively under the control of their said mother, the 
males until they shall be 21 years old and the females until 
they shall be 18 years of age, when they shall be free to act 
for themselves as fully as any other free person of color, 
according to law. In testimony of which, etc, etc. 


JuuN Edgar. ( seai,^ 


Know all men by these presents that I, Joseph Geudron, 
of Randolph county. State of Illinois, for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of eighty dollars to me, cash in hand, paid 
at and before ensealing and delivering of these presents, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, do give, grant and 
forever set free my servant, named William, aged about five 
years, the sou of Therese, formerly the servant of me the 
undersigned : I tlo therefore, for and in consideration of the 
sum aforesaid, manumit and set free and at full liberty from 
my service, from the date hereof, for ever. And I do further 
warrant and forever defend the liberty of the said William 
from myself, my heirs or assigns, or any person claiming 
under or by virtue of me. In witness whereof I have htre- 
unto set my hand and seal at Kaskaskia this 6th day of De- 
cember, 1831. 

This ' deed" is signed, witnessed, and formally acknow- 
ledged before James Hughes, clerk, and by him recorded. 
It is not slated who paid those eighty dollars, but it may be 
suppoeed that the mothei paid for him. 



isidney Breese manamitting a slave in 1834. — Know all 
men by these presents, that I, Sidney Breese of Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, for divers good causes and considerations me there- 
unto moving, have and by these presents do forever manumit 
and set free my indentured woman Rachel, now about 43 
years of age, and residing at present at Cheater, Randolph 
county, Illinois : ard I do hereby release her from all her 
obligations and covenants to rae as contained in her inden- 
ture assigned me by Redding B. Hering : It being under- 
stood that I am in no wise responsible for any of her con- 
tracts now or heretofore made, or hereafter to be made. 

Witness ray hand and seal at Chester aforesaid, this 8th 
day of November, 1834. 

Sidney Breese. 

The records contain the names of many persons of color, 
who have their freedom papers as documentary evidence 
of their being barn free, proparly entered, even to as 
late a day as the 13th of April A. D. 1863. S. St. Vrain 
and Edmund St. Vrain appeared before R. B. Servant, jus- 
tice of the peace, and made oath that "Patrick" Mitchell^ 
a colored inhabitant of the county, of bright complexion, 
etc., was born " free" at Kaskaskia about the year 1840, 
and that his mother, at the time of his birth, had been a 
free colored inhabitant of said county of Randolph, etc., 

The number of slaves, as given by the county census of 
1820, was then 240. From that period their number 
constantly decreased, and in 1840 there were only 133 
enumerated. While the system of slavery existed, however, 
it had all the appearances and features of this peculiar in- 
stitution in the southern states.' 

The newspapers of the period contained the well-known 
advertisements of Fifty Dollars Reward, etc., etc. 

The following, taken from a stray number of the Illinois 
Intelligencer, may serve as a sample: 

Fifty Dollars Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber. 
on the night of the 18th ultimo, a negro man, named Charles, 
about 25 or 26 years of age, of large stature. He has a 
small piece of the left ear taken off. He stole from my 
desk one hundred and eighty dollars — a hundred dollar bill 
on the bank of Nashville, other bills not recollected. Also, 
•a negro woman, named Peggy, the fellow's wife, ran away at 
the same time, near the same age. She is a common-sized, 
very black, and has lost the sight of one of her eyes. The 
above reward will be given to any person who will appre- 
hend the said negroes and deliver them to me at Kaskaskia. 

James Adkins. 

The irrepressible negro may now be dismissed, for it is 
not the province of the chronicler of a county sketch to 
follow the subject of the slavery question through its various 
stages. The feud between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery 
men in Illinois was more a national affair than a county 
matter- Prominent men of Randolph county were found 
on the -one side as well as on the other. The contest, fierce 
and bitter, ended in favor of freedom, for the people of the 
Btate defMted the scheme of the new constitutionists or 

pro-slavery men by a vote of 6822 against 4950, August, 
1824. Strange, however, it must appear that although the 
anti-slavery men were largely in the majority, the pro- 
slavery men elected a majority of the legislators, who elected 
a violent pro-slavery man, Elias Kent Kane, of Randolph 
county, senator of the U. S. to succeed John McClean. 
Thomas Mather, a member of the General Assembly from 
Randolph, was a decided anti-slavery agitator. 

Public Roads. — As heretofore stated, the revenue of the 
county in territorial times did not admit of appropriations 
of public funds towards the making of roads and building 
of bridges. The supervisors of highways mentioned hereto- 
f'-re, and their assessors, had no means at their disposal 
barring the labor due by able-bodied residents, and it 
barely sufficed to keep the neighborhood roads in repair. 
The numerous ferries facilitated the traffic across the 
streams, as no substantial bridges were in existence. The 
want of roads to distant settlements was keenly felt, and 
the aid of the federal government had to be implored to 
open such roads. The records of the county mention the 
road from Kaskaskia to Prairie du Rocher, and to the place 
of Degagnie, as also a road to Belleville. A correspondence 
in reference to the opening of a road to Shawneetown was 
placed in the hands of the writer, from which the following 
facts are gleaned : 

The Government of the United States appropriated, by 
Act of Congress, passed April 27th, 1816, the sum of $'<,000 
for surveying and making a road " in the Territory of Illi- 
nois, of which amount SI, 258. 51 were expended in exploring" 
the country from Shawneetown td Kaskaskia. The balance 
of the money was considered inadequate to complete the 
road, but deemed sufficient to clear it of timber and to bridge 
the worst streams, etc. The President of the U. S. appointed 
then Shadrach Bond, of Kaskaskia, and Leonard White, of 
the Wabash Saline, agents, with authority to commence the 
work at the two extreniities and to make such distribution 
of the money as the nature of the road required. 

Hon. W. H. Crawford, Secretary of the U- S. Treasury, 
addressed a letter to Shadrack Bond, then Receiver of Pub- 
lic Monies at Kaskaskia, on June 21, 1818, to advisehira of 
his appointment, closing the letter in the following sentence : 
You will consider yourself as authorized to advance out of 
the public moneys in your hands the sum, which shall be 
assigned for the completion of your part of the road. As the 
opening of this road is of great importance to the citizens of 
the Territory, it is expected that your charge for the super- 
intendence will be as moderate as possible, not exceeding your 
necessary expenses, and the most reasonable coiiipensation for 
the loss of time, etc , etc. 

A contract was then made with George Breath and David 
Husband, August 15. 1818, to " clear" the road 33 feet in 
width, to remove all the timber, etc., from Dernints in Frank- 
lin county to Kaskaskia, a distance of 50 miles, the work to 
be done by January Ist, 1819, for which they were then to 
receive $2,000 

The work was done and the money paid out. On the 20th 
of September, 1819, David Husband contracted for the build- 
ing of good and substantial bridges, across Tindall's creek, 



2 branches of Cox"s creek, 1 branch of Pipestone creek, 1 
branch of Rattlesnake creek, 1 branch of Beaucoup creek, 2 
brandies of Ell prairie and Prairie creek, and across little 
Muddy river ; further he contracted for the digging down the 
banks of all the other creeks across which the said road 
passed from Kaskaskia ^0 miles east, and for removing all ob- 
structions from fallen trees and the like, etc., for all of which 
work Husband was to have ?1, 319.24, on the 1st of January, 

Shadrach Bond rendered an account of his receipts and 
disbursements on the 2(tth of March, 1820, from which it 
appears that he had drawn ?3,395.74}, (the exact one-half 
of the balance of the appropriation mentioned about, and 
that he had paid out the following amounts, to wit : 

Breath and Husband $i!,ikk> 00 

David Husband I,:«9 2*^4 

Blackwfll and Berry, for publishing notices 3 76 

Superintending the work, etc 72 75 

83,395 74V2 

The U. S. Government was not satisfied with this account, 
because, as Joseph Anderson, comptroller, in his letter of 
Shadrach Bond, dated November 29, 1821, stated, the two 
agents. Bond and White, should have rendered a joint ac- 
count, etc. Leonard White seems to have failed to render 
a proper account of the " moiety " placed in his hands, for 
the Comptroller advised Senator John McLean, February 2, 
1825, that Mr. White had not accounted for one-half of said 
amount, and that the question had now arisen how far 
Shadrach Bond was liable for the other half, etc; and that 
in all probability suit would be brought against Bond as 
well as against White, as both had drawn the amount jointly. 

The writer has not been able to ascertain if such suitg 
were brought or how the matter was adjusted. Shadrach 
Bond however had opened a road, 33 feet wide and 5U miles 
long, bridging all bad streams and cutting down the banks 
of others for less than 63,400, or abo.ut §68 per mile, and it 
would have been a grievous wrong to have held him respon- 
sible for White's "moiety." 


The only public building erected during this period was a 
jail built by Nathan Hill and Ezra Owens in 1815. It was 
"received" on rejiort of George Fisher and Edgar Owens, 
commissioners ajiiwinted on the 3d Jlonday of June 1815. 

The courts of the county were held for years at the va- 
rious taverns in Kaskaskia until November 1812, when the 
authorities of the county occupied the house of James Gil- 
breath at Kaskaskia. The court had apparently purchased 
this house, for on the 3d of March 1818 the clerk is in- 
structed to ask said Gilbreath for a deed, and on refusal, to 
bring suit against him. 

The records of the county commissioners court from Janu- 
ary 10, 1810 to June 20, 1814 are missing. On this date 
John McFerron and George Fisher held court to try James 
Adkins indicted for cruelly beating his negro. The court 
fined him 84 00. Adkins filed a bill in arrest of judgment 
on the following reasons ; first becau.'e the law of the terri- 
tory does not lie for assault and battery against the niastt r 
for whipping his servants, as the law gave another remedy 

for unmerciful punishment : second because the master may 
correct his servant and not be guilty of assault and battery : 
third because the indictment is inconsistent as it states that 
the assault was committed by the defendent on his indentured 
servant : fourth because if the servant is abused the court 
are commanded to redress his cause in a summary way and 
not by indictment. This bill was overruled and the fine 

From a report made to this court by sheriff that the 
revenue of the county for the year 1814 amounted to S529 - 
90, tax was paid on 

108 negrws 108.00 

491 horses 245-50 

Studhorses 18..W 

Mansions, mills and di-tillerids .11.90 

For licenses M.OO 

Single men M.OO 


It was further reported that Benjamin Stephenson, ex- 
sheriff, was in default with the county on account of the 
revenue of 1812 and 1813 to the amount of 841 .37i The 
affairs of the county from 1815 to 1819 were conducted by 
the territorial justices, John McFerron, William Morrison, 
James Finney, David Anderson, Philip Fouke, George 
Fisher, Archibald Thompson, Antoine L. C'henett, Miles 
Hotchkiss and Pierce L. Compte. 

A new township. Plum Creek, was formed March 1816, 
and is described as follows: All that part north of Spring- 
field township and east of the Kaskaskia liver. Meanwhile 
the population of Rand( Iph county or southern Illinois had 
increased to a considerable extent, in consequence of which 
the legislature had deemed it proper to organize several new 
countiesout of the territory of old Randolph county, to wit : 
Gallatin and Johnson, Sept. 14, 1812, White, December 
9, 1815, Jackson, January 10, 1816, and Monroe June 1, 
1816, and by doing so had reduced the county to almost its 
present boundary. 

We find therefore, at the end of this territorial period the 
following six townships officered as follows: 

Kaskaskia. — All that part lying between Kaskaskia and 
Mississippi rivers up to the point of the bluffs and up with 
the bluffs to Morgan's run. Shadrach Bond and Michael 
Smith supervisors of roads, George Fisher assessor, Dan. L. 
Swearingen and Allies Hotchkiss ovtrseer of the poor. 

Prairie dii Bocher. — All that part of the county between 
the bluflis and the river, above Morgan's Run. Pierre Le- 
compte and Patrick Earner, supervisors of roads ; Henry 
Barbeau, as.«essor ; Thomas Sterritt and Archibald McNabb, 
overseers of the poor. 

WiHiaimburg. — All that part lying west of the Kaskaskia 
as fiir as the point of the bluffs between the Kaskaskia and 
the Mississippi, and up along the bluffs of the Mississippi to 
the county line. 

Ezra Owens and Otho Leavens, supervisors; David An" 
derson, assessor ; Paul Harralson and James Fulton, over- 
seers of the poor. 

Sprl»;/fcl<l. — All that part of the county south of the road 
from Kaskaskia to Shawr.eetown and north of Mary town- 
ship and Nine-mile Creek. Jo.«eph Jay and James Hughes, 



sui)ervisors ; William Bariiett, assessor; and Alexander 
Barber and John Clendinin, Sen., overseers uf the jmor. 

Mari/.—Begi uning at Cul. Edgar's ferry on the Kaskaskia, 
aloug the road leading to Harralson's ferry, until opposite 
to Thomas Fulton 's, thence east to the county line. William 
Bilderhack and William Cochran, supervisors; Robert Tin- 
dall, assessor ; and G. Franklin, and Itobert Tindall, over- 
seers of the poor. 

Plum L'lrek. — Boundary as above. Thomas Widaman^ 
supervisor of roads ; David Anderson, assessor ; and James 
Paltcr.son and James I'attou, overseers of the poor. 

The townships of Rocking Cave, Massac, and Mississippi 
were now forming counties, and are not further mentioned 
iu the records of Randolph county. 

A short list of marriages solemnized in the county in the 
bcgiuning of the latter half of the territorial period, will 
demonstrate better tliau any other evidence, that tiie Ameri- 
can population had become the predominant one as early as 

EAltl.Y MAl;HlA(;liS. 


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Lazai-u- Tiini.-i ami Mii--n I 
Zciilniniali John ami li.-l|.l.v ,-l..-ll.y. Ma 
James Fk-niiii); anil llai h. 1 ,~li. li.i , .M.i 
James Wilson ami Jam- .\, Mar. li 
Marviu Fullor ami JIarsai i-t llaiui..ii, M 
Polamlei- Kuykcm.lali- aii.l |i..lly Mm 1 ■. . 

Josepl. llarmun ami l-'.li/ ll. Wan-, I . 

John Hogan ami l-;ih-mloi- Kol,i-.-(son, .Mi 

• John McKerron enteieii the \ 

II, Man 

.•1., kslii, l.y i.-.rL-ll>, 
,\ii-.;, -j:i, l-M'i, l.y Ik.iiil.l I-.-riril-..ll. 
1.-.-, I'.i, islii, liy llaiiil.-t F,Tj;ns.-,n. 
..11, Jan. 11, ISU', by Tliomas Fei-gusou. 

•_*;), by John Phelps. 

Nov. '21, 18111, by Giiliriel Greatliouse. 

. ll -.:.., 1-11, l.y (ieorgc Haeker, J. P. 

Ill 1.., 1 SI I, by (ieiirno ItacUci'. 

11, isll, ly Marvin Fnllcr. 
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id nn « hirh Clie.tter stands. 

. 'JI, Is 


111 .N 

■ll by tii-c 
in 1S15, 

111 lailiaiim- Willis, May 28, 1811, by lieorge Kobinson. 

lii.l.- ,\1...-, n. t, :!1, by William Arnndel. 

.ami i:ii/,ai.. lb Mathers, Dec. 19, 1811, by Jas Finney, Judge. 
.111.- and Dolly Murray, Jannary IG, ISll, by G. Hacker, J. P. 
I i'..lly Tindall, April II, 1811, by tame. 
I ' .1 kus lin.ssell, May 23, 1811, by same. 
!> Mi-l.imi.-hliii, June 0, 1811, by same. 

iiiri-is, June 10, 1811, by same. 
,111-iiiila Cattn-y, Dec. 28, 1811, by John Phelps, J. P. 
i.rds ul the county from 1S12 to October, 1818, have been 
Tlie number of licenses issued in 1812 was 17 ; in IS a, lli; in 
i in 1816, 8; in 1817, 21; and in 1818, it was 25. 

LEGISLATURES. — 1795 TO 1818. 

Shadrach Boiul, Sr., member of the L.^gislature of the 
U S. Tenitory northwest of the River Ohio, 1T99, and of 
the House of Representatives of the Territory of Indiana 
to the year 1806, and member of the" Council ' (Senate) to 

Shndrach Bond, Jr., member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the territory of Indiana from 1805 (took the 
place of his uncle who had resigned) to 1808. 


1812 TO 1818. 

Pierre Menard, (*) member of the Legislative Council and 
its president from 18r2 to 1818. 

George Fisher, (f ) member speaker of the House 1812 to 
1814 and 1816 to 1818. 

James Gilbreath, elected in 1814, during the 
first session — so stated in the Illinois Legi.-^lative Directory of 
1881. This work mentions 

Jarvis Haz Iton, as member of the House from Ran- 
dolph County during the year 1815. Hazelton may have 
died or resigned before the expiration of his term, because 

William L Reynolds, {%) though not mentioned in the 
said directory, was certainly a member of the Legislature 
from Randolph County at that very period. 

■ M.-- 


Ih hi 




ai rived 

n Kaska^k 

a aT)out the year 1790, in 


and Franc 

is. Pierre was the most 

-ajiod in 


zing and trading with the 

E highest 


on account of his upright 

pr.imiuent of the tin- 
Indians, «ho lield Pi 
honomy and purity of intention. to all the needy was prover- 
bial. Tlie govi-rnnient of the United Stales had its .ittention called to this 
exemplary man at an early day, and appointed him Indian Agent, which 
position he filled for many years. In 17'J5 Pierre Mi^nard was appointed Judge 
of tbeCor.rt i.f Comninu Pleas of Randolph County, and in 1SI8 was elected 
I,u-iiti-iiiirii..>t-iii"i"f the State, and as such pro-ided over the Slate Senate 
IViiiii Isls I., isjj Alt. -r the close of this term of oflfies he declined to accept 
piililii stall. .11-, aii.l lb-voted himself to private aft'aii-s. He died in 18-14, and 
was buriiil in the old giave yard of K.askaskia. 

-i;e Fisher, .1 iiliysieian, was a Virginian, who arrived, according to E. 

.ac-uc's Historii-al Skelehes, at Ka.«ka.skia, in 17!is : but the records of 


J. Mo 


tyhave him a m- 
as an intlnential 
was sherittof Hand Ipli 
In 181S lie was elei-ted 11 
framed the tirst t'lilistitu 
ISOChad opem-il a f.irni 1 
rtied-lsi". The region 

JWilliamL. Reynolds V 
time. Hepubl 


or of the Conn of Cominoo Pleas in 1793. 
mberof the community, and a popular politician^ 
tnty when the Illinois Territory was organized. 
?iiiber of the Constitutional Convention, w-hich 
for the Stale of Illinois. Dr. Fisher, who, since 
he Prairie du Roeher, remained tliere until lie 
ever been known as Dr. Fisher's Settlement, 
pi-obably the most diligent representative of his 
I in the "Illinois Herald," Kaskaskia, February 1, 1810, a 
list of the laws passed at the late session of the Legisia urc, 4u in number, 
introducing his list by a lengthy address to the citizens of Randolph county, 




Nathaniel Pope, Secretary of the Territory from 1809 to 

Robert Morrison, Adjutant General, July 18, 180^, to 
May 28, 1810. 

Elias Rector, his successor, held the office until (JctoUer, 
25, 1818. 

Shadrach Bond, Delegate to C)ngress, 1812 to 1814. 

Nathaniel Pope, Dc^legate to Congress, from 1817 to 1818. 

Daniel P. Cook, Auditor of Accounts, January 13, IHIG, 
to April, 1817, and Judge of the Western Circuit in 1818. 

RANDOLPH COUNTY — 1818 TO 1883. 

The State Convention which framed the first Constitution 
of the State of Illinois, assembled at Kaskaskia in July, 
1818, and completed its work on the 28th of August of that 
year. It was composed of thiriy-three members, one of 
whom, a member from Washington county, whose name is 
unknown, died during the term. These members repre- 
sented the then fifteen counties of the territory, three of 
which, to wit., St. Clair, Madison and Gallatin, had three 
representatives each, while the remaining counties were 
represented by two members each. 

The session of the Legislature of which your confidence maile m^ a 
con>titiient part has come to a close, and rendering up to you the important 
trust confided to my care, I feel it my duty to inform yon what laws have been 
passed ; you will be better able to judge for yourselves whether your public 
servants have exercised that delegated p >wer %vith a view to the political 
interest of our common country or not. 

Having been elected after nearly half the session had elapsed, a number of 
laws were parsed before I took my seat, and at this time I am unable to judge 
of their political expediency. 

The power of legi-Ulion in lliis territory under the ordinance and tlie 
several acts of Cjngress is so confined and clogged, that it is almost put out i>f 
the power of the representatives of the peopio to pa'^s those laws, rules and 
regulations that the political situations and necessity of the country r-quirc 

The memorial forwarded to Congress, praying an alteration in the ordinaiu-o, 
if granted to the extent of our prayer, will remedy a host of evil?* under which 
the territory now labors, and hereafter your public servants will b » more able 
to legislate for the real interest of the country. 

I am apprised that some may think tne ma'ting of four new counties is 
not justified by the present populatio i. To that opinion permit m** to remark 
thai experience and former examples have uniformly proven that in new 
countries where counties have been left too long at large, much public 
expense for public buildings has been incurred, and on subsequent divisions 
wholly lost, therefore, the sooner the country is laid out into counties of 
proper shape and size the better for the public interest. 

On the eve of the session the President's Proclamation arrived, ordering all 
pt-rsons oft the public lands, which produced the deepest emotion." in the 
brea-tsof all. It seemed to come like a noxious planet, portending misery 
and calamity. And what could have dictated so evil a measure I am unable 
to ilivine. A great portion of the citizens of this territory are on Congress 
Lands, and to drive them off would in fact almost ruin the present prosperous 
condition of our country. 

What answer may we not give the General GoTernment — can we not say we 
have left the "States" because we were unable to purchase land, and unwilling 
to be tenants of the great land holders at whose nod we must bow in the sacrifice 
of every noble principle of independence. We fought for a century where we 
could enjoy existence uncontrolled by overbearing land holders, where nature 
affords abundant food for man, and where we could cultivate the soil of our 
beloved country without fee or reward, that soil we have enhanced in value — 
that soil we have defended against the arms of a savage enemy, the allies of 
England, alone we stood, almost unaided by the general govfrnment, without 
that compensation that the whole is bound to give the few for defending them. 
When that pay comes many of us will be able to purchase the lands on which 
we live from the government. No doubt some sordid miscreant hHS given 
the delusive information upon which the proclaination is bottomed, and that, 
too, to bring into his pocket a little gain, at the great injury of his fellow man, 
etc , etc. 
Hon. Reynolds exhibits a little deniagoguery in his concluding remarks. 
(The "Herald" of February 1, 18li>, for want of paper of a proper size, was 
published for the time being on half sheets of super royal, and the editor had 
gone to Kentucky Co obtain a supply.) 


The members from Randolph county were Elias Kent 
Kane and Dr. George Fisher, whose names have heen re- 
peatedly meiitioiied iu preceding pages. A glance at the 
named of the other members shows that many of the former 
citizens of Randolph were now representing other counties, 
as, for instance, Jesse B. Thomas, the first territorial judge, 
represented St. Clair ; Benjamin Stephenson, formerly 
sheriff of Randolph, represented Madison ; Michael Jones, 
implicated in the murder of Rice Jones (1808), represented 
Gallatin; Caldwell Cairn.s, Monroe county ; Samuel Oniel- 
veny, the old squire of Rocking Cave township, represented 
Pope ; Isham Harrison and Thomas Roberts represented 
Franklin county ; Jesse B. Thomas was president, and \Vm. 
C. Greenup, the old court clerk of Randolph, secretary to 
the convention. 

The constitution was not submitted to a vote of the people 
for their approval or rejection, nor did the people have 
much to do with the choice of officers generally under it, 
other than that of governors, the general as.«emblies, sheriffs, 
coroners and county commissioners. The e!ecti\'e franchise 
was, however, extended to all white male inhabitants above 
the age of twenty one, having resided in the State six months 
-next preceding any election. Judges, either supreme, cir- 
cuit or probate, prosecuting attorneys, circuit clerks, re- 
corders, and even justices of the peace, — all were to be 
appointed. The prerogative of appointing, at first enjoyed 
by the governor, was soon after vested by law in the legis- 

The first election under the constitution, for governor, 
lieutenant-governor, ard m<nd)rrs of the general assembly 
was held on the third Thursday and the two succeeding days 
in September, 1818. 

Shadrach Bond, jr , at that time a resident of St. Clair 
county, was elected governor, and Pierre Jlcnard, of Ran- 
dolph, lieutenant-governor. 

The first General Assembly, elected at the same time, con- 
sisted of fourteen senator-, oi'" frou each couuty, with the 
exception of Johnson and Franklin counties, they forming 
one senatorial district. The house had twenty-nine members, 
to wit : four from Gallatin, three from St. Clair, White and 
Madison, each ; two from Edwards, Union, Pope, Randolph 
and Crawford, each ; and one each from Monroe, Jackson, 
Franklin, Bond, Washington and Johnson. 

This General Assembly met in first session at Kaskaskia, 
on the 5tli of October, 1^18, but adjourned on the 13th of 
that mouth, because grave doubts had arisen as to the 
legality of the proceedings, inasmuch as Illinois had not 
then been regularly admitted as a State into the Union. 

The Act of Congress passed December 3d, 1818, removed 
this uncertainty, and the A.ssenibly couvened in Second Ses- 
sion on the 4th of January, I81'J. Randolph county was 
represented in the senate by Johu McFerrou, the old county 
commissioner; and in the house by J'^dward Humphrey and 
Samuel Walker. Pierre Menard, of Randoli^h, presided in 
the senate as lieutenant-governor, and William C. Greenup 
acted as secretary. Tnomas Reynolds, chosen clerk of the 
house, was also a Randol[)h county mau. The Assembly 
elevated other Randolphiaus to high positions, to wit : Elias 



Kent Kaiie, Secretary of State; Daniel P. Cook, Attorney- 
General ; and Blackwell & Berry, State printers. John 
Reynolds, then of Cahokia, but formerly of Randolph, was 
chosen Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.* 

The Assembly adjourned on the 31st of March, 1819. It 
was the last State legislature that ever assembled in the 
quaint old French village of Kaskaskia. Vandalia— nomen 
et omen — had been selected as the future capital of the State, 
after Kaskaskia was stripped of this honor. 

But to return to the aifairs of the county, which, in the 
interregnum from December, 1818, to May, 1819, had been 
conducted by the territorial justices mentioned above. The 
last session of these justices was held on the I9th day of 
April, 1819. There were then present : Joseph Cro s, Miles 
Hotchkiss, Raphael Widen, Alexander Barber, John W. 
Gillis. William H. Hays, John Steele, Sr., Gabriel Jones, 
John Anderson, Samuel Taylor, Samuel Crawford, Ezra 
Owen, William Nelson and Curtis Conn. 

In pursuance of a law passed by the General Assembly 
at their second session, these justices proceeded to "lay off'" 
the county in election precincts. In doing this, they retained 
the names and boundary lines of the several townships as 
established on February 27th, 18 16, and confined their labor 
to selecting places and judges of election : 

A'(s/,u«ita.— Court-house ; Philip Fouke, Hypolite Me- 
nard and Michael Smith. 

I'rairie du Rocher.— House of Archibald McNabb ; An- 
drew Barbeau, William Drury and John Fisher. 

TJ7//«(wi*6«r3/i.— House of William H. Hays; Paul Har- 
ralson, Joseph Sprigg and Norton Hill. 

J/u )■!/.— House of James Gaston ; Robert Tindall, James 
Clendeuin and Archibald Steele. 

SprinyfiekL—Uoniie of John Tygart ; Alexander Barber, 
John Bilderback and Micajah House. 

Plum Creek.— Home of Washington Sterrett ; William 
McBride, Abner Cox and Samuel Crozier. 

An election must have been held soon after, for under 
date of May 17th, 1819, the following entry was made on 
the county records : 

Be it remembered, that in pursuance of an act of the peo- 
ple of the State of Illinois, represented in the General As- 
sembly, entitled An act establishing the courts of county 
commissioners, it appearing from certificates from the judges 
of election of Randolph county that David Anderson, James 

« Reynolds, in his famous work, "My Own Times," tells us that he had been 
urged on by his friends to join them in a visit to Kaskaskia during this term 
of the Assembly. Upon arrival, they found much excitement at the State capi- 
tal, incident to the selection of officers. In a few days he was urged to give his 
assent to become a candidate for supreme judge. This request, he says, broke 
upon him like a clap of thunder. His consent was yielded ; he was elected. 
His experience in the law was four years' practice oi " commerce in land." So 
far, the old governor's own words. The writer must say, however, that the 
governor certainly had some pretensions of being a jurisprudent, lawyer and 
advocate, for it was the writer's good fortuns to have found the following ad- 
vertisement in the Illinois Herald, published at Kaskaskia, on the 5th of De- 
cember, 1815: 

To the Poor People of Illinois and Misiouri Terrilonet : To the above class of 
mankind, whose pecuniary circumstances will not admit of feeing a lawyer, I 
tender my professional services as a lawyer in all courts I practice in, without 
fee or reward. •'"«" ^^•'^o^o^- 

This advertisement admits of the following suppositions: John Reynolds 
was a philanthropist and an extremely liberal lawyer, or a and ex- 
tremely shrewd politician. 

Patterson and Curtis Conn were duly elected as such county 
commissioners, whereupon the said David Anderson, James 
Patterson and Curtis Conn took their seats ; and thereupon 
a court was held by the county commissioners of Randolph 
county, on the 17th day of May, a. d. 1819. 

It is odd that the two first built court houses in this State 
have been converted into saloons, for the first court house at 
St. Clair county, at Cahokia, still standing, has for an age 
or longer, also been converted into a modern " Temple of 
Ptrsonal Liberty." 

The proceedings of the county board during 1823, 1824 
and 18'25 contain nothing of interest. The great anti-slavery 
agitation of those years is not mentioned in the county pro- 
ceedings. A majority of the prominent men of the county 
were pro-slavery men, as stated elsewhere in this chapter- 
A county census taken during the year 1825, when the 
county aria had been reduced to its present limits, may 
find a place here, as also some extracts from the county census 
of 1830 and the United States census of 1840. 

The other proceedings of this board are of no importance. 
Their successors, to wit: David Anderson, James Thompson 
and ^[iles Hotchkiss, resolved to build a new court house, 
which the county stood so much in need of Nathaniel 
Pope, their illustrious fellow citizen, had donated a tract of 
land to the county for that purpose as well as for the erection of 
a jail and a " stray pound." On the 21st of Decemher, 1819, 
the board contracted with J. W. Comley and J. W. Nelson 
for the building of a court house, to be constructed of brick 
and to be two stories high, for which the county was to pay 
them S47d0. Nathaniel Pope contributed also 8300 iu cash 
for that purpose, and the county treasurer was iujtructed to 
solicit and receive aitl from other citizens. The contribu- 
tions were slow in coming in, for on the 7th of June, 1820, 
the treasurer was instructed to borrow money for the pur- 
pose of paying off the contractors, wherever he could get it 
at 6 per cent., and to bring suit against all persons who had 
failed to pay donations formerly promised by them, A 
special tax of 50 cents per SlOO valuation was ordered, and 
as the total assessed value of all the taxable property in the 
county was then only 81,585.02, this tax would scarcely net 
8700. The county jail was also in a very bad condition, 
for the militia had to be called out to guard the prisoners ; 
80 men did service of this kind during the year, and received 
each 81.25 for 24 hours service. 

The new court house was " received " and occupied June 
7, 1821, and the contractors were paid a 10 per cent, interest 
bearing county order for 81,000 for balance due them March, 
1822. It may be, however, that this amount was paid for 
repairs of the court house, for the records of September 5, 
1821, state, that the court contracted with J. VV. Comley 
to put up anew the '■ northwardly" end of the court house, 
lately blown down by a violent storm. Nothing further to 
chronicle, except the organization of a new election precinct, 
March 4, 1822, to be called Union, now Red Bud, with poll 
at the house of James Patterson. 

The old court house near the Catholic church (formerly 
the property of ex-sheriff' Gilbreath) was let to Jesse W. 
Cooper on March 5, 1823, to be used as an inn, here called 



a ''grocery" for the time. Cociper puid S60 per annum for 
the use of the house, and subsequently in 1825 bought court- 
house and grounds for S250, State paper. Rents were still 
very high in 182 3 

Ci'.nxus of the County, by Th. J. V. Owen. Commission 
dated November 25, 1825. 

Heads of Families — Town of Kaskaakia. — Jliles Hotcli- 
kiss, W. C. Greenup, Samuel Taylor Samuel Smith, Mary 
Paine, Leonard Stephens, David J. Baker, Antoine Antya, 
Sidney Breese, William Siraont.ui, II. H Maxwell, Elias 
Kent Kane, Josiah T. Bills, William Orr, Thomas Rey- 
nolds, Edward Riberts, Jesse Francis, Jeptha Siveet, R 
M. Young, M D. Smith, Simon Rodergues, John At- 
kins, John E Igar, William Steven^, Felix St Vraiii, James 
L. Lamb, R. K. Fleming, Thomas Short, Robert JI 'rrison, 
William Morrison, Josejih Morrison, Edward Humphreys, 
Daniel M. Guthrie, Patrick Kavanaugh, Nathaniel Pope, 
Jacob Feamnn, Nathan Cloyes, Jame.s D. Osborn, John 
Frankford, Diego R jdergues, Samuel Lybarger, Rowiiia 
R'ldergues, Elizabeth La Chapelle, Antoine Dufour. Silas 
Leldud, Jesse W. Cooper, W. G. Hiser, Leon Pera, Joseph 
Page, Marie L. Chamberlaine, John W. Comly, Ferdinand 
Ouger, Elizabeth Barton,T. S. V. Owen, J. B. Seguin, Sr., 
J. B. Seguin. Jr., Celeste Barbeau, Therese Godiu, Raphael 
Meudue, Pierre Derouse, ThtrcsThamour (D'Amour), Louis 
Masoier, Riga Derouse, Joseph Derouse, Michael B. Dauie, 
Michael Danie, (fiddler), C. C. Conway, Louis Lemieux, An- 
toine Chamberlain, Placit Casson, Margaret Gaston, Pascal 
Las*ouri, Fiancois Menard, Luke Gendron, Baptiste Crota, 
Rosalie Creurier, Joseph Gendron, Louis Derouse, Benjamin 
Beatt, Ursula Lefleur, Silas Barntelle, Alex's Doza, Alexis 
Euos Pierre Derouse, Andre Charleville, Antoine Gendron, 
Hugh Woods, Michael Butcher, Charles, John Dow- 
ling, Philip Fouke, Eltienne Derouse.William M Alexander, 
Ursula Levire, Joseph Buyatt, Elizabeth Brewer, Michae 
Derouse, Fran(;ois Goruor, Hannah Cowles, Joseph Derouse, 
Jr., John Brady, John Grate, Lawson Lovet, Aquilla Can- 
trell and N. E. Allen. 

The families of these 99 "heads" were composed of 477 
members, besides they owned 109 slaves and harbored 31 
free persons of color. William Morrison owned 22 slaves, 
Francois Menard 21, Sidney Breese 4 and Elias Kent 
Kane 5. 

Township of Kaskaski.a. — Antoine Buatte, Joseph Tulier^ 
Julian Jones, Pierre Colme, Louis Seguin, Espazell Seguin, 
Gerorae D^-rouse, Magdalen Degazine, Jack Backus, (free 
negro), Phebe, a black woman, John Carpenter, Michel Pet- 
tier, Joseph Danie, Hip )lite Menard, Joseph Chamberlain, 
Louis Buatte, Gabriel Jones, Spencer P. Adkins, Michel 
Buatte, Henri Bienvenue, John Paterson, Shadrach Bond, 
David Woolscy, Jacob Woolsey, John Wegan, Elijah Lovin, 
Baptiste Danie, George Stratton, Alexis Beauvois, Antoine 
Danie, Baptiste Reaurae, John Bowers, Joseph Louvalle, 
Thorston Thomas, C. B. Danie, Louis M. Derouse, Peter 
Wegan, William Langlie, Catherine Lloyd, Richard Wool- 
Bey and Allen Richards. 

Prairie ilu lioelier — Vi/luye — Henry Connar, John M. 
Godeau, Frank Tonga, Therese Blay, John Louvier, Pelagie 

Catineau, August Derouse, Michel Duclos, Sen., Joseph Go- 
deau, Baptiste Oliver, Baptiste Godeau, Alexis Derouse, Jaa. 
Deeper, Charles Blay, William Drury, Francis Champline, 
Marie Olliver, Joseph Vasseur, Henri Phebeau, Ellen Degag- 
nie. Madam Degagnie, Marianne Blay, Nicholas Durward, 
JosephBlay, Baptiste, Roye, Clement Drury, Michel Duclos, 
Jr., Antoine Louvier, Jr , Antoine Ix)uviere, Jr., Ichabod 
Sergeant, Donation Olliver (priest), August Allard, Ettienne 
Langloi.-e, Francis Thebau, Henry Barbeau, Eliza Chene and 
Henry Kerr. There were 38 heads of families enumerated at 
Du Rocher. The total number of inhabitants of the village 
was 202, of whom 28 were slaves and 10 free persons of color. 

Township of Da Rocher. — Isadore Godeau, Joseph Bonle- 
telle, Archibald McNabb, Audree Roye, Harriet Godeau, 
John Drury, Antoine Blay, Gerard Langlois, Antoine Cato, 
Andre Barbeau, Antoine Barbeau, Baptiste Barbeau, Bur- 
rell Philips, Josia M. Horsey, Michael Smith, Francis Lang- 
lois, Abraham Horine, Sylvauus Harlow, James Taylor, 
Francis Brown, Reuben Sackett, Ansel Dennis. 

Township of WilUamsbunj. — Paul Harralson, Antoine La 
Chapelle, William Steele, John C. Sigiion, James Mudd, 
Edward Mudd, Joseph Mudd, Francis Mudd, Norton Hull, 
Thomas Orr, Ezra Owen, Lewis Hull, Amos Lynn, Henry 
Royer, John Linsey, James S. Robinson, Thomas Lindsey, 
Elizabeth Lindsey, James Wheland 1st, James Wheland -d, 
Henry O'Hara, Hannah Kennedy, E. T. Owen, Alexander 
Wilson, Robert Wilson, William Nelson, John Stevenson, 
William McBride, Lemuel Owen, Levi Owen, Michael Dil- 
lon, Edmund Faherty, Levi Siinmonds, jr., Joseph H. Orr, 
Samuel Hill, sr.. Prudence Wilson, .lames Wilson, David 
Lawson, A. C. Adams, Joseph Griffin,, John Roles, Emanuel 
Evans, Ettienne Pavard, Thomas Hull, Henry Will, James 
Adkins, .Lacob Fisher, Thomas Levens, Ignatius Sprigg, 
John Smith, Daniel Buel, George Glenn, William Hamil- 
ton, John C. Crosier, William Been, Shelton Evans, Levi 
Simmoiids, sr , James Connar, John Foran, Adam Youug- 
man, Ellison Talbott, Edward Ralls, John Guthrie, Wash- 
ington Evans, Thomas Horsell, John Brewer, Zadock Dar- 
row, Absalom Tailor, John Adams, Otho Levens, and Eleanor 

There were only 5 slaves in this township. 

Town-ship Plam-Creek. — James McDonald, Robert M. 
^lanu, John Beatty, Andrew Borders, Thomas Finley, Isabel 
Euglish, William Findley, James McClurken, John Max- 
well, James Munford, .John Thomason, William Pattison, 
Burdite Green, Patrick Raines, William Edgar, Adam Ed- 
gar, David Ferris, Jane Beatty, William M. Maun, .James 
Pollock, Robert Pollock, William Hill, James Hathorn, 
David Hathorn, John Beaird, Robert Hill, William Hand- 
ly, Andrew McCormick, George McCormick, Alexander 
McKelvey, Andrew McFerron, Robert Poster, David Ander- 
son, .John Campbell, Robert Miller, John Cochran, James 
Couch, John Allen, Samuel McClinton, William McCliuton, 
John G. Nelson, John Barnet, Samuel Morris, Willianj 
Allen, George Wilson, Samuel Nisbet, Archibald Thomp- 
son, jr., Larkin Dial, Robert G. Shannon, Samuel Y. Henry, 
James Gordon, Samuel Stubblefield, John Irvin, Samuel J. 
Thompson, James Thompson, Moses Thompson. Samuel 



Crosin, Samuel Hathorn, John Thompson, James Croain, 
Robert Win, Margaret St. Clair, William T. Chambers, 
Thomas McDill, Thomas Swanwick, Samuel Hill, Thomas 
McBride, John Anderson, sr, William Gordon, Martin 
Wilson, William Temple, Robert Muggins, John McMillan, 
jr., Arthur Parks, James McNulty, Hugh Leslie, Robert 
McMillan, James Anderson, sr., John McKelvey, Charles 
McKelvey, John McMillan, sr., William McDill, William 
Thompson, James Wilson, jr , John Boyd, sr., Joseph Cath- 
cart. Smith Dickey, James Clark, Thomas Armour, John 
McDill, Samuel Leard,sr., Absalom Cox, Martin Gray, 
Alexander R. Leslie, Isaac Scudder, Isaac Rainey, Samuel 
Pitchford, John Hutchings, J. R. Hutchings, William Elliot, 
William Hodge, John Murdoch, John Wiley, Samuel Stor 
jjiant, Hugh McKelvey, Absalom Wilson, Alexander Mc- 
Kelvey, jr., William Stormaut, David Cathcart, Alexander 
Campbell, sr., John Dickey, William Marshal, James H. 
Beatty, Alexander Dickey, Samuel Wiley, Alexander Alex- 
ander, John Alexander, James Beaird, William Wiley, Wil- 
liam Campbell, John Armour, James Patterson, John Dob- 
bins, James Strahan, John Bilderback, John Miller, sr , 
Archibald Thompson, sr., William Lively, Turner Lively, 
John Lively, James Stoker, James S. Guthrie, William Mc- 
Bride 3d, J. Wilkinson, Asa Scott, James Lively, James 
McMurdo, Josiah Little, Samuel Little, Robert Edgar, 
Joseph Win, Samuel L. Weir, Kobert Caldwell, Archibald 
McMillan, James Wilson, sr., William Morris, William 
Miller, J. W. Henderson, J. W. Alcorn, Andrew Ross, 
Elizabeth Richey, Robert Thompson, sr., Robert Thompson, 
jr., John Anderson, jr., James Anderson, jr., Patsey Little, 
John McBride, John Haire, William Boyd, Samuel Doug- 
lass, Henry Nore, James Redpath, Frederick Holden, Samuel 
Leard, jr., Allen Been, Ralph Scudders, John Briggs, Wil- 
liam McBride, sr., and Joseph Bratuey. 

Township of Sprinrifield. Pierre Menard, Enoch Lively^ 
William Robinson, Shadrach Robinson, John Taggart, John 
Mahon, John Lacey, John Pillars, James Murphy, D. Olliver, 
Alexander Campbell, Jr., Shadrach Lively, Sr., Thomas 
Roberts, Charles C. Glover, Aquila Brown, Antoine La- 
brier, George Franklin, Josias S. Briggs, Richard Robinson, 
jr., Justus Rockwell, John Reynolds, James Fisher, Joseph 
Jay, John F. Berry, Joseph Harman, Jonathan Bowerman, 
Lemuel Barker, Ezekiel Barber, Sarah Lee, Rachel Hughes, 
James McFarland, Jesse Bowerman, Jacob Bowerman, W. 
H. Threlkel, Richard Green, Hugh Brown, John Murphy, 
sen., Joshua Davis, James Herd, Jonathan Petit, Elizabeth 
Fowler, James Huggins, William Irick, Charles Stratton, 
Mary Bilderback, Samuel Crawford, Antoine Montroy, 
John Murdock, James McMillan, Denard Short, Eli Short, 
Matthew Vann, John Murphy, Jr , Abijah Leavitt, Abigail 
Pitchford, Julia Ricor, Calvin Lawrence, Harrison Colbert, 
Jane Jones, Isabel Hilton, Stace McDonough, Anderson 
Candle, William Porter, Jane Bilderback, Susan Harman, 
Isaac Slater, William Turner, George Harman, Daniel Tag- 
gart, Richard Pillars, Archibald Snodgrass, John Young, 
John Taylor, James Milligan, James McDonough, Isaac 
Leard, Solomon Foresee, John Foresee, William Coddle, 
Amos Anderson, David Looney, Richard Robinson, Joseph 

Robertson, Silas Crisler, John Huggins, Joseph Lively, 
Robert Gant and Samuel Hughes. 

Township of Mary. Curtis Conn, William Jay, William 
Bilderback, James Bilderback, Alexander Barber, John 
Crane, Wiley Lane, Susannah Lane, Malakiah Holleman, 
Stephen B. Tilden, James Clendenen, John Clendenen, 
Henry Petit, Adonijah Ball, James Steele, George Steele. 
William C. Marlin, William J. Lane, Alexis Buatt, William 
Cochran, Baptiste Montreal, David Hoar, Thomas F. Steele, 
Bryant Axom, Nathan Conant, J. D. Starnes, Samuel 
Manseo, Francois Montroy, Jehu Ertes, George Master.=, 
William Paine, Joel Crane, David Petit, Demanda Petit, 
Shadrach Lively, jr., Genevieve Ravel, Nicholas Buatt, 
Benjamin A. Porter, John Griffin, William Hodge, John 
Cochran, sen., Asaph Smith, Wdliam Smith, Reuben Ertes, 
Robert GrifMn, Sarah Johnson, William Manseo, Isaiah 
Vineyard, Benjamin Grain, John Hindman, Andrew P. 
Cochran, Daniel Sandbon, James Johnson, Martha Herd, 
Antoine P. Bienvenue, Joseph Curry, Pierre Reaume, Jean 
R. Geiidron, John Harman, John Vineyard, Robert Tindell, 
Reuben Tiudell, Joseph Archambeau, John Starnes, sen., 
Harvey McNeely, Archibald Steele, John Steele, Sr., John 
Steele, jr., Duran Houseman, Richard Giviu, Leonard Garter, 
Charles Bilderback, Cornelius Adkins, William Fowler, 
Mary Bapart, James Gillespie, Robert Davis and John Davis. 

ThP pnpulalion of the 
asiainJividuals,— to wil 

as eiuuiiei-atea by Mr. Owen, 

Wliites 3481 

Negroes— slaves 240 

Negroes — free 91 

Bkia Whiles T2C 

Slaves 137 

Free negroes... 48 


I Dn Rofher Whites 287 

Slaves 62 

Free negroes... 13 

..Whites 421 

Free negroes... 3 

Plum Creel! Whites 971 

Slaves 12 

Free negroes.... ^ 


Springfiel.l Whites .181 

Slaves 21 

Free negroes... 21 

..Whites 49* 

Slaves 12 

Free negroes.... 1 

The report does not contain any further items of interest, 
except an enumeration of what it calls " manufactories " of 
Randolph county to wit: eight distilleries, nine horsemills, 
three inclined wheel grist mills, one water grist mill, and 
one " ditto " saw mill, three cotton gins, one carding machine, 
two house carpenters carrying on business, three shoe manu- 
factories, two hat, ditto, five blacksmith shops, one " bake " 
ditto, two tailor ditto, one saddle manufactory and one spin- 
ning wheel ditto. The location of those manufactories and 



mills is not given, nor by whom they were operated. The 
presumption is, that those eight distilleries were sufficiently 
large enough to supply the 800 male adults of the county 
with the so much needed production. Not a word is said 
about the occupation of the people with the exception that 
Michael Danie was a fidler at Kaskaskia, and Don Oliver 
a priest at Do Rocher 

Another county census taken in 1830 by John C. Crozier 
is more elaborate. From it we learn, that the population 
had increased to 4448 since 1825, 99 of whom were slaves, 
and 102 free negroes. 661 persons over 18 and under 45 
years of age were enrolled as militia men and 911 were 
voters. William Morrison was running a copper steam 
distillery and a water grist mill, while his neighbor Na- 
thaniel Pope contented himself with one steam saw and grist 
mill. James O'Hara operated a water grist mill and a cop- 
per distillery. Enos Christy operated an inclined wheel 
grist mill, two carding machines and an oil press ; William 
Nelson a copper distillery and grist mill ; Samuel Crawford 
had a spinning machine, Jiseph Bratney a water saw mill, 
Robert Forster a band mill and a steam distillery. Horse- 
mills were operated by Andrews Borders, William Paltison, 
James Beaird and John Armour. George Steele operated 
an inclined wheel grist mill, and David Steele a copper 
distillery, as also Robeit Tindall and Andrew Crozier. Felix 
St. Vrain operated a steam saw mill. The following me- 
chanics were mentioned also : 

BlacLmiflis: A. B. Brown, W. T. Evans. Silas Leland, 
Samuel Lybarger, John Mann, Jarret Wilkeson, David 
Woodside, Robert C. Jones, J. B. Burk and John Stejih- 

]V(ir/onmiihcrK : Aquila Brown and Jacob Harman. 

Coopers: Thomas Horrell, John Harman, George Har- 
man, and Seth Allen. 

r(U!?!fT8; Maurice D. Smith, Samuel Hull, Elisha Sty- 
mour, Wm. McDill, Wm. Gordon, Andrew Allen. 

Harness makers : George Lamb, Robert G Shannon. 

Shoemakers: John Reynolds, Michael Peiiiiy, James 
Strathan, Wm. Gordon, Solomon Foresee, Justus T. Rock- 

Hatter: Jacob Feaman. 

Tailors: Ferdinand Unger, Robert G. Shannon. 

Cabinet ma ktrs and turners: Harry Fulton, Henry Res- 
inger, Stanley G. Peet, Wiley Lain, Wm. C. Marlain. 

Tinner: Julian Chenoux. 

Patt Kavanaugh operated at one and the same time a 
saddler, cooper, shoemaker, and a tailor shop. Cotton gins, 
and press were operated by Wm. Pattison, John Patterson 
and Levi Simmons, and shingle shaving machines by Robert 
Miller and by Charles Bilderback. The following data are 
taken from the U. S. census reports of 1840. 

The census of 1840 gave Randolph county a population 
of 7,944 in the aggregate, 133 of whom were slaves and 188 
free colored people ; 50 people were over 70 years of age, 2 
of whom were over 90 years old. The occupations of the 
people of Randolph were defined as follows: mining 7, ag- 
riculture 1,895, commerce 116, manufactures and trades 
360, navigation 1, learned professions and engineers 48, 

Revolutionary soldiers 1. * The unfortunates were : 2 deaf 
and dumb, 3 blind and 6 insane. Education could be had 
in one college, attended by 50 students; one academy, with 
25 scholars; 14 common schools, with 403 pupils ; 78 adults 
were unable to read or write. 

The census reports of 1840 state that 11 men were em- 
ployed in digging coal, producing 6,011 bushels, and that 
§525 were invested in that business; that there were in the 
county 5,742 mules, 16,847 cattle, 7,688 sheep, 25,338 hogs, 
and $8,402 worth of poultry ; that the farmers of the county 
had harvested in 1839, 56,792 bushels of wheat, 803 of bar- 
ley, 76,051 of oats, 1,042 of rye, 377 of buckwheat and 
301,342 of corn; besides 9,091 pounds of wool, 256 of hops, 
985 of wax, 18,177 bushels of potatoes, l.O.iOtons of hay, 83 
tous of hemp, 11,174 pounds of tobacco. SOO potinds of rice (f), 
5,776 of cotton and 719 of sugar. 7,085 cords of wood were 
sold ; butter and cheese brought S4,603 to the diligent house- 
keeper ; orchards produced |2,9o8 worth of fruit ; linsey 
and woolsey made at home on the hand-loom, now an almost 
unknown and forgotten apparatus, were otimated atS6,96I, 
and gardening yielded S347. There were 10 commission 
houses in the county, having a capital of $51,000 invested ; 
32 retail houses, with 878,820 capital ; 4 lumber yards, with 
S6,000, giving employment to 28 hands; 4 men were em- 
ployed in " internal transportation " (^running stage-coaches) ; 
4 others were engaged in butchering and packing, having a 
capital of §12,500 invested in that business. The products 
of the forest were 83,617 worth of lumber and 8773 worth 
of skins and furs; 13 men produced bricks and lime to the 
value of 81,523. One fulling mill and woolen manufactory, 
with a capital of 81,500, gave employment to 4 persons and 
produced 8400 worth of goods ; 4 persons were engaged in 
manufacturing tobacco, had 81,000 invested in the business 
and turned out 8350 worth of the wef d. There were then 6 
tanneries in the county, which turned out 2 420 sides of sole 
leather and 2 084 of upper leather, employed 13 hands and 
had 87,850 invested in the business; there were 2 saddleries, 
with 8600 capital and 2 hands, who manufactured 81,200 
worth of articles ; 4 distilleries, giving employment to 13 
men, turned out 5,:>00 gallons of whisky. Randolph county 
had 2 printing offices and 1 bindery, emj)loying 5 men, 
capital invested |1,800 ; 6 flouring, 8 grist and 11 sawmills, 
with an investment of 871,000, gave employment to 39 men. 
The value of products, including 11,000 barrels of flour 
shipped, amounted to $81,050. Boats, valued at $1,500, 

* From a list of Revolutionary soldiers drawing pensions as such, and having 
been residents of the State of Illinois, we found that the following residents of 
the county ot Randolph drew such pensions, to wit: John Edgar, captain U. S. 
Navy, admitted by special act of May 26, 1830 ; commencemeni of pay March 3, 
1826, W80 per annum ; the full amount drawn was 82,201.33. General Edgar died 
December 19, 1830. The amount mentioned was drawn by his administrators 
Charles McNabb, private Maryland Continentals, drew 800 per annum. George 
Stamm, privaTe Maryland Continenlals. drew ggc per annum. William Fowler, 
private South Carolina militia, drew 820 per annum. Paul Harratson, private 
South Carolina militia, drew 862.50 per annum. We annex a list of Invalid Pen- 
tioncTS of the War of 1812 and the Indian wars prior to 1816, residing in Ran- 
dolph county: Julian Bart, a Virginian (mentioned heretofore as a fit subject 
for charily), served in the Illinois militia, was pensioned Sept. 1, 1815, received 
88 per month, and lived long enough to draw $1,104.80. David Hoar, from Mass- 
achusetts, private 31st U. 8. Infantry. William Henly (Tennessee), Dyer's 
regiment of militia. Armistead Jones, Illinois militia. William Lippincott 
(New York), 2d U. S. Infantry. William Lane, Tennessee volunteers (U. S. ser- 
vice). Eli Short, Kentucky volunteers (U. S. service). 



were built duriug the year, aud 66 mechanics erected 4 
brick and 20 wooden houses, at an expense of $15,760. 

COUNTY FINANCES — 1819 TO 1844. 

The financial condition of the county remained as it had 
been in territorial times ; the expenditures, though most 
sparingly made, exceeded the revenue. On the 17th of 
December, 1825, an interesting report was filed by Thomas 
J. V. Oiven, treasurer and sheriff, who had been authorized 
by the county commissioners to examine all books and pa 
pers bearing on the subject of county finances since 1819. 
He reported that the county had expended the following 
amounts of money, to wit : 

In tlie year 18W Sl,108."l>4 

" 1820 T^S.b-% 

" " 1821 2,0u6.23 

" " 1822 1,821.40 

" 1823 920.175^ 

" " 1824 1,C1.1.24'4 

" 1825 1,991.925^ 

And that the revenue of the county during all that time had 
been considerably less than the allowances made ; that now, 
on the 17th of December, 1825, there were county orders 
out and unpaid, calling for the enormous amount of $3,811.- 
671, and that the total revenue to be expected for the cur- 
rent year amounted to only $1408.993, to wit : tax on land, 
695.48i, and on other property, $813.01 i. 

During the administration of the 7th board — Arthur 
Parks, Josiah Betts and Franklin P. Owen — the first free 
schools were organized, one in township 5 S., Range 7 \V., 
called Liberty School District, on petition of Archibald 
Thompson and others ; the other at Unionville, on the peti- 
tion of David Hathorn and others. 

A few years later, during the administration of Thomas 
Roberts, William G. Hizer and John Thompson, Samuel G- 
Thompson (in 1833) was appointed commissioner of schools, 
and authorized to sell the lands donated by the Federal 
Government for the purpose of aiding public schools. 
Thompson was very dutiful and accurate in filing reports, 
which were all approved but »oi recorded. 

The above mentioned board, in 1825, made an effort to 
enliven business at the old village, and on the 29th of Octo- 
ber appointed a board of inspectors for the harbor of Kas- 
kaskia. This board consisted of Curtis Conn (the probate 
judge), Gabriel Jones and William G. Hizer. They were 
authorized to have warehouses erected, and instructed to 
inspect beef, pork, flour, hemp, tobaQCO, and other articles 
of exportation ! No report of their labors is found. 

The next reference to the financial condition of the county 
was made March 9, 1831, when the "enormous amount " of 
unpaid county orders of December, 1825, had been reduced 
to 891.61, with not a cent of money in the treasury. 

This condition of affairs remained unchanged till 1836 and 
subsequent years, when the county drew large amounts from 
the State Improvement fund. 

The legislature of the State had, in an evil hour, inaugu- 
rated a system of public improvements, to be carried on by 
State oflBcers under the supervision of the legislature. 

The impetus to the system, at the expense, or, more 
properly speaking, on the credit of the State, was given by 

George Farquer, a senator of Sangamon county, in 1834. 
(He had lived for years in Randolph and Monroe counties, 
had laid out the present city of Waterloo, and been county 
commissioner sortie years). His plans, however, failed. J. 
M. Strode, senator of all the country including and north of 
Peoria, had a bill passed in 1835 authorizing a loan of one- 
half a million of dollars on the credit of the State. This 
loan was negotiated by Governor Duncan in 1836, and with 
this money a commencement was made on the Illinois Canal 
in June, 1836. 

The great town lot speculation had reached Illinois about 
that time. The number of towns multiplied so rapidly, that 
it seemed as though the state would be one vast city. All 
bought lots and all dreamed themselves rich ; and in order 
to bring people to those cities in embryo the system of in- 
ternal improvements was to be carried out on a grand scheme. 
The agitation became general and the indiflerence of the 
busy farmer was taken for tacit consent. The legislature, 
on the 27th of February, 1837, provided for the building of 
about 1300 miles of railroads, appropriating eight millions 
of dollars for that purpose, two hundred thousand of which 
were to be paid to counties not reached by these proposed 
railroads as an indemnity. Two millions of dollais were 
voted for highways and river improvements, so as to remove 
impediments to navigation, fifty thousand of which were to 
be expended on the Ka^kaskia river, and a loan of four 
millions was authorized to complete the canal from Chicago 
to Peru. And as a crowning act of folly, it was provided 
that the work should commence simultaneously on all the 
proposed roads at each end and from the crossings of all the 

No previous survey or estimate had been made, either of 
the routes, the costs of the work, or the amount of business to 
be done by them The arguments in favor of the system 
were of a character most difficult to refute, composed as they 
were partly of fact, but mostly of prediction. In this way 
it was proved, to general satisfaction by an ingenious orator 
in the lobby, that the state could well afford to borrow a 
hundred million of dollars, and expend it in. making internal 
improvements. None of the proposed railroads were ever 
completed ; detached parts of them were graded on every 
road, the excavations and embankments of which have long 
remained as a memorial of the blighting scathe done by this 
legi-lature A special session of the next legislature, held 
in 1839, repealed the system and provided for winding it up, 
for it had become apparent that no more loans could be ob- 
tained at par. Under this system a state debt of $14,237,- 
348 had been created, to be paid by a population of less 
than 500,000 souls. 

Randolph county was represented in the legislature of 
1834—1836 by Thomas Mather, senator, who resigned in 
1835, to be succeeded by the late Richard B. Servant, aud 
by Richard G. Murphy and John Thompson, members of 
the house, and in 1836—1838, by said Servant, as senator 
and James Shields and Samuel G. Thompson. 

We were unable to ascertain, how these gentlemen voted, 
but from the fact that Thomas Mather was soon after ap- 
pointed a member of the board of fund commissioners — 



practical and experienced financiers to contract for loans, etc- 
it raniKit be doubted that he voted aye. 

lu the next legislature, ISoS to 1^40, by which the system 
was repealed, the county was represented by senator Servant, 
and Gabriel Jones and E. Menard, members of the house, 
and there cannot be a question about the vote of those 

The population of Randolph county was then about 7000, 
and its proportional part of the debt was fully 200,000 dol- 
lars, and yet, the county fared far better than her sister 
counties, as it was not reached by the proposed routes and 
consequently shared in the 200,000 dollars indemnity fund 
mentioned herein. 

Xathan Conant, Ferdinand Maxwell, Thomas McDill, 
John C. Crozier and James Clendenin were appointed com- 
missioners to view roads and report where improvements 
were most needed. This unexpected wealth, placed at the 
disposition of the county authorities, who had struggled for 
forty years to defray the county expenses out of a minimum 
of revenue, caused the inauguration of public improvements 
in the county, such as had never been witnessed before. 21 
substantial bridges were built, and thousands of dollars ex- 
pended on the improvement of public roads, and still large 
amounts of money remained in the treasury. An order of 
the county board, Wm. G. Hizer, Samuel Douglas and 
Harvey Clendenin, made on the 7th of December 1838, pro- 
vided that 12,000 dollars of the improvement fund should be 
loaned out, at 10a annual interest, to citizens of the county, 
in sums of from 50 to 100 dollars cash. 141 citizens of the 
county availed themselves of this opportunity, and §10,- 
636.00 were loaned out ere the close of the year. 

This order was soon after succeeded by other orders, call- 
ing in the money, as it was needed for other improvements. 
The records of the county do not contain any information 
as to the §50,000 appropriated for the improvement of the 
Kaskaskia river, but it is to be presumed that a part of it 
was exi>ended for said purpose. 

The balance of this improvement fund, amounting to 
$9,945, as per report of April 14th, 1840, was reduced to 
$3,115.42 in 1844, when it was placed in the county 
treasury and used as county revenue. 

The financial reports of the county officials from 1825 ifo 
1843 were not recorded, but the "Kaskaskia Eepublican " 
of December 23d, 1843, brought a lengthy report called, 
" An abstract of the fiscal concerns of Randolph county for 
the current year, commencing on the 6lh day of December, 
1842." We introduce here an extract of said abstract: 
The income of the county was stated to have been as 

Fines collected 8 6G.0O 

Licenses collected I85.UU 

Taxesof 1842 and hack taxes collected 2,828.11 

Improvement fund notes and interest collected (j98.2.'i 



Co. offices, stationery and fuel, etc 8 75.r,7 

Courts, jurors and bailiffs 2il8.f.o 

Elections I28..'i() 

Jail and inmates 27.!(I 

Officers, compensation of -l.fHIi.'JJ 

Paupers H77.4.') 

Roads and bridges I,u35.44 $3,402.80 

Balance in treasury $374.56 

The report further stated, that the ytar commencing on 
the 6th of December, had opened with a balance of SI, 496.- 
47 of outstanding county warrants, and that this floating 
debt of the county had thus been reduced to §1,148.91. 

The pauper expenses were stated too high, inasmuch as 
Stuart Bilderback had in 1842 built a poor-house for the 
county at an expense of §125.00. This building was 
erected on west half of the northeast fractional quarter of 
section thirteen in township six south, range eight west 

During the period of apparent prosperity numerous towns 
had been laid out and improved in the county, and consid- 
ering the very inconvenient location of the county seat, it 
was but natural that other and more accessible towns should 
make eflbrts to become the capital of the county. A short 
sketch of th's strife will be of interest to the reader. 


The question of changing the county seat to a more 
accessible and safer point, became general after the great 
flood of 1844.* The Kaskaskians became greatly alarmed, 
and Parson Percy of the '' Republican," published at 
Kaskaskia, fought manfully for the old village. He waa 
aided by msny able correspondents, whose communicationg 
are signed by various noms-du-plume, "Aristides" and 
"Sophocles," philosophical and eloquent effusions did no 
more execution than "Zip's" flippancies, or "Taxpayer's" 
homilies. "Ecce Homo's' pathetic expectorations are also 
in vain, while "Sans Culotte " (Without Pants) does harm 
by bis French impetuousness. "C\res" appeals tearfully 
to the readers in behalf of Kaskaskia. A bill providing 
for the selection of a permanent seat of justice, for the 
county of Randolph, was introduced in the General Assem- 
bly in January, 1847, and became an "Act" by approval 
of the governor, January 30th, 1847. 

This Act was artfully worded and clearly designed to 
abandon Kaskaskia as the county seat. It provided, 1st, 
that an election should be held on the first Monday of April 
1847, as between all towns having aspirations to become or 
remain the county capital ; 2d, that if one of the contending 
towns should receive a majority of all the votes cast at taid 
election, a second election should be held on the first Monday 
of May, 1847, to decide between the three towns having 
obtained the most numerous vote at the first election ; and 
3d, that in case no absolute majority was obtained, a third 
election should be held on the first Monday of June, 1847, 
to decide between the two towns having received the greatest 
number of votes at the second election. 

'Ferdinand MartceU's Official Report in rsfcrrncc to the food of 1844.— This day, 
June 28th, A. D. 1844, I have witnessed the whole of the town of Kaskaskia 
inundated by the high water, some seven feet upon an average. The whole 
population of the place removed over on the hills or high lands opposite, and 
a great many took shelter at Col. Pierre MenardV house. On Wednesday, the 
2Clh of June, the steamboat Indiana, Captain Ludwig, landed near Col. Men- 
ard's house, which may be known by cin<lers from stone coal which was thrown 
out at the place where she landed, which is southwest from the spring not 
over fifty yards, and she remained a few hours and took away the sisters or 
nuns, who were teaching a school in the village at the time of the flood, to 
St. Louis. :^I.iny houses were carried off by the water; the water commenced 
ri8ing4tbout the r2th of Juno an<i commenced falling about five o'clock, P. M., 
this 28th day of June. Given under my hand, F. Maxwell, Clerk. 



The result of the first election was as follows : 

For Kaskaskia 3" ™',f »• 

For Chester "' „ 

For Sparta *J^ 

For Evansv.lle 2" .^ 

For Centre "J „ 

For Geographical Centre ^ 

Total vote 1'36. 

It should be borne in mind that at the general election of 
1846, when Lyman Trumbull contested the re election of 
Robert Smith for member of congress, with the utmost rigor, 
the county of Randolph had cast only 1206 votes in all. 
Parsons Percy commented on this circumstance very se- 
verely. The second election left Kaskaskia out of the race, 
and the " Republican " now embraced the cause of Sparta, 
not because it loved Sparta more, but because it hated 
Chester more intensely. He is aided by a correspondent, 
"Old Kaskaskia," who is loud in his denunciations of 
Chester. "Some parties interested in the sale of lots," says 
' O. K.,' " have filed a bond to donate S:3,.500 for the erec- 
tion of public buildings at Che.ster." Three of them, Mather, 
Lamb and Opdyke, are not even residents of Chester, but of 
New Orleans and Springfield, and Mather was the president 
of the " rotten " State Bank of Illinois. 

Sparta was championed by Andrew B trders, R. G. Shan- 
non, John A. Wilson, Joseph Faruan, William Roseborough, 
8. W. McClurken, James A. Foster, E. S. Peck, L- 
Murphy and J- C. Holbrook, who had made the solemn 
promise, signed and sealed, that they at their own expense 
would build a substantial courthouse 40x45 feet, and two 
stories high, if Sparta were to be chosen. 

The result of the third election is commented on by Percy 
as follows : 

"The county-seat election came off" on the 7th of June, 
1847. Never perhaps in the annals of history was the elec- 
tive sufi"rage more grossly violated. Votes from an adjoining 
state were freely taken— boys and 'persons of doubtful 
blood' were accepted. Chester performed her part with 
much eclat, and Sparta was not much behind, if we are cor. 
rectly informed. This game was played off by both of those 
rival towns for the purpose of breaking down Kaskaskia, 
which they have both been trying to do for years past. We 
have no doubt that two-thirds of the voters of the county are 
dissatisfied and would be, no matter which of those two 
points were successful. So far as we can learn Chester has 
received a majority of forty votes, but the people of Sparta 
intend contesting the election. 

Had the previous election been conducted with fairness, 
Kaskaskia would still remain the county-seat, and we think 
it hard to lose it by such dishonorable means as have been 
resorted to. We give below the official returns of this hon- 
orable (?) election, and leave it to the people to make 
what comments th°y please upon this extraordinary increase 
of the population of Randolph county. 

For Sparta. 

. . 83 votes 

For Chester. 

Kaskaskia 120 votes Kaskaskia. . . . 

Prairie du Rocker 52 " Pi airie du Roche 

Union ,^ " Union 

Georgetown 113 ' (Georgetown . . . 

Liberty ^^1 ;; L.herty .... . 

Sparta '.■-■.■.'. '.'.'.'■'■'■'■ _>^ " Spa"a 

1082 " 

The next county election, August, 1847, brought out 1428 
votes, from which it is to be iuferred that some 60:) or more 
illegal votes were polled at said election of Juae 7, 1847. 

The fact of accepting fraudulent votes is admitted by 
various citizens who witnessed the affdir D. S. Lybaiger, 
Esq., a native of Kaskaskia, informed us that the Spar- 
tans had been as suspicious of the Chesterians, as these of 
those. Committees to reconnoitre and to act as challengers 
had been sent from Chester to Sparta, and vice versa. He, 
(Lybarger), had arrived at Sparta on the night before the 
election, and had noticed the arrival of numerous " visitors" 
from adjacent counties. On the morning of the election the 
Chester challengers were refused admittance to the poll, 
whereupon he was sent back to Chester to report. He had 
made the trip in less than one hour and thirty minutes. Soon 
after his return, the S|)artau challengers at Chester had 
made their exit, through door or window, " they had not 
been ' particular,' at all, at all." During election neither 
Leonidas nor any other Spartan was seen at Chester, but 
Joseph Mattingley's horse-boat had made many trips bring- 
ing in voters from the other side. Flat-boatmen also had 
voted diligently and repeatedly, but it was not true, that 
the good steamboat Red Cloud had landed a number of 
passengers and her crew to vote, nor had the boat itself 
" voted for Chester" as the Spartans had charged. 

The Spartans made an earnest effort to contest the ehc- 
tion. An investigation conducted by M. Morrison before 
three magistrates, developed the fact, proved by witnesses 
from Chester and Bois Brule Bottom, Mi.ssouri, that 135 ille- 
gal votes had been polled at Chester, and that besides there 
appeared on the pull book 70 names, not known to the "old- 
est" inhabitants, also supposed to be fraudulent. " Kaskas- 
kia Republican," July 31, 1847. 

The county seat matter was finally disposed of by the 
circuit court, November term 1847, and decided in favor of 
Chester, whereupon the county board was convened by the 
chairman in, as was subsequently charged, an illegal man- 
ner, causing another outburst of indignation and lengthy 
preambles and resolutions passed in citizens' meetings at 
Kaskaskia and Preston. 

The said session of the county board was held in the court- 
house at Kaskaskia, on the 2:id of November, 1847. 

Present: Edward Campbell, William McBride and James 
Gillespie. The following order was then and there passed 
by a unanimous vote, to wit: 

Order in reference to remove the public records from Kas- 
kaskia to Chester. 

"Whereas the judge of the circuit court of Randolph 
county has decided that the proceedings had by the president 
and board of trusteeo of the town of Sparta, in said county, 
in the matter of the county seat of said county are illegal 
and void ; and whereas, the injunction sued out by said 
president and board of trustees of Sparta against the county 
commissioners of said county has been dissolved by his honor, 
Judge Koerner, at the late term of our circuit court held on 
the 15th inst. : Therefore ordered, that and in pursuance of a 
law of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
an act for the location of a permanent county seat for Ran- 





dolph county, approved January 30, 1847, the records of 
Rindolph cjunty be forthwith conveyed to the town of 
Vhexfer, the present county seat of said county, and that the 
respective officers of Randolph county and the clerk of the 
court remove thereto and transact all official business re- 
quired by law to be done at the county seat at said taint of 
Ch'jifci; in the county aforesaid." 

The order is signed by each member individually. The 
court then adjourned to the next day, when William McBride 
had the following words entered on the record: I want it 
understood that I was in favor of not entering the order for 
removing the records to Chester until our December term of 
our court. 

William McBride. 

This order, passed at a session of the board " irregularly 
called," gave rise to outbursts of public clamor. Indignation 
meetings were held at Kaskaskia on the 10th of December, 
presided over by J. Feaman, with 8. St. Vrain as secretary ; 
at Preston, on the 15th of December, William Rainey pre- 
siding, and at various other places, in which meetings, reso. 
lutions were passed condemning the frauds perpetrated 
at Chester, and the "indecent" haste of the county commis- 

The county election, August 2d, 1847, had been a very 
spirited one, but failed to bring out more than 1428 voters. 
James Thompson was defeated by John Campbell, by a ma- 
jority of 260 votes; John A. Wilson defeated Henry Bil- 
derback and Anthony Steele by a plurality of 30 and 28 for 
sheriff. J. W. Gillis, the champion of Kaskaskia, was re- 
elected recorder over E. Walker and J. D. Spindle. S. St. 
Vrain was defeated by F. Maxwell for county clerk. H. H. 
Baker defeated J. H. Clendenin, W. S. Hughes, and J. H. 
McCarty for treasurer. Samuel G. Thompson was elected 
surveyor by an absolute majority over Ignatius Sprigg, and 
E. Leavenworth and D S. Lybarger were chosen coroners. 

Two county officers, J. W. Gillis, the recorder, and Charles 
D. Kane, the circuit clerk, continued to hold forth at the 
old court-house peremptorily refusing to obey the above order. 


The regular December term, 1847, of the county board 
was held in the school-house at Chester, which said house 
was furnished as a temporary court-house by the citizens of 
said town. 

The county board remonstrated with the disobedient 
county officials, and succeeded in getting the circuit clerk to 
locate his office at Chester. The recorder, however, was 
notified on the lltli of November, 1848, that if he failed to 
remove his office to Chester by the 6th of March, 1849, the 
office of recorder would be declared vacant. Gillis was 
ousted by this order, but the people reinstated him by tri- 
umphantly re-electing him to the office. 

The election for delegates to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion 1347-8 resulted in the election of Ezekiel W. Robbins 
and Richard B. Servant for Randolph county The form 
of county government was changed under the new constitu- 
tion, which provided for county courts to be composed of a 
judge and two associate justices for each county. These 

officers were to be elected on Tuesday after the first Monday 
of November, 1849, and to serve for a term of four years. 

The old county board held their last meeting on the 4th 
day of December, A. D. 1849. 

The site of the present court-house at Chester was selected 
by the county board on the lOih of January, 1849. The 
lots on which it was erected had been donated to the county 
by Seth Allen. The building was erected by William 
P. Haskins, at the expense of private individuals. 

William W. Taylor contracted with the county board for 
the building of the old jail at Chester on the 16th January, 
1819. The jail site was also donated by Seth Allen, but the 
building was paid for (-5140) by the county. 

The valuation of taxable property in 1849 amounted to 
81,124,993. The tax levy was thirty-five cents per 100 — 
aggregating §3,937.47, of which amount $244.40 were re- 
turned " delinquent." 

The population of the county in 1849, as stated in the 
United States census of 1850, was 11,079, the sixteenth place 
in point of population. The county tax per capita amounted 
to only thirty-five and three-fifth cents, while, for the current 
year the county tax amounts to 83 3G for every man, woman 
and child in the county. 

This population of 11,000 souls were largely Anglo-Ame- 
ricans, for although the country of Illinois had been colonized 
principally by French, the descendants of this old stock had by 
that time gradually disappeared, and their number was actu- 
ally less than French colonists of the county were estimated 
to have been in 1703. The chapter on pioneers mentions a num- 
ber of Europeans, principally natives of Ireland, who sought 
and found homes in the county in the very first years of the 
present century. Among these early arrivals we merely 
mention James Patterson, and his four sons John, Samuel, 
Reuben and Jaraes, Robert Huggins, John McClinton, David 
and James Anderson, Adam Hill, Absalom Cox, James and 
Archibald Thompson, William McBride, Robert McDonald, 
Joseph and John Lively, George Wilson, Samuel Crozier, 
R)b3rt Foster, John Anderson, A. M. Henderson, William 
Nelson, and others. The reader has met many of these 
names among the leading citizens and county officials. The 
German nationality now forming a large part of the popu- 
lation was scarcely represented in the territorial times of the 
county. About the year 1817 we fiund two Germans as 
re5i<lents of Kaskaskia, to wit : Ferdinand linger, a tailor, 
and Heinrich Resinger, a cabinet maker. The actual German 
immigration began about the year 1830, when Gustav Pape 
arrived, soon followed by Caspar iVnton Pape, Franz 
Schwarz, Anton Tilman, Adam Huth, the Wehrheims, Die- 
derich Moehrs, Charles Schribner, Andreas and John 
Schoeppel ; between the years 1840 and 18.50 arrived John 
Selteger, -Jacob Zang, Charles Reinhart, the Rauchs, Wil- 
liam Schuchert, J. G Middendorf, John Stoehr, J. H. Meyer^ 
Christopher Gatelman, Paul Pautler, Louis and Diederich 
Liefer, J. H. iMckelman, Daniel Gerlach, (somewhat later) 
J. F. Hornberger, August Begemann, Henry, William and 
Fred. Ebers, J. F. Knop, D. Bickenberg, H. W^elge, William 
Rurede, J. H. Thies, Fred. Draves, Julius Schrader, Henry 
and Frederick Sternberg, Diederich Heitmann, Heinrich 



Knoche, Lnuis Meyer, Henry Schnoeker, Henry Bode, 
Frederick Brinkman, Herman Decker, Henry Hartmann, 
H. R. StoUe, Philip Schoen, Jacob Gillenburg, F. C. Peters 
and others. The revolutionary times during the years 1848 
and 1819 caused a large emigration in some of the German 
States, and the arrivals became so numerous, that a recital 
would fill many pages. The bulk of this German immigration 
chose farming as their occupation, in which pursuit they 
have met with astonishing success. Others, principally 
mechanics, settled in the towns and villages, many engaged 
in merchandizing, while not a few devoted themselves to 
keeping of hotels and refreshment shops. A few of these 
early German settlers and many of their descendants have 
occupied responsible and important offices of the county. 
The census of 1860 found fully one-fifth of the population of 
the county of foreign birth. 

We return to the recital of county affairs after the adop- 
tion of the constitution of 1848. 

The election of November, 1849, entrusted the affairs of 
the county to the first county court, to wit : 

John Campbell, county judge, 

Benbow Bailey and John Braser, associate justices. 

1849 TO 1853. 
This court held iU first term on the 17th of December^ 
1849. John W. Gillis, county clerk, John A. Wilson, 
sheriff. The new court-house was completed duriug their 
administration. On June 20, 1850, appeared in open court 
Thomas Mather, James L. Lamb, Stacy B. Opdyke, A 
Andrews, Francis Swanwick, Seth Allen, Adolph Blacky 
A. Perkins, Joseph B. Holmes, Joseph AVilliamson, Judson 
Clement, John Swanwick, Marmaduke E. Ferris, Joseph B. 
Mattingley, James R. Dunn, and Charles Song, who on the 
4th of June, 1847, had entered into bond to build a suitable 
court house at Chester, at the expense of the citizens of said 
town, and presented to the county court said court house for 
said county to use forever, as their own property in fee with- 
out charge or rent, and free from all lien or incumbrance 

Whereupon the court accepted the tender of said court 
house and considered that said bond had been fully dis- 
charged, and tendered the thanks of the county to said 
donors for the gift nf said court house. 

The court house was furnished at the expense of the 
county, and first occupied on the 2d of September, 1850. 

The affairs of the county during the decade of 1850 to 
1860 were conducted by this court and their successors in 
an economical and satisfactory manner. The valuation of 
the property increased perceptibly, and amounted in 1860 
to $2,963,000. The taxes for county purposes in that year 
amounted to $10,371.56, of which, however, $1052.27 re- 
mained unpaid. Tax dodging had commenced, and con- 
tinued until it grew to be a dangerous evil. The county 
authorities resorted to a most pernicious practice, to wit, 
drawing warrants on a depleted treasury, and, what was 
worse, made those warrants 10 per cent, interest-bearing 
paper. The example given by the Federal Government 
during the war, in creating an immense debt at the very 

shortest notice, proved contagious. The authorities of the 
county found themselves coerced to have a special act passed 
by the legislature, permitting them to issue bonds, in order 
to procure the means of managing a heavy floating debt, 
June 5, 1865. A bridge across Mary's river had been paid 
for in such orders, amounting in the aggregate to nearly 
$9,000, and yet the usual tax levy of ^5 cents per $HIO 
was not increased. In J864 the court authorized H. C. Cole 
to erect a fire-proof building, 22 feet by 48 feet, for clerks' 
oflaces, promising him 10 per cent, on all moneys advanced 
by him, and a suitable compensation for superintending the 
work Bonds amounting to $17,000 were issued June, 1865, 
and $10,000 more in March, 1866, to pay the purchase price 
of the Gordon farm, bought fur the purpose of making it a 
poor- farm, and in November, 1866, the citizens of the county 
voted in favor of having $100,000 of 8 per cent, bonds 
issued in aid of the construction of a railroad. 

This railroad debt gave rise to much complaint, leading 
to tedious and expensive litigations, which terminated in 
favor of the bondholders. 

Since 1874 the county has been governed by a board of 
county commissioners, who have succeeded in bringing the 
finances of the county into shajjc. 

A statement of the financial condition of the county in 
1882 is introduced here, followed by a detailed exhibit of 
the taxable property of the county and its value, from which 
the reader will perceive that the net debt of the county is 
less than 4 per cent, of its assessed value. It is also well 
understood that the real value of the taxable property of the 
county is nearly four times as great as the assessed value, 
and that the county indebtedness therefore does not amount 
to more than 1 per cent.-of the property in the county. The 
tax levy of 1882 is high, but the amount to be collected 
will reduce the county debt to about $10O,U0O, the principal of 
the railroad debt contracted in that evil hour of November, 

The value of the public buildings, not reckoning the 
court house, which is a donation, the substantial clerks' 
offices, the expensive new jail, the poor farm and its im- 
provements, is fully adequate to the amount of the debt, 
less railroad bonds. 

Preceding the assessment of 1882 we insert an extract of 
the assessment of 1 62, in order to show how rapidly values 
change, leaving it to the readers to draw their lines of com- 
parison. Just think of it! 21 piano-fortes in 18o2, and 378 
pianofortes and melodeons in 1882 ! ! 


Bonds issued Sept. 8, 1870, due in 1885 813,000.00 

Bonds issued May, 1878, due 1808 40,000.00 

Judgment in Uni ed States court, including principal of Tamaroa 

R. R. bond and coupons 108,000.00 

Outstanding county orders 833.59 

Jury warrants 07. 80 

Total 8161,901.^9 


Balance in treasury 80,835.00 

Taxes of 18S1, collected and in hands of collector 4,745.70 


Debt, less assets 8150,320.139 



The county authorities, at the November term, 1882, or- 
dert d the following tax levies to be made, to wit : 

For general onimty purposes, per SlOrt S -GO 

For ro:uls, per 51lKi 15 

For part pay of judgments, per $1U0 1-25 

Total Si.0O 

All county bonds, with the exception of $13,000, are re- 
gistered with the auditor of the State, who levies a special tax 
to meet the payment of interest. 


7,449 horses, rained at $249,441 

14,472 cattle 97,46« 

bii mules 18,2«9 

C,a»5 sheep C,2.",7 

21,7(!9 hogs 20,79J 

2 305 wagons and carriages.... 61,825 

2,W2 clocks and watches 9,171 

21 piano-fortes 2,:)<>4 

Goods and nierchandi^ie 91,'i95 

Capital stock 5,505 Total $2,866,3:17 

The taxes for that year were for 

state purposes 812,970.% 

County purposes 10.088.06 

Special school purposes 8.841.08 

Total 511,899.50 

The delinquent taxes of 1861 and prior years amounted 
then to $3,857.57. 



M.inufactnred articles. 7,023 

Moneys and credit" 119,8:12 

.\ll otlier personal property... 122,707 

Total 5812,5)17 

Lands (83,000 acres in culti- 
vation) 1,010 370 

Lots 43-,H80 


Valufd (it 
i ,218 horses $25.32".^ each $137,474 

8,.'>37 cattle 

2,123 mules Xi-UX 

7,810 sheep 1.021 

I.5,:i32 ho;ss 91 

67 steam-engines.. 217.G4 
55 fire-proof safes™ 36.90 

21 billiards 31.66?^ 

3,790 car. & wagons 12..55J4 
4,235 watc. i clocks 2.27 
2,319 seir. machines 5.90 

145 pianofortes S0..*i3 

231melodeons. 18.27 

3 franchises 91.CCJJ 

2 annui. * royalties .307.00 
9 steamb. & vessels 22G.(H;% 
Merchandise on hand 















Material & manufact articles 

Manufacturers' tool8,etc 

Agricultural tools 

Gold aud silver plate 

Diamonds and jewelry 

Moneys of banks. 

Credits of banks 

Moneys of other than banks 
Credits of other than banks 

Bonds and stocks 

Shares of capital stock, etc... 

Property of saloons 

Household furniture 

Investments in real estate ... 
All otner personal property.. 



Total personal property.. 81,119,105 

188,973 acres, improved, »t 89.83 4-5 $1,8.59,251 

103,413 acres, unimproved, at $3.09 504,772 

6,750 lots 646,547 


Wabash, Chester and Western 862,703 

Alton and Terre Haute 44,213 

Cairo and St. Louis 74,057 

Total 84,310,708 

These tax valuations appear to represent not more than 
one-fourth of the fair cash value, and it is safe to state that 
the property enumerated above is worth fully sixteen mil- 
lions of dollars. 

The agricultural statistics of Randolph county set forth 
that in 1881 

I produced 130,054 bushels of < 




" 293 

" 2,282 

" 37,837 


of orchard produced 38,900 

" ■• 193 

•• " _ 40 

spring wheat. 



Irish potatoes. 

sweet potatoes. 





es of vineyards prod'd 

782 gallons of wine. 

5.181 ■ 

of meadow " 

4,649 tons of timothy hay 

3,922 ' 

of clover " 

. 3,318 tons of clover hay. 

12,117 ' 

were pastured. 

G.5,719 ' 

are woodland. 

9,019 ' 

are uncultivated, and 

9M ■ 

are laid out in city and town lots. 

357 horse?, valued at 817,819, died during the vear, and 
430 colts were foaled. Fat cattle, weighing 1,295,516 pounds, 
were sold, and 214, representing a value of -53,594, died of 
disease. 3,985 cows furnished the people of Randolph with 
milk, etc. ; and the report further states that 80,079 pounds 
of butter, 5,221 of cheese and 085 gallons of milk were sold 
during the year. 470 sheep, worth *1,4G0, were killed by 
dogs, and 554, worth 81,826, died of disease. (It is remark- 
able that this class of sheep is so valuable. The average 
value given in by the assessor is 81.02 3-5, while the sheep 
killed by dogs are valued at three times the amount.) The 
wool clipped it reported to have weighed 47,928 pounds and 
valued at 8 10,54.3 — about 82,000 more than the sheep were 
assessed at; besides there were 3,912 sheep, weighing 
361,525 pounds, sold, bringing about 815.001) more. 2,949 
fat hogs, weighing 535 990 pounds, were sold ; 2,149, weigh- 
ing 157,463 pounds, died of hog cholera, and 501, weighing 
34,271 pounds, died of other diseases. 547 hives of bees 
produced 1,506 pounds of honey. 900 feet of drain tile was 
laid in 1881. 

EX>r.\ruTC0E5 or rivdoli'ii coistv in 1SS2. 

Assessment, cost of $1,909.25 

County jail and ^-risoners 2,441.05 

Courts and bailitTs 3,073.*! 

County officers 0,15K.30 

Court house— fuel, ice. insurance 421.51 

Court offices, printing and stationery 1,313.25 

Elections 848.00 

Paupers— in poor house 84,149.47 

outside of 2,748.77 

" in State institutions 541.03 

" inquests 131jn 

•' new building 4,',i.54,0O S12,.'i25.23 

nd bridges 7,021 79 

Sundries . 


Total 830,709.36 

Deducting the cost of the new building on the poorf:um, to wil, 81,95 1.0:"i from 
*he above amount, it would appear that the regular county e.xpenditure8 

amounted to $31,755.30 

To which add interest on 8n,000 bonds I,3ii0.0<) 

jntcrest on $40,000 bonds at 7 per cent 2,800.03 

Interest on 100,000 R. R. bonds at 8 per cent 8,000.00 


"We failed to obtain the United States Census Re- 
ports of 1880 before concluding this chapter, in order 
to add statistics of public interest and permanent value. 
These reports are however, not ready, and may not be com- 
pleted for some time From the lists filed by the enumerators 
in the clerk's office, we glean the following in reference to 
the population of the various precincts of the county : 

1. Baldwin— TovB, 271; ouLside, 1280: total 15.57 

2. Bremen.— Toul 'M 

3-4. Blair and Central— Tota\ I0.5O 

5. BrcwtrviUe.—Tot&\ 546 

6. Chester —Town, 2525 ; rural, 1995 ; total 4520 

7-8. CouUervilU and 7\Uen.— Total 2004 

9. JEiiinfi>i«e.— Total "01 

10. Florenee.—Tota\ 701 

11. A'a.toM*ia.— Total population 1150 

12. Prairie du Roeher— Total 111« 

13. Red Bu</.— Total 2595 



U. Jfociiocorf.— Town, 231 ; rural, 989 ; total 1211 

15. Buma.— Total 8*3 

16. tparta—rovn of 17f6 ; Eden, 201 ; rural, 1421 ; total 3408 

17. StoteMi»».— Town of Steelesville, 440; rural, 1059 1499 

18. W'iim iffc'i.— Total 881 

Total of county 26,479 

In a preadiug part of this chaiter we have iutro- 
duced the names of citizens of Randolph county, who repre- 
senttd it in the territorial legislatures. A similar statement 
in reference to the representatives of the county in the con- 
stitutional conveutiocs, the various general assemblies, State 
offices and United States congresses is here appended. 

Randolph county as represented in the conMutional con- 
ventions of Illinois. 1818, George Fisher and Elias Kent 
Kane ; 1847, Ezekiel W. Robbing and R. B. Servant ; 1862, 
Daniel Reily ; 1870, J. H. Wilson and G. W. Wall. 

Randolph county was represented in the General 
Assembly of the State as follows : 

1818 to 1820— John McFerron, Senator; Edward 
Humphreys, Samuel Walker, Representatives. 

1820 to 1822— Samuel Crozier, Senator; Thomas Mather, 
Raphael Widen, Representatives. 

1822 to 1824.— Samuel Crozier, Senator ; Thomas Mather, 
Raphael Widen, John Mc/Ferron, Representatives. 

1824 to 18i6— Raphael Widen, Senator ; Elias K. Kane, 
resigned in 1825, Gabriel Jones, elected to fill vacancy 
Thomas Mather, Speaker of the House, resigned 1825^ 
Samuel Smith, elected to fill vacancy, Representatives. 

1826 to 1828— Raphael Widen, Senator; John Lacy. 
Thomas Reynolds, Representatives. 

1828 to 1830. Samuel Crawford, Senator for Randolph 
and Perry; Thomas Mather, Hypolite Menard, Repre- 

1830 to 1832— Samuel Ciawford, Senator for Randolph 
and Perry; John Atkins, Thomas J. V. Owen, Repre- 
sentatives for Randolph and Perry. 

1832 to 1834— Thomas Mather, Senator for Randolph and 
Perry ; David Baldridge. Richard G. Murphy, Representa- 
tives for Randolph and Perry. 

1834 to 1836— Thomas Mather, resigned in 1825 and was 
succeeded by Richard B. Servant, Senator as above ; Rich- 
ard G. Murphy, John Thompson, Representatives. 

1836 to 1838- Richard B. Servant, Senator, Randolph 
alone ; James Shields, Saml. G. Thompson, Representatives. 
1838 to 1840— Richard B. Servant, Senator ; Gabriel 
Jones, Edward Menard, Representatives. 

1840 to 1842 — Jacob Feaman, Senator; James Mc- 
Clurken, John P. McGiinis, Representatives. 

1842 to 1844 — Jacob Feaman, Senator; Jacob J. Danner^ 
Andrew J. Dickinson, William McBride, Representatives 
for Randolph and Monroe. 

1844 to 1846 — Joseph Morrison, Senator ; E. Adaras, E. 
W. Robbins, John D. Whiteside, Representatives for Ran- 
dolph and Monroe. 

1846 to 1848— Joseph Morrison, Senator; Robert Mann, 
John Morrison, Edward Omelveny, Representatives. 

1848 to 1850— Hawkins S. Osburn, of Perry, Senator 
Fourth District ; Samuel H. Guthrie, Representative. 

1850 to 1852— H. S. Osburn, Senator, John E. Deitrich, 

1852 to 1854— John E. Deitrich, Senator, Joseph 
Williamson, Representative. 

1854 to 1856— John E. Deitrich, Senator, Twenty-fourth 
District — Randolph, Washington, Clinton, Perry and 
Jackson counties ; James C. Holbrook, Representative, Sixth 
District, composed of Randolph county. 

185G to 1858— E. C. Coffey, of Washington, Senator 
Twenty-fourth Distiict; James H. Watt, Representative 
Sixth District. 

18o8 to i860— E. C Coffey, Senator as above ; John E. 
Deitrich, Representative as above. 

1860 to 1862— James M. Rodgers, of Clinton, Senator as 
above ; Edmund Faherty, Representative. 

1862 to 1864 — Israel Blanchard, of Jackson, Senator of 
Third District, composed of Randolph, Williamson, 
Franklin, JacksoB, Jefferson and Monroe; Stephen W. 
]Miles, of Monroe, Edward Menard, Representatives Eighth 
District, composed of Randolph, Perry and Monroe. 

1864 to 1866— Daniel Reily, of Kaskaskia, Senator Third 
District ; W. K. Murphy, of Perry, Austin James, of 
Monroe, Representatives Eighth District. 

1866 to 1868— Daniel Reily, Senator as above ; W. K. 
Murphy, John Campbell, Representatives as above. 

1868 to 1870 — Samuel K. Casey, of Jefferson, Senator as 
above; John M. McCutcheon, Thomas H. Burgess, Repre- 

1870 to 1872— Samuel K Casey, died during term, and 
was succeeded by W. B. Anderson, of Jtfferson, James M. 
Washburn, Senators Third District; James M. Ralls, 
Daniel R. McMasters, Representatives. 

1872 to 1874— W. K. Murphy, Senator, Forty-eighth 
District ; John W. Pratt, William Neville, Austin James, 
Representatives Forty-eighth District. 

1874 to 1876— W. K. Murphy, Senator; Joseph- W. 
Rickert, Samuel McKee, Jonathan Chestnutwood, Repre- 

1876 to 1878 — Ambrose Keener, Senatoir; TheophilusT. 
Fountain, John Boyd, Septimus P. Mace, Representatives. 

1878 to 1880— Ambrose Hoener, Senator ; John T. Mc- 
Bride, John R. McFie, Philip C. C. Provart, Representa- 

1880 to 1882 — Lewis Ihorn, Senator; Isaac M. Kelly, 
W K. Murphy, Austin James, Representatives. 

1882 to 1881 — Lewis Ihorn, Senator; John R. McFie, 
James T. Cannitf, John Higgius, Representatives. 


Shadrach Bond, first Governor of the state of Illinois, in- 
augurated Oct. 6, 1818. 

* Shadrach Bond is claimed as a citizen by Randolph county, Monroe county 
and St. Clair county, and,seems to have been .1 resident of the latter at the time 
of his election. Shadrach Bond, a nephew of Shadrach Bond, sen,, who is men- 
tioned more conspicuously in our chapter on Pioneers, was a native of Maryland 
and arrived in Kaskaskia about the year 1794. Prior 10 his election as governor he represented his district in the territorial legislature and the territory as a 
delegate to congress. He was at the e.xpirali'on of his term of ofBce appointed 
Register of the Land office at Kaskaskia, and continued in that position 
many years. He died in 1830, Ihe lamented and favorite statesman of Illinois 



Pierre Menard, Lieutenant Governor from 1818 to 1822. 

Elias Kent Kane,* Secretary of State, from October 6th, 
1818 to December 10th, 1822, when he resigued. 

James Shields,t Auditor of Public accounts, March 4lh, 
1841 to 1843. 

Thomas H. Campbell was auditor of public accounts from 
March 2Gth, 1>46, to Jatuary 12th, 1857. 

Daniel P. Cook, the famous jurisprudent of Kandolph 
county, Illinois, occupied the office of Altornfy General 
ju&t long enough to write out his resignation. He qualified 
on the 5. of March. 1819, and then resigned on the same day. 

Wm. Ale.\auder was Adjutant General from April 24, 
1819, to June 11, 1821. 


1818. George Fisher and Elias Kent Kane. 

1848. Ezekiel W. Robbins and Richard B. Servant. 

1862. Daniel Reily. 

1870. J. H. Wilson and George W. Wall for the Eighth 
dbtrict, composed of the counties of Monroe, Randolph and 


INinian Edwards, from 1818 to 1819, and from 1819 to 
1824, ivhen he resigned. 

§ Jesse B. Thomas, from 1818 to 182'J, two couseculive 

His remains wore removed from the old liomej^tead to Everproen cemetery in 
Chester t.y B. N. Bond only surviving son of ilic governor m November 1870. 
The state of Illinois is now ereeting a monument over the tomb of her 6rst 

B. N. Bond, .M. P., is now a resident of Staubery, Gentry county, Jlissouri. 

* E. K. K.ine had commenced the practice of law in Kaskaskianbout the 
1814. A man of brilliant talents lie rose toa position among tlie memliers of the 
bar. As member of the first .tate convention of Illinois he is nienti<ined "ith 
commendation :isa leading spirit and as largely stamping the constitution with 
its many exeellenei. s. He was a memtier of the t ouse of reprcentalives of the 
4th general a.ssembly of ll.inois, 1SJ4 to IKC. He resigned this posit on, as this 
very assembly elected him to the senate of the United .States, .lanuary 182.5. 
He was Te-e.ectt d in 1631, but died before expiration of his second term, Dec. 
12th, ISIo, yet in the prime of life. 

t James Shields, an Irisliman by birth, commenced his career by teacliing 
school at Kaskaskia, afterwards studying law. He represented Randolph 
county in the legislature, was judge of the circuit court, and served with di. 
stinction during the Mexican war as brigadier general of tlie Illinois volun, 
teers. After his return from the field, his grateful fellow citiz ns elected him 
to the United States senate from 1849tolSoJ, as successor of Sidney Breese. The 
senator subsequently emigrated to Minnesota, and represented this new state 
also in the U. S. senate, as also the state of Missouri for a fractional term. Gen, 
Shields died a few years ago in retirement. 

I Ninian Edwards was born in Montgom cry county, Maryland, in 1775, studied 
lawat Carlisle, Pa,, but before finishing his studies he removed to Kentucky 
where he spent a few years in various e.xcesses and extravagances. Sub! 
Bequently he broke from his dissulute companions, and took up his studies with 
renewed zeal and energy, and rose to a most distinguished position as juris- 
prudent, and was occupying the office of chief justice tf the t'ourt of .\ppeals 
of Kentucky, when April 24, 18(,9, President Madison appointed him Governor 
of the newly organized territory of Illinois, as per act of Congress, approved 
February .1, 18()9. Ninian Edwai ds remained Governor of Illinois until the State 
organization took effect October l'., 1818. He was a resident of I\.-\skaskia at the 
time of his election to the Senate, but soon after took up his residence at 
Edwardsviile in Madison county, thus ceasing to be a citizen of liandolph. 

gjesse B. Thomas, when Speaker of the House of Representatives of the 
territory of Indiana, of which Illinois then formed a part, entered into an agree- 
ment with the leading men of the Illinois part to use his inflitence in bringing 
about a separate territorial organization of Illinois on the conditions that he 
should first be elected delegate to Congress. The Illinois members, with a due 
appreciatioti of the promises of politicians, even at that early day, required of 
Thomas, before they would vote for him, to support his pledges by his bond, 
conditioned that he would procure from Congress a division, whereupon he 

Elias Kent Kane, from 1825 to 1835, December 12, the 
date of his death. 

David J. Baker, from November 12, 1830, to December 
11, 1830, appointed by Governor Edsvards to succeed Judge 
John McLean, deceased. 


Daniel P. Cook of Kaskaskia was the first Representative 
of Congress from the State, taking his seat at the second ses- 
sion of *^ loth Congress. He contiuued to represent the 
State during the 16th, 17th, IStli and 19th Congresses, a 
period of nearly nine years, being from December 1818 until 
March 1827. Xo other from Randolph county has graced 
the hall of Representatives as a member since the day when 
D. P. Cook retired from his seat. 

Addenda. — County Officers of Randolph County, 
1779 to 1883. 

A(lministratii-e Officrrs. — Colonel John Todd, county lieu- 
tenant, from 1779 to 1782. Timothy De Moutbrun, county 
lieutenant, from 1782 to 1784. John Edgar and J. B. 
Barbeau, judges, from 1790 to 1795. 

John Edgar, William Morrison, Pierre Menard, Robert 
McMahan, George Fisher, Jvhn Beaird, Robert Reynolds, 
Nathaniel Hull, Antoine Louvier, John Grosvenor, James 
Finney, and Samuel Cochran, United States justices and 
members of Court of Common Pleas, from 179.') to 1803. 

Paul Harralsoii, Robert Morrison, James Gilbreath, Pierre 
Menard, Creorge Fisher, and James Finney, county commis- 
sioners, from 1803 to 1809. 

Philip Fouke, William Arui.del, Henry Levens, Pierre 
Le Conipte, Paul Harralsoii, David Anderson, Jean B. Bar- 
beau, Robert Gaston, Archibald Thom|isoii, John Guiihing, 
John Edgar, James McRoberts, John McFtrroii, John 
Bradshaw, Samuel Omelveiiy, George Robinson, (ieorge 
Hacker, James Lemon, Thomas Ferguson, Haniltt Ferguson^ 
John Phelps, and Marvin Fuller, justices, members of 
county court, from 1809 to 1819. 

Curtis Conn, David Anderson, James Patterson, James 
Thompson, Miles Hotchkiss, Gabriel Jones, Francois Menard, 
John Miller, Arthur Parks, Josiah Betts, Franklin P. 
Owen, John C. Crozier, R. H. Fleming, Pierre De Rousse, 
James S. Guthrie, Thomas Roberts, Felix St. Yiain, William 
G. Hizer, John Thompson, John G. Nelson, James Gillespie, 
James S Guthrie yM term), Robert Clark, James O'Harra, 
Gabriel Jones (2d term), W. G Hizer ( 2d term i, Samuel 
Douglas, Harvey Clendenin, Lawson Murphy, lleiiry O'- 
Harra, John Mann, Archibald Thompson, Edward Camp- 
bell, William McBriiie, James Gillei-pie (2d term\ county 
commissioners, from 1819 to 1849. 

John Campbell, W. P. Haskins (died during his term> 
R. B. Servant, John Campbell (2d term ), J. W. Ralls, Har- 
vey Neville, Alexander Hood, judges of the county court, 
and John Braser, Benbow Bailey, James Gillespie, Samuel "triumphantly" elected by a bare majority with the aid of his uwn vote ! 
He was hung in efBgy at Vincciines by the :inli.sepiinitioni-l-. but ho dis- 
charged his pledges and his bond by procuring the ilivision from fungress, 
and as it doubtless desirable to elmngc his residence he eanie home w ith a 
commission for a federal judgeship of the new territory in liis pocket, and re- 
moved to Kaskaskia, Illinois. (History of Illinois by Davidson and Struve). 



B. Adams, James Gillespie (2d term), William Mudd, 
Armistead Jones, William Mudd (2d term), M. Ireland, 
Philip Wehrheim, John Wilson, and Philip Wehrheira (2d 
term), associate justices of the county, from 1849 to 1874. 

Johu Morrison, John Wilson, Philip Wehrheim, P. 
Faherty, J. R. Doucliis, M. Ireland, J. B. Frank, James J. 
Borders, and John C. Johnson, board of county commis- 
sioners, from 1874 to 1883. 

County Clerks.— Carboneau, from 1779 to ? ? 

Robert Morrison, from 1795 to 1803. Paul Harrolson and 
William Wilson, from 1803 to 1809. W. C. Greenup, from 
1809 to 1827. Miles Hotchkiss, from 1827 to 1832, resigned 
in June. James Hughes, appointed in 1832, and elected in 
1833. Andrew J. Dickinson, 1837, resigned in 1839. Robert 
Mann, appointed clerk pro tern., served 3 months. Ferdinand 
Maxwell, elected in 1839 and reelected in 1841. J. W. 
Gillis, from 1845 to 1851. J. M. Cole, from 1851 to 1857. 
J. H. Nelson, from 1857 to 1864. John A. Campbell, ap- 
pointed pro tern., 1864. Joseph Scbuessler, elected 1864 to 
1865. R. J. Harmer, from 1865 to 1809. J. R. Shannon, 
from 1869 to 1873. John T. McBride, from 1873 to 1877. 
R. J. Harmer, from 1877 to 1882. Louis Dudenbostel, 1882. 
5/,,,,./^; —Richard Winston, from 1779 to 1782. Timothy 
du Montbrun, from 1782 to 179i). William Biggs (St. Clair 
county), from 1790 to 1795. James Dunn, from 1795 to 
1800. George Fisher, from 1800 to 1803. James Edgar, 
from 1803 to 1805. James Gilbreath, from 1805 to 1 809- 
Beijarain Stephenson, from 1809 to 1814. Henry Connor, 
Samuel C. Christy, T. J. V. Owens, Ignatius Sprigg, John 
Campbell, John A. WiLson, elected in 1848. John P. 
Thompson, 18.50. Sav. St. Vrain, 18-52. John Campbell, 
1854. Sav. St. Vrain (2d term', 1856. Anthony Steele, 
1858. M. S. McCormack, 1860. John Campbell, 1862. 
John T. McBride, 18G4. J. R. Shannon, 1866. M. S. 
McCormack, 1868. J. T. McBride, 1870. Beverly Wilt- 
shire, 1872 and 1874. Daniel Gerlach, 1876 and 1878. 

Gerlach, 1«80, and E. J. Murphy, 1882. 

Treasurers and Assessors.— The county sheriffs were treas- 
urers until 1809. The duties of assessors from 1795 to 1808 
were performed by the township constables and special 
appointees. David Anderson was the first county assessor, 
1808 and 1809. Treasurers and ex-officio assessors: Wil- 
liam Alexander, 1812 ; William Barnett, K. Barton, John 
McFerron, Alexander Barber, Samuel G. Thompson, Har- 
vey Clendenin, Francis S. Jones, Hypolite Menard, S St. 
Vrain, H. H. Barker, Matthew Huth, H. B. Nisbett, J. T. 
McBride, J. M. Thompson, George Wilson, Peter Wickline, 
F. S. Peters, Edmund St. Vrain, William Swanwick, S. B. 
Hood, appointed in 1881, and William A. Campbell since 

(-'oro»er«.— William Kelly, 1795 to 1803; Miles Hotch- 
kiss, Henry Derousse, R. K. Fleming, D. L. Lybarger, F. 
C. Peters, F. D. Lewis, F. C. Peters, 2d terra ; H. B. De- 
rousse, J. H. Altrogy, J. M. Smith, D. L. Lybarger (2d 
term) ; G.V. Renter, T. J. Garrett, William Heining. (This 
list is incomplete, as there were no records kept of ofRcers 
elected prior to 1849.) 

Surveyors.— ^\\\\Am Wilson, Thomas Patterson, Paul 
Harralson, James Thompson, Samuel G. Thompson, Ferdi- 
nand Humphreys, Ezekiel W. Bobbins, James B. Parks, 
S. G. Thompson, Joseph Noel, R. B. Thompson, James M- 
Thompson, M. S. McAttee, J. P. Thompson, J. T. Douglas 
and H. W. Schmidt. 

Judges of Co!(r<«.— Gabriel Cerre, Joseph Duplassey 
Jacques Lesource, Nicolas Jarvis, J. B. Barbeau, Nicolas 
Le Chance, Charles Charleville, and Antoine Duchafours de 
Louvieres, 1779 to 1790. La Buisniere was State attorney 
at this period. John Edgar and J. B. Barbeau, 1790 to 
1795, by appointment of Governor Arthur St. Clair; Hon. 
John Cleves Synimes, 1795 to 1809 ; Hons. Jesse B. Thomas, 
Obadiah Jones, Alexander Stuart, Stanley (iriswold, Wil- 
liam Sprigg, Thomas Towles, Daniel P. Cook, John War- 
nock, members of the' General Court of the territory of 
Illinois, 1809 to 1819; B. H. Doyle, prosecuting attorney; 
Hong. Joseph Phillips, Richard M. Young, Thomas Reyn- 
olds, John Reynolds, Theophilus W. Smith, Samuel M. 
Roberts, Samuel D. Lockwood and Thomas C. Brown mem- 
bers of the Supreme Court and presiding judges at circuit 
courts throughout t' e State, 1819 to 18.35; William Mears, 
Charles Mattheny and Sidney Breese prosecuting attorneys. 
Hons. Thomas Ford, Sidney Breese, James Semple, James 
Shields, Gustav Koerner, W. H. Underwood, Sidney Breese, 
2d term, H. K. S. Omelveny, Silas L. Bryan, Amos Watts, 
W. H. Snyder and G. W. Wall circuit judges, 1835 to 1883- 
Prosecuting attorneys during said period, W. H. Under- 
wood, W. H. Bissell, P B. Foulke, George Abbott, W. C. 
Kinney, W. H. Snyder, Amos Watts, J. P. Johnston, John 
IMichan, Reuben J. Goddard (first county attorney, 1872 to 
1880) and D. E. Detrich, present county attorney. 

Clerics of Circuit ((iiirt..< and exofficio Recorders. — 

Carboneau, 1779 to 1795; Lardner Clark, 1795 to 

1809; William Arundel, 1809 to 1815; William C.Greenup, 
1815; James Hughe-s, 1831 ; William Guthrie, 1840; James 
Quinn, 1845 ; John M. Langlois, 1845 ; Charles D. Kane, 
184/; James M. Ralls, 18.50; Savinie,n St. Vrain, 1860; 
G. H. Pate, 1876 to date. 

Probate Judgc-^.-Carlh Conn, 1821 to 1827; David J. 
Baker, 1827 to 1831 ; Dwight Hunt, from March 7 to May 
16, 1831 ; James Thompson, 1831 to 1848; John Campbell, 
from 1848 to 1853; W. P. Haskins, 18,53 to 1853; died 
during his term of office, and was succeeded by R. B. Ser- 
vant, 18.55 to 1857 ; John Campbell, 2d term, 1857 to 1861 ; 
J. W. Ralls, 1861 to 1865; Harvey Neville, 1865 to 1869; 
Alexander Hood, 1869 to 1873; John H. Lindsey, 1873 to 
1877; W. P. Murphy, 1877 to 1882; and G. L. Riess, 
present incumbent. 

School CommUnoners or Superintendents.— Sa.mue\ G. 
Thompson, 183o ; W. McBride, 1839; S. G. Thompson, re- 
appointed, 1840; M. A. Gilbert, 1843; Thomas Roberts, 
1844; Elisha Seymour, 1845 ; James W. Glenn, 1849; J. B. 
Parks, 1851 ; Robert Mann, 1854 ; Eli Lofton, 1857 ; Mar- 
quis S. Burns, 18G1 ; John A. Malone, 1865 ; R. P. Thomp- 
son, 1869 ; Peter N. Holm, 1870 ; R. M. Spurgeon and B. B. 
Hood, present incumbents. 



In conclusion we introduce here a 


George L. Riess, county judge, elected in 1882 ; Louis 
Dudeubostel, county clerk, elected in 1882 ; Everett J. 
Murphy, sheriff, elected in 1882 ; John C. Johnson, county 
commissioner, elected in 1882; James J. Borders, county 
commissioner, elected in 1881 ; J. B. Frank, county com- 
missioner, elected in 1880 ; William A. Campbell, treasurer, 
elected in 1882; William Heiuiug, coroner, elected in 1882; 
Samuel B. Hood, superintendent of schools, elected in 1882 ; 
Henry W. Schmidt, surveyor, elected in 1879 ; D. E. 
Deitrich, slate's attorney, elected in 1880; G. H. Pate_ 
circuit clerk, elected in 1880. 


Baldwin. — W. M. Wilson and James A. Bean, justices . 
J. AV. Pickett and John P. Cox, constables. 

Bremen. — John H. Wilson and Henry Heitman, justices 
of the peace; Henry Detmore and Jacob Wiukelmaun, 

Blair. — S. B. Boggs and James Harkley, justices of the 
peace ; and F. M. Welshans and T. W.-Taggert, constables. 

Breurrvillc. — F. A. Jlarliu and W. P. Boyle, justices ; 
Albert Snook and Leo Bone, constables. 

Chr.'<f(r.—C W. Dean, H. Perkins, W. L. Wilson and 
Leonard Crisler, justices; John W. Ragdale, Bartley 
Tovera, George R. Douglas and Louis Harmon, constables. 

Central. — John M. Beattie, justice of the peace; Stephan 
Wright and R. J. Holcomb, constables. 

Cindtrrrille. — David Muniord and Anthony Steele, justi- 
ces ; Jesse McBride and Ruius East, constables. 

Evan.ivilte. — James S. Gray and John H. Thompson, 
justices; John Hagerdown and Paulus Smith, constables. 

Florence. — B. P. Harmon and H. D. Lilly, justices ; Ed. 
Beare and Walter W. Nifang, constables. 

A'(.<A((.<A(a. — Wm. R. Burch and C. W. Wheeler, justices; 
W. H. Doza and E. A. Lucken, constables. 

IVairie du Rocher. — J. R. Duclas and Edward Harmi- 
nutz, justices; Mike Dapron and Francis M. Oliver, 

Red Bud — F. D. Gucker and John H. Meyer, justices; 
William Heining and Peter Ensenauer, constables. 

Rockwood. — James F. Bildtrback and W. G. Harry, 
justices; James G. Simpson and James G. Sympson, 

Ruiiut — Henry F. Kucker and .John B. Frank, justices ; 
George W. Baker and Fritz Hopka, constables. 

Sparta — -W. G Kitchen, James L. Skelley, A. N. Sprague 
and T. F. Alexander, justices ; Peter W. Pillars, Thomas 
C. Blair, J. S. Carter and O. R. Bannister, constables. 

Steele's Milk. — T. A. Lickip and D. H. Schaefl'er, justices; 
A. Short, constable. 

Ti/den_ — William Fulton and A. M. Chassels, justices; 
William Stephenson and John HoUiday, constables. 

Wine Hill. — Henry Ebbers and N. H. Eickelmann, 
justices of the peace; and Conrad Walters and Hermann 
Sasse, constables. 


Randolph county has prospered from the day the Ameri- 
can patriot Patrick Henry first stretched out his arm from 
the old dominion to aid the colonists in forming a people's 
government in the far west. Fifteen millions of dollars 
would not sutHce to purchase the properly owned by the five 
thousand families now residing in the county. A hundred 
years is but a brief period in the life of nations, and yet how 
wonderful have been the changes wrought in that time. An 
Indian trail here and there, short neighborhood roads from 
Kaskaskia to Prairie du Rocher, and Fort Chartres and 
thence to Cahokia, were the means of communication be- 
tween the sparse and scattering settlements of a hundred 
years ago. How great was the joy of those people when in 
1810 the first stage-coach came rattling through the streets 
of quaint old Kaskaskia ! The daj-s of the stage-coach have 
passed by and the cheery sound of the coachman's bugle 
does not longer awake and call forth the echoes on the 
bluffs, the bugle and the bugler are forgotten. 

The county is dotted with prosperous and growing towns 
and villages, the rich fields yield immense quantities of 
golden wheat and corn, stately school-houses adorn the villages 
and numerous church spires seem to indicate that the thoughts 
of these people are not altogether bent on things that perish. 

Railroads traverse the county in various directions, facili- 
tating travel and commerce. Telegraphic lines connect 
cities and towns with all parts of the >yorld, and electric 
lights turn darkness into day. 

Such is Randolph county now. Predictions as to what 
another century may make of her, are idle. There isalimit to 
all things. The Titans were powerful, they were strong 
enough to pile mountains on mountains, but they could never 
reach the sacred heights where Jupiter is throutd. 



The territory composing the present county of Monroe 
had formed a part of the old county of Illinois from 1778 to 
1790, when it became incorporated in the county of St. 
Clair. The organization of Randolph county in 179.5 and 
reorganization of the two counties mentioned above, April 
28, 1>09, divided the present county by a line running due 
east and west from the famous settlement "New Design." 

The organization of the county was decreed by a formal 
act of the Legislature of the Territory of Illinois, approved 
the 6th day of January, ISIG, and to be in force I'rom and 
after the 1st day of June, 1.S16. 

This latter clause gave to Monroe the tenth place in the 
chronological order of counties, to wit., St. Clair, Randolph, 
Gallatin, Johnson, Madison, Edwards, White, Jackson, Pope 
and Monroe. 

The law creating this county reads as follows: 

^l(i Aet for forming a new county by the Legislative 
Council and House of Representatives of the Illinois Terri- 
tory, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same: 
That all that part of the county within the following bounds. 



viz: Beginning on the Mississippi river where the base line, 
which is about three-fourths of a mile below Judge Biggs' 
present residence, strikes the said river, thence with the base 
line until it strikes the first township line therefrom ; thence 
to the southeast corner of township two south, range nine 
west; thence south to the southeast corner of township four 
south, range nine west ; thence southwestwardly to the Mis- 
sissippi, so as to include Alexander McNabb's farm ; and 
thence up the Mississippi to the beginning, shall constitute a 
separate county, to be called Monroe. 

Be it further enacted, That William Alexander, James 
Lemon, sen., James B. Moore, John Prim and James Mc- 
Roberts be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners to 
fix upon the proper place for the seat of justice for said 
county of Monroe, who shall meet for that purpose on the 
third Monday of July next, at the town of Harrison, — and 
they, or a majority of them, when so assembled together, 
shall take an oath to fix the said seat of justice at such place 
as they shall think best calculated to promote the conve- 
nience and interest of said county, without favor or afiection 
to any individual or individuals; provided, the owner or 
owners of the land will give to the county for the purpose of 
erecting public buildings, a parcel of land at the said place, 
not less than twenty acres, and laid off into lots and sold for 
the above purpose; but, should said owner or owners refuse 
to make said donation aforesaid, then and in that case it 
shall be the duty of the commissioners to fix upon some 
other place for the seat of justice as convenient as may be to 
the different settlements in said county, and, when fixed 
upon by said commissioners, (hey shall certify under their 
hands and seals, and return the same to the next county 
court in the county, which said court shall cause an entry 
thereof to be made on their records of said county. Pro- 
vided, however, that if the said commissioners, or a majority 
of them, shall not be able to meet on the said third Monday 
in July next, they shall meet as soon thereafter as it may 
be convenient, and either at the first or any subsequent 
meeting they may continue from day to day, so long as they 
may think it necessary to form a correct decision, and said 
commissioners shall be entitled to two dollars each per day 
that they are necessarily employed in fixing the county seat, 
to be paid out of their county levy ; and provided, also, that 
the town of Harrison shall be the seat of justice for said 
county, until some other place shall be chosen as afore.«aid 
and public buildings be erected thereon. 

Be it further enacted, That the said county of Monroe 
shall be, and hereby is allowed one representative in the 
House of Representatives of this territory, who shall be 
elected in the same manner that representatives are now 
authorized by law to be elected in other counties, and he 
shall be authorized to exercise all the powers, possess all the 
privileges, and be entitled to all the emoluments that any 
other Representative can exercise, possess or receive accord- 
ing to law. 

Be it further enacted. That whereas the said county of 
Monroe was taken off of two districts for the election of 
Members of Council, all qualified voters who shall reside 
within those bounds which previous to the passage thereof 

was a part of St. Clair county shall have a right to vote for 
a member of the Legislative Council to represent them and 
the qualified voters of St. Clair county as one district ; and 
all those qualified voters who shall resMe within those 
bounds, which previous to the passage hereof, was a part of 
Randolph county, shall have a right to vote for a member 
of the Legislative Council to represent them and the quali- 
fied voters of Randolph county as one district, and it shall 
be the duty of the sheriflfs of the counties of Monroe and 
St. Clair within eight days after the election to attend at 
Bellville and compare the polls and make out and deliver 
to the person duly elected for that district their joint certifi- 
cate thereof. And it shall be the duty of the said sheriffs of 
Randolph and Monroe to attend at Kaskaskia, within ten 
days after the election to compare the polls and make out 
and deliver to the person duly elected for that district their 
joint certificate thereof, provided however that any part of 
the said duty may be performed by a legally authorized 
deputy sheriff, the principal sheriff being responsible for the 
faithful discharge thereof, and if the said sheriff or any of 
them shall refuse or fail to perform the duties hereby re- 
quired, such delinquent or delinquents, shall severally forfeit 
and pay the sum of two hundred dollars to be recovered by 
action of debt or indictment, one-half to the use of the terri- 
tory and the other half to the person suing or prosecuting 
for the same. 

Be it further enacted, that the qualified voters of said 
county of Monroe shall be entitled in all respects to the 
same rights and privileges in the election of a delegate to 
Congress, that are allowed by law to the qualified voters of 
any other county ; and all elections hereby authorized shall 
be held at the seat of justice for the said county of Monroe, 
and shall in all respects be held and conducted as elections 
are authorized and required to be held and conducted in 
other counties. This law to commence and be in force from 
and alter the first day of June next. 

RiSDON Moore, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Pierre Menard, President of the Council. 

Approved January 6, 1816. Ninian Edwards. 

A plot of the county drawn by Michael Jones, Register, 
and dated 1816, is on file in the county clerk's office at 
Waterloo. According to this plot the original county of 
Monroe contained the southwest half of township 1 South, 
Range 10 west, the fractional townships 1 South, Range 11, 
and li-ll, township 2 South, range 10, the southwest half of 
township 2 South, range 9 west, townships 3-9 and 3-10, 
and fractional township 3-11 with Harrisonville as " seat of 
justice," then townships 4-9 and 4-10, and also fractional 
township 4-11. This area contained in the aggregate 21G,- 
640 acres, or about 338i square miles. 

The organization of Monroe county is one of the acts of 
the second territorial legislature, composed of Pierre Menard, 
of Randolph, Samuel Judy,* of Madison, Benjamin Talbott, 

» Samuel Judy was originally from Monroe county, where his father, Jacob 
Judy, (Tohudy) a native of Switzerland, had, in 1794, erected a mill, the first 
water-mill of any kind built by American settlers in that region ; this mill did 
good service, and was for many years the only one between Kasky and Cahokia. 



of Gallatin, William Biggs, of St Clair, and Thomas Fer- 
guson, of Johnson, forming ihe Legislative Council, and 
Risdon Moore and James Lemen, jr., of St. Clair ; Philip 
Trammel and Thomas C Browne, of Gallatin, John G. Lof- 
ton and William Rabb, of Madison, and Jarvis Hazleton, 
of Randolph, forming the House of Representatives. 

The organizalicn of the county did not then give universal 
satisfaction to the inhabitants of the counties, out of which 
the new county was fjrined. James Lemen, jr., then a re- 
presentative of St. Clair county, deemed it proper to explain 
his vote on the question iu a lengthy address published in 
the Kaskajkia Herald, the first newspajjcr published in the 

The address contains a vast amount of political wisdom 
and morality, and is well worthy to be preserved Besides 
there are numerous descendents of the Lemen family iu 
Monroe county who may have a personal interest besides in 
the document 

To the freemen of St. Clair county. 

Fellow citizens : Previous to my election as one of your repre- 
sentatives, I wasnotignoraiit of the responsibility that would 
devolve on me as a legislator if elected. On turning my. 
attention to political matters or the subject of legislation ; 
I have always viewed it as intricate and important, while I 
have been led to believe that it could not be filled to the 
satisfaction of all who have to be legislated for, many of 
whom having real or imaginary local interests involved not 
differing Irom each other. Therefore let the representative 
pursue what course he may, if he should receive the sanction 
and applause of some, he may expect to be censured and 
calumuiated by others. A consciousness of this circum- 
stance, induced me to feel much reluctance in engaging such 
an office, but believing that man was not created to dwell in 
a state of nature independent of or unconnected wiih each 
other, but for the formation and benefit of society, by which 
it is understood that each part should protect and be under 
the control of the whole so that the community should 
guard the rights and enforce the obedience of each individual- 
Thus government, results of course from the formation of 
society as necessary for its protection, and as each individual 
owes an equal part to the protection of civil government, 
therefore each is bound in similar obligations to participate 
in government, when called by the community to aid in 
promoting welfare. Although not entirely congenial to my 
feelings, I freely obeyed the call of my fellow-citizens to a 
seat in the legislature of this territory, in performing the 
duties of which I have eudeavored to serve you to the best 
of my capacity, and when your wishes have been communi- 
cated to me my most active exertions have been used to pro- 
mote your wishes. The only subject which I supported 
without satisfactory information was the erecting of a new 
county out of the cjuuties of St. Clair and Randolph, but 
policy dictated to me the necessity of such a measure, for at 
the first session which I served in the legislature, there was 
a new county erected out of the northeast part of Gallatin, 
to which a representative was allowed, and at the last session 
there were three new counties erected out of the counties of 

Johnson and Gallatin and Randolph, called White, Pope 
and Jackson, all of which were suj)plied with members trom 
Gallatin, one of its former members to supply a representa- 
tive ^or White, thus the lower counties will at the next ses- 
sion of the legislature send six members to the house of re- 
presentatives, while Randolph, St. Clair and Madison (if no 
division on our ])art had taken place) would have sent but 
four, which would have given the lower members so decided 
a majority as to have enabled them to have legislated for 
the whole territory ; the necessity therefore of throwing an 
additional weight in our scale of legislative power presented 
itself to my view and I advocated the measure. I was also 
sensible of the extreme hardship under which those citizens 
included in the new county had to labor in attending the 
seat of justice of the old, a grievance which was represented 
to the legislature with a petition containing about 200 signers, 
and believing that nothing short of such a division would 
tranquillize our county, while we had it in our power to de- 
signate the division line favorable to it, and fearing that such 
might not hereafter be the case, I should not have acted ac- 
cording to the dictates of what 1 conceived to be sound 
policy, if I had not aided in the division, and I am 
happy to assure my fellow-citizens that I am of the opinion 
that it will result to their advantage, as the growing popu- 
lation in the frontier parts of the counties of St. Clair and 
Randolph will in a short time demand the erection of another 
new county, which will perminantly settle the seat of justice 
in our flourishing county. 

James Le.mes, Jr. 

The third territorial legislature of Illinois, elected in 
August, 1816, two months after the organization of Monroe 
county, was convened at Kaskaskia on the 2d of December, 
1816. Monroe, however, was not represented during this 
session, which lasted to January 14th, 1817. At the second 
.session, convened on the 1st of December, 1817, was repre- 
sented in the legislative council (senate), by Abraham 
Amos, whose name is frequently mentioned iu the early 
records of the county. He was a justice of the peace, and 
apparently a follower of Christ, for as such he solemnized 
the rites of matrimony between William F. Roberts and 
Elizabeth Farquer, on the 14th of August, 1817, affixing 
the letters " M. P." to his name. As Monroe county did not 
then sport a " Member Parliament " the M. P. above seemed 
to read Missionary Preacher. 

The houje of representatives of the third territorial legis- 
lature, December, 1816, to January, 1818, did not contain a 
member from Monroe. 


The civil officers appointed by the governor, met at the 
house of John McClure, at Harrisonvilie, on the 1st day 
of June, 1816, and caused their clerk to inscribe the follow- 
ing in the county records, to wit : 

Organization of the county court. — Pursuant to an act of 
the legislature of the Illinois territory, passed on the 6th 
day of January, 1816, for forming a new county out of 
Randolph and St. Clair counties, to be called Monroe, 
Caldwell Cairns, James Lemen, Sr., and Abraham Amos, 



gentlemen, met at the house of John McClure, in the town 
of Harrisonville, and county of Monroe, on the first day of 
June, 1816, and severally produced commissions from his 
excellency, the governor, bearing date the lOlh day of 
January, 1816, appointing them judges of the county court 
of Monroe county. 

Whereupon, William Alexander, Esq., by commission 
from his excellency, the governor, having been appointed 
clerk and recorder of the county of Monroe, aforesaid, and 
having heretofore taken the oaths prescribed by law, 
together with James B. Moore, Esq., his security as clerk, 
and Caldwell Cairus, Esq., hia security as recorder, entered 
into and acknowledged bonds in the penalties and with the 
conditions required by law. 

And thereupon, the said William Alexander, in pursuance 
of the act of the legislature in such case made and provided, 
administered the several oaths required by the constitution 
of the United States and the laws of this territory, to be 
taken by the judges of the county courts, to said Caldwell 
Cairns, James Lemen, Sr., «p ' Abraham Amos. 

James B. Moore, gentl o, produced a commission from 
his excellency, the .ernor of this territory, bearing date 
on the 10th day of January, 1816, appointing him sheriff of 
the county of Monroe, and together with William Alexander 
and James Lemen, Sr., his securities, entered into and 
acknowledged bond in the penalty and with the condition 
required by law, and took the oaths required by law. 

James B. Edwards produced a commission from William 
Alexander, Enquire, clerk of the county of Monroe, appoint- 
ing him deputy clerk of said county, as also a commission 
from said William Alexander, as recorder of the county 
aforesaid, appointing him- deputy recorder of said county, 
whereupon the said Edwards took the oaths required by law. 
The little craft, called Monroe county, was now officered 
to start out on its career as a body politic. The reader 
will observe that the officers ranked as follows : The judges 
and sheriff, as gentlemen; the clerk, as esquire, and the 
deputy without rank The entry does not state to what 
day or place the authorities had adjourned, but at any rate, 
the record shows, that they had selected the next Saturday 
for a meeting, and from the work done at this first " term," 
it is to be inferred that the county fathers had not been idle 
during the week. 

This, the first court, was held again at the house of John 
McClure, on the 8th day of June, 1816, when the following 
proceedings were had : 

Present, Caldwell Cairns, James Lemen and Abraham 
Amos, gentlemen judges of the county of Monroe. The 
court proceeded to lay off and divide the county into town- 
ships as follows, to wit : ordered that 

Eayle Township, being No 1 in this county, be considered 
as included in the following boundaries, viz. : Commencing 
on the Mississippi river, where the base line strikes said 
river, thence with its meanders until it intersects the tornado, 
where it crosses said river, thence east until it strikes the 
county bridge on Eagle creek, from thence following the 
meanders of said creek to where it passes through the bluff, 
from thence east of north so as to include Levi Pickett, and 

from thence to the county line, continuing on to where it 

Harrison Township, being No. 2 in this county, be considered 
as included in the following boundaries, commencing where 
the tornado crosses the Mississippi river, thence with the 
meanders of said river to the mouth of the Big Gut below the 
town of Harrisonville, from thence an east course running 
between Hugh Kalston and Isaiah Levens, so as to include 
Kinney's mills and Avington Shirril's, from thence a north 
course so as to include Valentine's old mills and Converse's, 
from thence with the meanders of Eagle creek to where said 
creek passes through the bhiff. 

Mifchie Township, being No. 3 in this county, be considered 
as included in the following boundaries, viz : Commencing 
at the mouth of the Big Gut on the Mississippi river, thence 
with its meanders to the county line, thence with the county 
line to where it intersects Range line, between Ranges No. 
9 and No. 10 west, from thence a northwest course, so as to 
include McRul rts until it intersects the division line be- 
tween Harrison and said township. 

Belle Fountaine Township, being No. 4 in this county, be 
considered as included in the following boundaries, viz. : 
Commencing where Eagle township struck the county line, 
thence southeast to the corner of said county, thence south 
to the southeast corner of township No. 4 south, from thence 
with the county liae until it intersects Mitchic township, 
from thence with Mitchie until it strikes Harrison township, 
and from thence until it intersects Eagle township. After 
establishing these townships the court hastened to gladden 
the hearts of many of their citizens by elevating them to 
various offices. John Violeny was made constable of Harri- 
son, and Michael Masterson of Mitchie, Stephen Terry and 
Churchill Fulsher became overseers of the poor for Eagle, 
James Garretson ..nd Solomon Shook for Harrison, James 
Henderson and Alexander McNab for Mitchie, and Michael 
Miller and James McDonald, Robert Hawk, William Hogan, 
William Alexander, Raphael Drury, George McMurtrey 
and James Bradshaw became supervisors of roads. 

John Moore, "gentleman," produced his commission as 
treasurer, and also one of coroner, and was sworn in the 
office. It was agreed that hereafter the " court" should meet 
at the house of Thomas O'Conner, and that Thomas O'Con- 
ner should have a tavern license, for which he was to pay 
$ J GO per annum. John Cooper was also granted such 
license, whereupon the court regulated the prices to be 
charged by said tavern keepers as follows : 

For a warm breakfast, dinner or supper 25o. 

For lodging (one in abed) 12J.^ 

For lodging (two or more in a bed), each 6!4 

For whiskey by the half pint 12H 

For peach or apple brandy, by half pint 12^ 

For cider per quart 12^ 

For porter or beer per bottle 37J^ 

For porter or beer per quart 25 

For oats or corn per gallon 12J^ 

For hay, oats or fodder for a horse, per day 37^ 

For cherry bounce, per half pint 18>i 

The court proceeded on the same day to order a tax levy, 
as follows : 



For each bond servant or slave Sl.OO 

•• each horse over 3 years old ;V) 

" eaeh stud-horse, the rate he stands at the season. 

•' each town and out lot, wind and water-mill, mansion-house, for 

every $UH) value, the sum of :lil 

" every sijigle man over 21 years of age $I.<JO 

Timothy Coats was licensed to keep a ferry from Carthage 
(formerly Harrisoiiville) across the Mistitsijipi, with rattsas 
foHows : Man, "Joe. ; horse, 50c.; homed cattle, Too. ; light 
carriage, $1.50; road wagon, $1.75; freight, 8c. per 100 lbs , 
and a cart or a " gig." 81.00 

The attention of the court was next directed to acquiring 
a donation of land whereon to erect the public buildings of 
the county, as O'Conncr'.s charge of $3 00 per term for the 
use of his house as a court-room was too extravagant. In 
this the court was successful, inasmuch as McKnight and 
Brady were ready for a donation, and did subseijuenlly e.x- 
cute the following instrument, to wit : 

Till-: SK.VT Ol- JfSTKli. 

I)ee>l of McKii'Kjht <{• Dnnhj to the Cixnilij. 
This indenture, made this lUih day of June, a. d. 
1816, between John McK night and Thomas Brady, trading 
under the firm of JIcKnight A Brady, of the county of St. 
Louis and territory of Missouri of the one part, and William 
Alexander, James Lemen, sen., James B. Moore, and James 
McKoberts, commissioners appointed by virtue of an act of 
assemblv, in that case made and provided for an<l in behalf 
of the county of Monroe, in the territory of Illinois, of the 
other part, witnesseth that the said John McKnight and 
Thomas Brady, trading under the firm of McKnight & 
Bradj' as aforesaid, for and in consideration of the sum of 
one dollar current money of the United States of America, 
to them in hand paid, the receipt whereof they hereby ac- 
knowle<Ige, aiul forever acquit and discharge the said Wil- 
liam Alexander, James Lemen, sen., James B. Moore, and 
James McKoberts, commissioners aforesaid, their heirs, ex- 
ecutors and administrators, have granted, bargained, sold, 
aliene<l, enfeciH'ed and confirmed, and by these presents do 
grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff and confirm unto the said 
William Alexander, J.imes Lemen, Sen., James B. Moore 
and James Melloberts, commissioners i'or and in behalf of 
the county of Monroe aforesaid, and their heirs and assigns 
forever, the following lots or parcels of laud situate in and 
adjoining the town of Carthage, in the county of Monroe 
aforesaid, to wit : Block No. 47 in the " plan " of the said 
town, containing one acre and 32 poles, and lots No. 1, 2, 3, 
4, on the east end of the town tract and adjacent to the said 
town of Carthage, containing together eighteen acres and 
one hundred'and twenty-eight poles, which said lots tcgether 
with block No. 47 in the plan of said town of Carthage, eon- 
tain in the whole twenty acres, more or less, by a late survey, 
together with all inipn>veruent.'', profits and ajipurtenances 
whatsoever to the said lots belonging or in anywise apper- 
taining, and the reversions, remainders and profits thereof, 
and all the estate, right, title, interest, property, claim and 
demand of them the said John McKnight and James Brady, 
of, in and to the same, to have an<l to hold the aforesaid lots 
or parcels of land hereby conveyed, with all an<l singular the 
premises and every part and parcel thereof, with every of 
the appurtenances, unto the said William Alexander, James 

Lemen, sen., James B. Moore and James McRoberts, com- 
missioners as aforesaid, for the use and in behalf of the 
county of Monroe aforesaid, their heirs and assigns forever. 
And the said John McKnight and Thomas Brady, for them- 
selves, their heirs, executors ami administrators, do cove- 
nant, promise and agree to and with the said William Alex- 
ander, James Lemen, sen., James B. Moore and James Mc- 
Kobeits, commissioners as aforesaid, their heirs ami a.ssigns, 
by these presents, that the i)remises before mentioned now 
are and forever hereafter shall remain free of and from all 
former and other gifts, grants, barg:iins. sales, dowers, rights 
and titles of dower, judgments, executions, titles, troubles, 
charges and incumbrances whatsoever, done or suffered to 
be doue by them the said John McKnight and Thomas 
Brady. And the said McKnight A- Brady aforesaid, and 
their heirs, all and singular the premises hereby bargained 
and sold with the appurtenances, unto the said William 
Alexander, James Lemen, sen., J.iracs B. Moore and James 
McRoberts, commissioners as aforesai<l, their heirs and as- 
signs, against them the said .John JIcKnight and Thomas 
Brady, trading under the firm of McKnight & Brady, and 
their heirs and all and every other person or persons what- 
soever, do and will warrant and forever defend by these 

In witness whereof they the said .lolm McKnight and 
Thomas Brady, trading under the firm of McKnight & 
Brady, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals, 
the day and year first before written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered ] 
in the presence of j 

Tiio>r.vs J.vMKs. MiKMiaiT A Bi;.\I)Y. 

J AMiis li. Er)\;ii.s-. 
Illinois Territory, | 

Monroe County, j 

Be it remembered, that on the 2i'th day of July. l^Ki, 
James B. Edwards, one of the subscribing witnesses to the 
foregoing deed of conveyance, personally appeared before 
me, a justice of the peace of Monroe county aforesaid, and 
made oath that he saw Thomas Brady, one of the firm of 
McKnight and Brady, the grantors in said deed mentioned, 
sign and heard him acknowledge the same as anil for his 
free and voluntary act, and alloweii the same to be recorded 
iu the recorder's office of said county, given under my hand 
and seal the day and year aforesaid. 

I'jjiNCE Bry.^st, /^ _ ^^ 

Justice of the Peace. v^— -_>/ 

The title thus conveyed to the county by the firm of Mc- 
Knight and Brady was, as lawyer Guy Gaylord contended, 
not perfect, and the county authorities were unsuccessful to 
find purchasers. In IM^^, April 28, a second deed to the 
.same real estate was made, signed this time by John Mc- 
Knight, Thomas Brady and Harriet, his wife, individually. 
.Still the people were very slow in investing in this property, 
.so that even (.Jen. .lohn Edgar, of Kaskaskia, felt it his duty 
to come to the rescue, which Ir.' did in th.> following card 
published in the Illinois Intelligencer of June 15, 181!), to 
wit : 

Nutice. — Wherea-s the public in general and particularly 



the inhabitants of Monroe county, are concerned for the 
honest growth and prosperity of the county seat of said 
Monroe county at Harrisonville : Therefore, for the inform- 
ation of the public, I decertify that I have sold all my claim 
to the land whereon said C(>unty seat is situate to Messrs. 
McKnight and Brady, and know of no other claim to said 
land than that of the above named McKnight and Brady. 

Kaskaskia, May 12, 1819. 
III. Inteirnjencer, June 16, 1819. John Edgar. 

Leaving this subject we return to the assessment of tax- 
able property which was ordered by the board to be made 
at ODce. The writer believes that the following are the iden- 
tical-returns made, although they arc without date. They 
are made out in the handwriting of John Moore and signed 
by him, who, as seen elsewhere, was the first assessor of the 
county. He served as such two consecutive years, and his 
returns may also serve here for the purpose of a census, 
which was taken in 1818, but not preserved. The names of 
the tax payers are alphabetically arranged; and may call up 
many recollections of times passed. 


Alexander William, Anderson William, Arundel William, 
Arnold James, Atchison John, Abraham Amos, Axley Eli- 
sha, Atchison John, Atchison William, Alexander John, 
Ayers William, Berver Nathan, Bryan Daniel, Bradshaw 
Absalom, Brimberry John, Boggs Jesse, Baldwin Francis, 
Bryant Prince, Badgley Ichabod, Bryan William, Boisen 
Ebenezer, Blaukenship Noah, Borer Jacob, Beaird Joseph 
A., Brown William, Bradley Kubin, Barrick William, 
Brock George, Blankeuship Matthew, Brown William, 
Brownfield Charles, Browufield Theron, Bradshaw James, 
Barkner Abner, Bond Shadrach, Clark Felix, Clark Jacob, 
Carey Joshua, Clark Edward, Chaffiu William, Chafhu Seth, 
ChafEn Ellis, Chaffin Amos, Cooper Jesse W., Crouch Ed- 
ward, Chance William, Clark Ben., Clark William, Cape W. 
B., Cooper John, Chandler Amos, Converse Seth, Calhoon 
Ann, Carr Leonard, Clover Jacob, Cairns Caldwell, Cook 
E. R., Cartell Jacob, Drury Raphael, Dunn Samuel, Davis 
Elijah, Dace Michael, DSce Herman, Deconey John, Deprew 
Michael, Divers John, Dillard Ishmael, Eastwood Abraham, 
Eastwood Jacob ( what has become of Eastwood Isaac? Eagan 
John, Everett William, Eastes Jehu, Eberman Abraham, 
Fields Henry, Fowler James, Fry Cath., Forquer George, 
Ford Elizabeth, Garrish Edward, Forquer William, Go^mer 
Peter, Goldsmith Charles, Green Barditt, Greenleaf Mayo, 
Garretson James, Grate John, Hull Daniel, Hettick Andrew, 
Henderson James, Howard William, Hogan William, Halde- 

man Christopher, Hogan Joseph, Hammon Michael, Hoit , 

Hogan Prior, Hawk Robert, Hawk John, Hartman Fred- 
erick v., Hendricks James, Hamilton Thomas M., James 
John, James Thomas, Jameson John, Jameston Alexander, 
Jonstou Nathaniel, Jonston John, Jonston William, Kinney 
Joseph, Kidd Robert, Kinney Andey, Kirkpatrick Francis, 
Kissel James, Lemen William, sr., Leraen James, Lemeu 
William, jr., Lemen Moses, Lemen Josiah, Layway Baptist, 
Lock Gerardis, Levins Isaiah, Leathers Charles, Lathy 

Robert, Lusby Thomas, Laster George, Ladd Elijah, Moore 
J. Milton, Miller Michael, Miller Jesse, Miller Robert, Mars 
Thomas, Miller John, Marney Benjamin, Mitchell John, 
Martin "Lawyer," Miller Henry, Moredock John, Moore 
John, May Reuben, Modglin John sr., Modglin Henry, 
Moore James B , Miller Joseph, Miller Ruben, Modglin 
John, Moore Enoch, Modglin Henry, Mattingley Richard, 
McMurty George, McDonald James, McKinzey Rolley, 
McDavid John, McNabb Alexander, McKeen Joseph, 
McDaniel L , McDaniel James, McClure John, McRoberts 
James, McMeen Joseph, Nolin Samuel, Nelson Thomas, 
Nelson James, Nelson Abraham, Newlin James, Osborn Fran- 
cis, OCorner Thomas, Preston J^zekiel, Porter James, Page 
Louis, Payne Adams, Porter Thomas, Parraux Pascal, Par- 
raux Amable, PiggottLevi, Parmer Ambrose,Patterson Luke, 
PattersonCharles,Primm John, Ray ner Samuel, Rapert Dan- 
iel, Rogers William, Rader Philip, Rolsten Hugh, Roach John 
Robins William, "Rite Mr.", Roberts Henry, Robins John, 
Roberts Jesse, Robinson David, Ryley Mills, Ramey George, 
Sterritt Thomas, Skeen Jacob, Shehen Sebastian, Starr Dan- 
iel, Shehen John, jr.. Smith James, Scovel Henry, Pink Dan- 
iel, Strout Peter, Scott George, Shephard John, Summers 
John, Shook Solomon, Scott Jehu, Scott John, Strong Solo- 
mon, Shook Daniel, Shephard James, Stevens Samuel, Ster- 
ritt Avington, Smith Samuel, Sullivan James, Scott Francis, 
Sterritt William, Taylor Levi. Trask Mervin, Tolin John, jr., 
Tolin Isaac, Trout Jacob, Todd Widon, Turner James, 
Turner Samuel, Talbott Thomas, Talbott Elijah, Taylor 
Thomas, sr., Taterfield Jesse, Talbott Joshua, Taylor James, 
Taylor Thomas, jr , Varnum Moses, Vollentine George, 
Volleutiue Ichabod, Varnum Jewett, Vaughn Th., Williams 
Zophor, Westbrook Elisha, Worley Joseph, Wilson J. M., 
Worley William, Woodrum John,sr , Worley John, Wiswell 
Jesse, Wright Josiah, Winters John, Wells Alexander, 
Warner John, Whaley James, Whaley Baker, Woodrome 
J. P., Woodrome David, Whiteside David, Woodrome Wil- 
liam, Whiteside IMary, W^allis George, Welch Edward, 
Woodrome Joel, Wilson Otho, Wilson Edward; Wiustanley 
Thomas, Wightman John, Young David, and Yannie Law- 

Remarks. — The number of people subject to paying taxes 
was 269. Of these were 47 unmarried men, over the age of 
21 years, who had to pay a tax of 81.00 per capita for the 
enjoyments of bachelor life, and for being the " beaux" of 
their time. The taxable property of that period of time con- 
sisted in slaves and horses, also in mills, distilleries, mansions 
and town lots. The assessment of 1816 shows that there 
were 22 slaves in the county, owned by Jacob Trout, Philip 
Rader, James McRoberts, fohn Jameson, Joseph Hogan, 
James B. Moore, George Ramey, each owning one slave, 
Mary Whiteside, Caldwell Cairns, R. Mattingley and Shad- 
rach Bond, each owning two Solomon Shook owned three, 
and Joseph A. Beaird, four slaves. There were 5^9 horses 
in the county, the tax on which produced S299.50. 

A large majority of the 222 families of the county lived 
in cabins, which were'^iot reached by the tax gatherer. The 
more opulent, who livtd in "mansions," were the following: 
Francis Baldwin lived in a 400 dollar palace, Joseph A. 



Beaird had a " city" residence, located on two lots, and 
valued at 8500. Jesse W. Cooper acd John Cooper also 
owned town lots, valued respectively 8300 and S500. Seth 
Converse resided in an expensive mansion, worth 8550 in 
rural districts. Raphael Drury was most extravagant ; for 
his, a planter's residence, was rated at 8700, and Arthur 
Eberniairs at 8"2O0. Michael Dace had two lots worth 8100. 
James Grate and James Garrttson had good farm houses, 
worth 8300 and 8350. James Henderson's and John Hogan's 
dwellings were worth 450 and 400 dollars. Thomas James' 
Harrisonville residence was assessed at 8600; Alexander 
Jameson's at S'200 ; James Lemen and Thomas Lusby had 
town residences of.?4()0, and SlOO value ; John Moore rivaled 
Raphael Urury in the elegance and ctstliness of residence, 
for he rated his house also at STOO ; Michael Miller's at 
J-250, and Jiinus B. Moore's at 8100 ; Daniel Sink sunk 8(iOO 
to build him a mansion ; Solomon Shook, 8350; and John 
Shehen, Jr., 8'^00 Thus we see 22 families comfortably 
" housed," and it is to be supposed " that the owners of mills 
also had convenient house room. They were Andey Kinney, 
whose mill i^* rated at 81,000. Andey had erected a cotton 
machine besides." 

I.-hmael Dillard's mill was assessed at 8950, and Richard 
]\laltingley's at SoOO. 

There were 31 town lots owned and improved by indi- 
viduals. The taxes to be collected tn this assessment give 
the following figures: 

Fpriy-.«evcn bachelors were e.ipectcd to pny for the fnn of being sneh, S47.00 

The owners of the 22 sUves had to pay tl per eapitu, 22.110 

The owners of the 390 hordes were taxed 50 cenis eneh, 2'.i'j JO 

And Edward Crouch, who kept a staUion, was taxed 3.00 

Owners of mill property paid ."io cents per hundred dollars ad vn'orem: 

Valueof mill property, S2200.:.o, 11.25 

Value of mansions, J83C1 ^1-'^ 

Total expected revenue of 1816, S424.50 

The slave property was not valued very high in those 
days, and, if the tax per capita should be a criterion, we 
may infer that two horses were equivalent in value to a 
slave. We add here a short sketch of what the records of 
the county have to say on the subject : 

A census of slaves residing in Monroe county was com- 
pleted on the 30th of January, 1817. The number of slaves 
reported was small— only 13 all told. Joseph A. Beaird 
owned then a couple of blacks, Henry and Annaky, who 
were "indented" for a short 80 j'ears ; both will be "free" 
on the 30th of January, 1897. James McRoberts' man 
George was to be free in 18.9. William Hogan's negro 
servant must have been a man of letters, for he went under 

♦Look Here ! ! 

For the encouragement of those that wish to raise cotton that may live con- 
venient, I therefore give this early notice, that I have erected a cotton machine 
at my mill on the waters of liyans creek, in St. Clair county, six miles from 
Harrisonville, said machine goes by waler, and will "machine" one thoufand 
weight of cotton per day, leaving less seeds or motes in it than any cotton that 
has ever appeared in this territory. )Iy price for "machining" is the seventh 
pound, but any " person living of the road leading from Prairie du Kochcr 
to Cahokia fetching cotton, shall have it " machined" for ihe eighth pound,— or 
any person living west of the Mississippi fetching cotton shall have it on the 
same terms. Any person favoring me with their custom on any day of the week, 
except the Sabbath, their business will be immediately attended to, and their 
work done in the neatest order by the subscriber. 

Andet Kinnet. 

Illinois Uerald, December 4, 1814. 

the name of " Doctor," and was to be free in 1857. He 
came from Georgia. John Jameson owned a " wench " of 
royal blood. She was named Dido, after the queen of Car- 
thage in North Africa. Freedom dawned for her in 18G2, 
when she would be 61 years of age. Her cradle had stood 
in the region of Kentucky. Richard Mattingley 
had two slaves, Henry and Harry, aged 23 and 20 years 
respectively; both were to be free when they reached their 
54th year of age. R. B. Herring's man Harry was to be 
free in 1847. James B. Moore owned a family of a mother, 
two daughters and a son. The latter enjoyed the beautiful 
and significant name of" Boar," was 13 years old, and was 
to be a free boar in 1839. Frederick Mason brought a six- 
year old boy, named Hank, from New York, who was to be 
a free man when 21 years of age. The taking of servants 
from Illinois to Mi.^souri could not be done without consent 
of the servants, to be obtained before the county court, as 
given here : 

Illinois Territory, ) 
Monroe County, J *''" 

This is to certify that Page, an indented negro woman, 
the property of Henry Leveiis, personally appeared b fore 
the undersigned, one of the judges of the county court for 
the county aforesaid, and being examined separate and 
apart from her said luaster, voluntarily declared that she 
was willing to go into the Mi.s.soiiri Territory with her 
present owner. 

Given under my hand and seal, this 12lh day of July, 

Caldwell Cairns. (^^j^J 

emancipation PAPEHJ;. 

The manumission of slaves had to be made a matter of 
record. Among thfse records is found the following queer 
entry, to wit : 

Be it remembered that on this IStli day of March in the 
year 1820, Andrew Mitchell, born on the first day of Oc- 
tober, 1776, sUiui mid robust, iiriijh'nifj ahnut 240 pounds 
and produced from under the signature and seal of the 
clerk of the circuit court of St. Louis a certificate in the 
following words, viz.: 

Territory of Mkwuri, St. Louis. 

Know all men by these presents that I, Andrew Mitchell, 
of the same territory and county of St. Louis, do by these 
presents, of my own free will and pleasure, emancipate and 
from this date forever set free from me, my heirs, executors 
and administrators my " negruw " woman named Nance or 
Nancy and her four children, to wit, a girl named Lucy, a 
boy named Charles, a boy named Solomon and a girl named 
Cordelia, the said negroes to be henceforth forever dis- 
charged of all demands of servitude in ihe same manner 
they would have been if they had been born free. 

In testimony whereof I have set my hanil and seal, in the 
presence of witnesses, this 4th day of October, 1819. 

Andrew Mitcuell. ( seai> i 



Territory of Missouri, \ 
county of St. Louis, j **■ 

Circuit court Dec. 1819. 
Be it remembered that on the first day of December per- 
sonally appeared in open court George I'itzer and Christopher 
M. Price and being duly sworn upon their oath say that 
they saw the faid Andrew Mitchell sign, seal and acknow- 
ledge the same as his own act and deed for the purposes 
therein mentioned. 

/< — ^ Given under ray hand and seal of office at St. 
(J^^j Louis, Dec. 8, 1819. 

Archibald Gamble, Clerk. 

The records do not explain, why the above was placed on 
record of Monroe county. The last " free papers " found in 
the court house were never made a matter of record. A 
small slip of paper, 6x8 inches, sets forth the following : 

Mr. AVm. Omelveny, 

The bearer hereof, Susan Battiste, has 
been raised by me and has served her time out and is now 
of age and is entitled to her free papers. 

April 22nd 1847. John Divers. 


This subject has been treated on preceding pages in this 
chapter under the heading of Randolph county, to which 
pages the reader is respectfully referred. The ancient French 
colony of St. Philip, a few miles above Fort Chartres was 
founded about the year 1725 by Philip Franr;uis Renault, 
(usually called Renault) and his followers who came directly 
fram France. The older colonies, Cahokia in the north and 
Kaskaskia in the south of St. Philip were founded by Cana- 
dians, French by birth and by descent. The lands occupied 
by said Renault had beeu granted to hira by the authorities 
of France. The American state papers, volume II. page 164 
contain the following statement in reference to this claim ; 

"On the 14th day of June 1723 a grant was made to 
Philip Renault in fee simple in order to enable him to sup- 
port his establishments at the mines of upper Louisiana, by 
Boisbriant and des Ursins, the former styling himself the 
king's lieutenant and governor of the province of Louisiana, 
and the latter, principal secretary of the royal India com- 
pany, of a tract of laud at a place called the Great Marsh 
bounded on the south by lands of the Illinois Indians, estab- 
lished near Fort Chartres, of one league in front on the Mis- 
sissippi and extending back into the county two leagues." 

All that part lying between the Mississippi and the hills 
or blutfs has been conveyed by said Renault in small allot- 
ments to sundry individuals. Out of this grant of Renault 
has arisen the village of St Philip, the lots of which were 
parts of the oblong tracts and were either occupied as build- 
ing spots by those who owned the said tracts or purchased 
by others from those who did own them. Nearly all these 
subdivisions were in 1809 claimed and owned by Joseph 
Morrison, Wm. Mcintosh, John Evert, Wra. Morrison and 
Wm. Murray. 

St. Philips : The common field lands of this French village 
were surveyed by Wm. Proctor and return made to the office 
of the surveyor of the United States June 2nd, 1809. There 

were then 27 oblong tracts of various dimensions, running 
north 2(3° 30, east, from the river to the bluffs. 

The original owners, as far as it can be ascertained from 
the United States papers vol. II. page 164 were as follows, 
commencing at the southern line, which line has a length of 
1305 poles. 

Charles Vein conflrmed to John Everet 110 acres. 

J. B. Mollet " Joseph Morrison 269?^ " 

Louis Pothier " Joseph Morrison 284}^ " 

Viaiilt Esperome " John Everet 28414 •' 

Louis PoHlin " heirs of Jean Mereiers •. . . . 18'J'4 " 

Jean Legr.inge '* Joseph Morrison 189 " 

M. Gorgnon " Joseph Morrison 94 " 

Nieliolas Prevost, dit Blandine Wiliiam MorrLson 189 " 

Joseph Belcour " Joseph Morrison 284 *' 

Louis Lenray " William Morrison 190 " 

William Drury " William Morrison 190 " 

Jean B. Gendron " Joseph Morrison 95 " 

Etienue Leiand " Joseph Morrison 190 " 

M. Gagnord " Joseph Morrison 285 " 

J. B. GodiD, alias Champagne Joseph Morrison 284 " 

Buchette * Bienvenue " Jo.seph Moriisou 800 " 

Buohette >(; Bienvenue " William Murr.ay 033 " Prevost " John Everet 284 " 

Michael Laguiness " Joseph Morrison 174 " 

Jean Legrange '• Joseph Morrison 2.73 " 

Antom Larcello " William Mclutosh 108 

Miehael Laguiness " Joseph Morrison . . 3:51 " 

Etienne Guevremont " Joseph .Alorrison 102 '* 

J. B; Gendron " Joseph Morrison 8K '* 

Jean & Pierre Gerardin" Joseph Morrison 236 

Joseph Pierre " J. F. Perry 5.50 

Frangois Noisee " John Uice Jones 5.52 " 

Aggregate number of acres 7,420 

The north boundary line measures 1,072 poles. 

The lands of the common fields of St. Philip's are now 
owned by Jacob Fults' heirs, Oliver Nie's heirs, James Rut- 
ledge, George Bradshaw's heirs, P. C. Koch, Andrew Koch, 
Philip A. Maus, A. B. Cavanah, Jacob Rebenack, F. W. 
Brickey, Brickey and Anhuchon, Jacob Meyer, John Mat- 
tingiey, M. Claudet, Joseph Harsey, E. L. Morrison, David 
Klamp, James Canifl, Michael Carr, Peter Zeiger, William 
Crook, Demint & Hardy, Dennis Chartmnd, D. W. Bryant, 
W. J. Burke, Edward Ahern's heirs, Charles Doerr's heire, 
Aquilla McNabb, Theodor Hursey, Henry Jacobs, Edward 
Coon, John Barnes, Peter Kelley, Edward Faherty, Mary 
Slate, John Wall, William Winkelmann, Rob. Orr's heirs 
and Mary A Shenly. Among the names of the present 
owners are found only three of French appearance, to wit, 
Aubuchon, Claudet and Chartrand. The American pioneer 
families seem to be represented by the Bradshaws, the Mor- 
risons, Bryants and McNabba. Many German names are 
also met with in the above list, while the Kelleys and Fa- 
hertys show that the Emerald Isle is not left without proper 

Philip Fran5ois Renault, after having disposed of the 
southern part of this grant, returned to his native country, 
where he died, as is said, in 1755.* The north part of his 

* Andri5 Narcisse de la Mothe, of Montreal, appeared in court at Waterloo^ 
on the ICth of August A. D. 1880, and produced a power of alt orney from the 
heirs of said Renault, and, in substance, made the followin g statement : 

The ofBcial records of the " Tribunal ciril de Peroune, France," exhibit. 
That Philip Franijois Renault died in "France" on the24lhof April, 1775, being 
the owner of large tracts of land in Amarica, grouted to him A. D. 1723 by the 
French Government, among which the Renaud (Renault) Grant in Monroe 
countv. His children surviving him were: Philip Francois Celestine, 
Thomas Joseph, Marie Jeanne Augustine, Marie Anne Celestine Philliipine 
married to M. Frangois, and Marie Caroline Gabrielle, married to Martin 



claim was never dispoed of by Reuault. It was "u|il!iii(i," 
somewhat broken and hilly, and consequently not desirable 
at a period of time wlien bottom lands could be had for tiie 
asking, as it were. The United States having declared the 
original grant to Renault valid, the unoccupied parts of it 
were never included in the United States surveys. In the 
course of time, fcjuatters occupied portions of it and converted 
the wilds into fields of plenty. These occupants were tax 
free, inasmuch as the land was not and could not be thiir 
property. In later times, about the years 1840 and l^i41. 
the laud was listed for taxation and sold for taxes to John 
Kyan and E. P. Rogers. This sale was annulled March 5, 
184<i t 

Matters remain d now in statu quo until very recently, 
when the board of county commissioners cau.sed a survey to 
be made of the individual claims, and subdivided the whole 
int ) (ifty-six " lot^," now occupied and in possession of the 
following residents, to wit: George Leip's heirs 12.11 acres- 
John Friess 70.8!), Charles Lohkamp I l.">, John Gutman's 
widow ;>.'! .SO, Fred. Roever oS ,S7, Henry Juelfs, two lots- 
2ti0 07, Christine Brandt I'JO M, Nicholas Sutler 1.4."), Chris- 
tian Stahl 151.80, Henry Vogel 131.71, Mary A. Vogel 
58.17, Charles Doerr 12.14, Charles Meister 71.51, Frank' 
Brown 14()..')0, Peter Vogel 57.14, William Vogel 20.53' 
Christian Hoppe, two lots, 2.56, Adam Eigner 148.18, Her. 
maun Landwehr 155.10, Ulrich Meyer 47-100, Church pro 
perty 1 acre, Joseph Heller 9(i.33, George Harlow's heirs 
118 ()!), Conrad Burkhardt 12 6, Lewis Wortmann 10.5.02, 
Henry Wortmann's widow 4 03, William Wortmann's estate 
1()8..)8, John Schult (i.34, Joseph Heller's estate Oo.liO, John 
Niemann 160.24, Fred. Heller 188 35, Louis Eymann 148.80, 

Latoiir. Thomas Joscpli nnd Marie Jonnne Augustine dieil without issue 
(dalf of decease not mentioned) iifter having willed all their interest in the 
►aid grant or grants to their older brother, Philip I'rancjois Celesline Henaul 
(Renault). The lut enlied Febru.iry 3, ITiin, leaving ns only heir his daughter, 
Amelie Josephine Keiiaut, married to Monsieur de Pancemont. Sh>- died 
intestate January 18, 18;t^, leaving an only heir, to wit ; her daughter, .\ugu>tine 
Anne Peeise Hyacinthe .idele, married to Cou..t do Tournou Simiiine. Her 
three children, to %vit: Philip Auto n Fransois, An\elie Helene Frant'oise Rose, 
and Marie Amelie Stephanie, widow of Count de Croi.x, were still living, repre- 
senting three-fifths of the estate of the original Uenaut. Marie Anne Celestiiie 
Philippine Francois, the fourth direct heir of Renault, died November 2M 
178K, and her descendants, now eight in number, representalso one-fifth in i aid' 
estate. Marie Caroline (iabric le I.atunr died January 2», 17115, and her 
descendants now surviving, forty in number, own another one-tiflh of the 
grant. The order of sale for the purpo,-e of partition, made by the above- 
mentioned tribunal, was approve I by the Court of Appeals at Amien.! July 31, 
1870. Mr. I.a Mothc, mentioned above, claims to be the owner of the northern 
jart of the old Renault grant, by virtue of purchase. He brought suit in the 
United Stales Court of Illinois, at Springfield, and obiainedjudguient. The 
mitter is at prj<entstill in litigation, and a prop )sitio.i of I^a Mothe's to com- 
promise the matter by paying him at tlie rate of %\iy.w per acie has been 
declined by the present "squatters." 

t BoAHD or couHTV coMMissiONP-Bs, Marcli .'>, 1840. 
Now comes Emry P. Rogers, surviving partner of John Ryan, deceased, by 
H. K.S. Umelveny, atid filea his motion, requiring this court to direct theij. 
cleric to correct an error in the list of lands sold for taxes for the years 1840 
and 1841 on the 5th day of September, 1842, in his office by making the sale of 
the north half of Renault grant as having been erroneous, and to refund the 
taxes paid for the years 1840. 1841, 1842, 1843 and ISJ.'.. And thereupon the said 
petitioner produces in proof of the justice of this motion the nertitieate of Jacob 
Feaman, register of the Land Office of the United States at Kaskasliia, Illinois, 
stating that the above described land has never been confirmed to the heirs of 
Renault, and that the title to the said land is still in the United States, and 
alio a letter from James .Shields, Commissioner of the General Land OfHce of 
the United States, setting forth the .same facts. And it appearing to the Court 
that the said tract'pf Und, t« wit. the north Half of Kenaulfs grant was not 
taxable atthe date of thesaidsale, it is ordered that the taxes thereon for said 
years, amounting to 8170.65 be refunded to the said E. P. Rogers, and said sale 
be annulled. 

John Niemann 50.04, John Brown, Jr., 73.85, Philip Fauer- 
bach 66.36, Jacob Fults 301.07, Michael J. PVisch 07 72, 
Philip Kissel ()1.30, J. P. Brown, Sr., 88.10, Peter Roden- 
berg, Sr., 102.(54, Ernst Prange 5.45, Dieterich Oft'erniann 
198.83, Elenry Jacobs 151.0, Louis Wortmann 141.10, Henry 
Rodenberg's estate 141 57, John Lorenz 141.12, Fred. Jan- 
sen 56.70, Frederick Hendrix 402.24, Joseph Heller's estate 
225 60, John Ihdler 80.;)4; lots 12, 18 and 25, containing 
26 89 acres in the aggregate, are " unclaimed." These fifty- 
six lots compri-e an area, according to county survey, of 
5,202 acres, and are assessed at only $12,840. The actual 
value, if a perfect title can be obtained, is much greater, 
probably $35 per acre. Some of the " claims" would bring 
S75 per acre, and the actual value of these 5,202 acres is 
certainly not less than $180,000. 

Other Land Oniiits. — Besides the Renault Grant, there 
was a large number of "family head," "donation," " \'ir- 
ginia improvement" and militia rights located in the county, 
aggregating over 40,000 acres. 

In order to present to the reader an accurate view of all 
lands occupied or owned by individuals prior to the year 
1820, the following table has been carefully arranged, ac- 
cording to congressional townshijis: 

T. 3 8. — 8 W 

1st Entry .\pr.l 24, 1815 

Subsequent Entritt. 
William Morrison, parts of j 

\ Patrick Faherty, partsof sec. 29 . . 80 
Aaron Youngman, parts of see. 32 . ICO 
James .Smith, part of section 35 . . IGO 
Preston Brickey, part ol sec. 30 . . lliO 
C uitiis ami Sari-ei/s—iStiS. 

'. John Edgar, survey 005, part in 

Ualeigh Rawles, parts of sec- 
tions 25 and 2l> 320 

Stanley Dodge, parts of section 2;i . so 

John Ri. 

. 1143 

. 1715 

T. 2 SI 9 w. 

ls( Entry— DtetmhtT 3, 1SI4. 
James B. Moore, S. E. of sec. 7 . . 
Subsifjut-nt EidrUt. 

. MO 

. OS 
. 157 

. 1110 
. 80 

Claims aiul Sarveifs. 
« illiam Higgs, survey 784, parts 

Joseph McMun, parts of sec. . . 
I^. McDaniel, parts of sec. . . . 
Heirs of J. H. Moore, parts of 

John Murdiick, survey, 041-171, 
parts in 2-10 

James Moore, survey 304 and 030 
parts in 2-10 

James (tarretsou, survey 4u7 ,fc 
720 '. 


William Farquer, parts of sec 33 

Cook & Farquer, parts of sec. 30 
and 31 

James B. Moore, survey 778 . . 

-9 w. 

Moses Lemon, parts of sec. 19 . 
Pierre Menard, parts of sec. 19 

Cliinis and Suri-iys. 
Peter Casterline, survey 722 . . 
George Dement, survey 390 . . . 
James Lemon, survey 395, part 

. 400 

Heirs of G. Dement parts sec. 31 


\st £n(n/,v4pn7 2n, ISLI. 
Pierre Menard, N. W. of sec. 7 . . 

Subsequent Eutrii-!. 
Richard Dalton parts of sec. r. . . 
Jesse Miller, parts of sec. . . . . 
John Tolin, parts of sec. 7. . . . 
Isaac Tolin, parts of sec. 17 . . . 

. nil 
3 s.- 

. 100 

. 140 



. 160 

. 109 

T. M. Hamilton, parts of sec. 17 . 
Moses Varnum, parts of sec. 17 . 


T 4. s.^ — 9 

Ut E>itrt/, September IG, 1814. 
W. Hendrix. E. half of 9. E sec. 20 . 
Spencer Atkins, p*rt of sec. 24 . . 

Kzra Owen, part of sec. 2> 

F. K. Owen, part of sec. 3G 

Ctiin and Surveij. 
Nicholas Jorrot, survey G13 , 

T. 5 s. — 9 w. 

CUiims and Surveys. 

Nicholas Jarrot, Survey 743 400 

William Atchison, survey 610 400 




T. 1 N — 10 W. 

s aid Surcei/s, M'y} 1, ISlj 

Will. Mcintosh, survey 750 . 
Nicholas /arret, fract. sec. 31 . 

T. 1 S. — 10 W. 

Claims and Swrveya. 
Daniel McCann, survey 5o8 .... 400 

John Etlgar, survey 773 4(iu 

David Wliiteside, survey 418 . . . . 300 Biggs, survey 417 400 

Jacob Judy, survey 413 400 

Benjaniiu Ogle, survey 044 .... 300 

Joseph nu'l., vim.y .'..->(i 400 

Franc-l- n-lli.r. -inv.-y 5.55 . . . . 400 
Jamus I'mii'il. -iiiirys4104054 . . 801) 
Jacol> (.]..ot, .-luvev 41.1 4CHI 

Stephen Kerry, survey 0.*)4 . . . . 
Nicholas Smith, survey 411 . . . 
Henry O'llarra, survey 414, part 

in 1-11 . 

rvey 413, part 


vey 74", part 

T. 2 

Leonard Harness, survey 434, 

part in 1-11 

ls( Eiitrji September 7, 1814. 

.\bsaloin Bradshaw, N. W. quar- 
ter of see. 24 

Siihtcqiient Ell 

Samuel Hill. 

John J. ^. 

Adelaid I'.ii 

as N,-Knn, parts of sec- 20 . . .so 
Hiadshaw, parts of see. 35 . lOO 
I Whitley, parts of sec. 30 . . 117 

-10 W. 


J. Wo.Iey . 


ey. Aers 

507 11. (i 

705 100 

721 2mi 

i'.l7, 042 500 

04O 4' HI 

670 400 

400 4011 

Shaihaeli Bond, Sr . 

Sliailrach Bond, Jr . . .330,502,012 00 

John Singleton 713 Kh 

J. Hyan c:il si 

Mlei.ael Miller 7.V, lo 

George \alenline 30;; loi 

Fubt Entry, Dec. 3, 1814. 

Soth Comerse. . B. \V. of sec 8 11 

Theion Bruiinfiel.l, part of see. i si 

T. 3 s.— 10 w 

J.ilm Berks . 
J.iliii Kyaii , 
1. ,V T. Tax In 
....i„g,. Far,|i 
,1. ,i .1. liuiila 
.1. y[ . 

12 120 
25 201 

13 112 

James Henderson . . COO pi ili 4 m i" 

Henry I.eyens . . . i.;;:i ii> 

deorge Biggs. . . . ci:i :;" 

Jaine.sM<dioberts,703,7n4ptiu4-10 2o 

First Eiitn,, .Siji(. 17, 1814. 

Miehnel Jliller . fr. N. K. of .•«ee. 1 15 

James J-euien . part of see. 12, 13 31 

M Rirkir . . . part of s 
linii .Mrlntiish . part of s 

.lalni's :\i,.i;.,i 
W, F. 
F.lijah Talluit 

T. 4 S. — 

Snr;ey. Acrs 

Jolm Rilgar 730, 702 Sou 

John liiee Jones . . 707 494 

John Uiec Jones . . 315ptin5-10 652 

Williaul Mcintosh. 30Sptin5 10 121 

J. Worley 4S7 2oo 

llaplniel Druiy . . . 0^5 Im 

JaniesSeott 707 250 

Joseph Morrison. . 311,312,313 3.j.s 
Joseph Morrison . . 2S0, 200, 203, 
204, 296, 2111, 30<1, .illl, 302, 303, 
304, 300, 307, 300, 310, part in 

5-10 4,OS8 

John Eyert . . 201, 305, pt in 5-10 442 

T. 5 s. 

Surveys. Acrs 

John Edgar 353, 354, 355 404 

William Mcintosh . 322 61 
Joseph Morrison. . 318,320,321, 

323, 324, 326, .'.20, 327 OSO 

John Evert 288, 317, 034 292 

Pierre Roquette . . 317, 3.50, C69 191 

Joseph Tyon .... 348, 070, 072 785 

Joseph Hennet . . 350, 004, 005, 700 981 

Gabriel Dodier . . . 351, 352 155 

Jean Petit 000 128 

Bene Grude 008, 609 213 

10 W. 



F. Pi 




. 314, pt in 5 10 .550 

. 7C0, pt in 4-11 400 

Hall . . . . 4S8 400 

and surveys 482, 03i;, part in4-U son 

Jesse Kuyner. . . 708, pt in 4-11 400 

First Fntnj, Si]tl. 4, 1815. 

J, ,t W, Wiiiliv , . X E of Mr 19 l.-,2 

lli^ .if N. lliill l.ail 111 MT ]'.. .ill 2S3 

, lluUl 

—10 w. 

Monsieur Deneger . 

671 128 

Alexander McXabb . 

633 113 

Pierre Menard . . . 

035 374 

William Murr.ay . . 


323 22 

George Atchison . . 


40.i 80O 

Joseph Hagan .... 


491 3|i0 

Antoin Boisnienue . 

734 714 

IchabodCamp .... 

009 400 

Daniel Shultz .... 

607 40U 



T. 1 S. 11 \V. 

Henry O'Harra . 5S8, 598, 509, 097 1,000 

Caldwell Cairns . . 409 100 

William Trumbull, 42:!, pt in 1-10 800 

Leonard Harness . 410 400 

David Waddle ... 408 314 

Adam Stroud . . . 715,pt in2-Il 303 

Benjamin Kogers . in 2-11 loo 

First Fiitri,, .W<iT/l, 1S14. 

Adelaide Perry, fr. part of sec. 11 510 

Joliu Pi 

Porter . parts of see. i: 
Trumbull, part of seel 
J .lai-riitt , part of sec. 2; 
•.'■iinl, partof sec. 24, 2: 

I ii\ IV. part of sec. 2i 
UK li. part of sec. 3: 
iiu - fr. part of sec. 33,3; 

Total . 

T. 2 s. — 11 w. 

/■'irs( Flit y, Sept. 17, 1.S14. 

John Dimpsey . . . frar-l. uf 2 
John Sheehan . . . parts of 1 
Jai'oli Glover . . parts of I & 29 

W. .1, r.i.gers pans of 1 

.1 1 I'rilii.jr . . . pans of 3 

Ilu\ ill Ci.x parts c.f 3 li. ,t .1, I:. 111].. |.;.n- .if 4 

W. II II Illl-.... |..Mls ..| s ,^ 17 

E. Il.-iiist. li ,v \ M.N.iir, |.l- .| 
Willhim 51.1111-. .11 . I'liiis .if .1 

. . parts of 
. . parts of 
on, parts of 

, parts 15, 22, 23 
. . section 16 
ii-,pts 17,20,21 

10. 21, 


s n 







t 30 

S Ul 


A- 35 

-11 w. 

John K.Igar 
J. W.irlev, « 

T. 4 S. — 11 w. 


Philip li.iil.-i- 
William L.iiK 
Ueuben Mille 

The grand ag;rregate of the number of acres of hiiid of 
Monroe in pos.<essioii of individual owners as early a.< 1819, 
when Illinois had become a state, was not less than 72,000 
acres, nearly one-third of the present area of the county. 
The uncertainty as to the locution of those numerous claims 
had prevented settlers from purchasing the lands ou which 
they had squatted, and the reader will observe that the pro- 
cess of entering government lands commenced in all town- 
ships pretty much at the same time. The land entries be- 
tween the years 1818 and 183G were by no means numerous, 
and the transactions in the real estate market but few. 


The oldest deed on record was made in 1708, but not 
recorded until 1817. It is here introduced at length, to wit : 



Benjamio Ogle to James Garrctsoii. 

This indenture made this twenty fourth day of August 
1798, between Benjamin Ogle in Cahokia township in the 
Illinois territory, militia man and doing duty as such on the 
first <lay of August 1790, of the one part, and James Garret- 
son, of the other part, witnesseth that the said Benjamin Ogle 
as a militia man being entitled to one iiuudred acres of land 
by the sixth section of an act of congress, entitled an act for 
granting land^ to the habitants and settlers at Vincennes 
and the Illinois country in the territory northwest of the 
Ohio and for confirming them in their possession, on hia 
part for and in consideration of the sura of eighty dollars to 
him in hand paid by the said James Garretson, the receipt 
whereof he doeth hereby acknowledge, hath gis'en, grante<l, 
bargained, sold, released, conveyed and confirmed and by 
these presents doth give, grant, bargain, sell, release, convey 
and confirm unto the said James Garretson his heirs and 
assigns forever, all his right, title, claims, interest and de- 
mand of, in and to the said one hundred acres of land which 
before the ensealing and delivering of this indenture the said 
Benjamin Ogle might rightfully claim by, through and 
under the said act of congress as aforesaid unto the said 
James Garretson his heirs and assigns, and the said Benja- 
min Ogle for himself his heirs, executors and administrators 
doth covenant and agree to and with the said James Garret- 
son his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns the said 
militia right of one hundred acres of land together with all 
the appurtenances against the lawful claim or demand of any 
person or persons whatsoever unto the said James Garretson 
his heirs and assigns he the said Benjamin Ogle his heirs 
and will forever warrant and defend by these presents. In 
testimony of which the said Benjamin Ogle hath hereunto 
subscribed his name and affixed his seal the day and year 
first above written. ***** 

Bexjamix Ogle. Jseal.J 

Witness. — James Lemen, J. P. ***** 

There were a few more conveyances prior to the county or- 
ganization. The first sale of town lots took place in 1810 
when one Jacob A. Boj'es, a resident of Harrisonville and 
its founder, sold to William Middleton of Louisiana territory 
lots number 1U7 and 108 in the town of Harrisonville for 
one hundred and fifty dollars, August l<tth, 1810. These 
lots lay between Alexander and McRobert's Streets, front- 
ing on Walnut. Sales became more numerous after the or- 
ganization of the county. David Cox sold eighty acres lying 
in the northwest fractional quarter of section No. 3, town- 
ship 2 south, range 11 west, at S-.OO per acre, June 4th, 1816. 
Six thousand dollars would hardly pay for these 80 acres 
to day. 

Isabella Bond sold an unlocated but confirmed claim of 
four hundred acres, a so called improvement right, to Abra- 
ham Amos for S5 0.00, July 6th 1816. These improve- 
ment rights were sold in the years from 1793 to 1798 for 
from twenty to sixty dollars each. 

A tract of land of one hundred acres, the northeast frac- 
tional quarter of section 27 in town 3-11 was sold by Prince 
Bryant to Andey Kinney, May 14th, 1816, for fifty dollars. 

This tract is now owned by D. T. Tripp, and is considered 
to be worth S7000. John Violeny, a constable of Eagle 
township, sold lots oo, .j6 and 80 in Harrisonville, the pro- 
perty of one Abijah Ward, who had ab.sconded to John Mc- 
Chire for eighteen dollars, May l-nh, 1816. 

John Mitchell conveyed a tract of land in the American 
Bottom — no description — containing 100 acres to Alexander 
Wells to secure the payment of a loan of two hundred dollars 
Sept. 8, 181.^, the deed was placed on record Sept. 6th, 1810. 
Nicholas Jarrot of the county of St. Clair sold 160 acres, a 
part of improvement claim No. 2682 certified to Jean Baptist 
Parant, to Andrew Kinney for 100 dollars, August 8ih, 1816. 

Heirs of Henry O'Hara, by commissioners sold to John 
Sullivan claim No. 766, survey .")88, containing 400 acres, 
also claims 76.S and 764 containing 200 acres, all located iu 
Round Prairie for 81.500, Sept 6th, 1816. 

These tracts are now in the possession of J. C. Cairns, 
judge E. P. Slate, August Tuntze, Michael Stumpf, Herman 
Beckerle, John Breisen's widow, John Stephan and others, 
and represent a cash value of at least S43,000. Henry 
Hays, adm. of the estate of W. L. Smith deceased, sold to 
Samuel J. Kinkead 250 acres, the improvement right of 
James Scott, claim 820 for 8127, Sept. 7th, 1816. 

The transactions mentioned above may .suffice to show 
what price the real estate in the county commanded at the 
time of its organization, to wit from 50 cts. to 2i dollars 
per acre 

The sale of real estate in the first decade of the county, 
1816 to 1826, amounted in the aggregate to 8327.645, prices 
ranging between 50 cts. and 810,00 per acre. The highest 
price was paid in 1820 the lowest in 1816; prices advanced 
rapidly from 1818 to 1820, when a decline is perceptible, to 
wit. to 84.00 in 1822 — prices recovered somewhat in 1824 
and reached 87.00 and 88.00 in 1825. The transactions in 
the real estate market were as follows: 

In 1816 they amounted to $14.0:t» In 1822 they amounted to 513.050 



' 1823 


' 1824 


' 1825 

37.249 1 

18.721 ■ 


first road petitions and names of monroe county 

May 23, 1816. 

The undersigned petitioners, citizens of Monroe countyi 
humbly sheweth 

Whereas, a new High Way or common road from Harri- 
son to Andey Kinney's Mill is greatly needed, said road to 
pass along on the most convenient ground from Harrison to 
the lane dividing between Squire Jameson and Mr Thomp. 
son's place, thence through said lane to the county road to 
the residence of Hugh Ralston, from thence up Ryan's 
creek on the best ground for which your petitioners therefore 
pray that your honors will take such measures concerning 
the premises as to you seemeth meet — and your petitioners 
as in duty bound will ever pray. 

William Marney, Hugh Ralston, Jameson, John 
Conn, Elisha Exley, (Axley) Daniel Hull, Joseph Worley, 
John Winters, Alice Chalffin, James Hull, Michael Doe, 



Amos Cha]ffin, Daniel Rapert, Samuel Turner, James Heu- 
der^on, John James, Edward Crouch, Timothy Coats, John 
McClure, John Tolen, Reuben Bradley, Isaiah Levens, Ed- 
ward Cox, Andey Kinney, Francis Osborn, John Moore, Ed- 
ward Claris, John Hagan, William Worley, William Chance, 
Philip Rader, Daniel Star, Thomas James, William Hagan 
and Thomas Lusby.* 

The older residents of the county reniember well the ec" 
centricities of William Lemen, who at one time contrived 
to lodge the honorable judge, E. P. Rogers, merchant at 
Peter's town, in a hogshead filled with eggs. Rogers, stand- 
ing up to his waitt within his eggs, screamed out, you have 
to pay for these eggs, you have to pay for them. " Cer- 
tainly," said Lemen, ''count them out, sir; count them 
out." During the Black Hawk war he served as a volun- 
teer. The following practical joke on Bill Evert, also from 
Monroe, is credited to Lemen. Evert was known to be as 
great a coward as braggadocio. Lemen strolling away from 
camp found a dead (or as they called them then a good 
Indi. n. He wrapped a blanket around the corpse and 
Btood it up against a tree. Returning to camp, he told 
Evert that he had seen Invert's missing horse about a mile 
off, on a little prairie. Evert of course, rushed out and 
coming near tlie tree mentioned, saw the dead Lidian. He 
discharged his rifle and ran back to camp, telling the men 
that he had met a number of Lidians and was sure to have 
burned a hole through the blanket of one of them, etc. He 
was laughed out of camp for wasting his ammunition on an 
Indian who had been dead for a week or longer. 

Lemen's famous court-martial trial for playing horse and 
scaring at a stump is known to ail. 

In October, 18U), the following residents of the American 
Bottom petitioned for a road from Daniel Vaughan's and 
John Hewitts saw mill to the old "Stroud" place, to wit : 
John Hewitt, Daniel Vaughan, James Fowler, Seth Con" 
verse, Edward and David Cox, John Primm, Ira Hewitt' 
James Whaley, William B. Whaley, William Whaley, S. 
Bond (ihegcvunor (?) who then livedat or mar Moredcck 
lake), John Cooper, Jesse W. Cooper, William Alexander 
and Thomas O'Connor. 

In February, l!S17, John Cooper, Timothy Coates, Avin- 
ton Sherrill, Hugh Ralston, J. W Cooper, John McClure, 
William Arundel, Daniel Hull, Zopher William, John 

* Some of William blarney's descendants are still living in the r-niinty, lor 
inst.-xnce, ttie iJilch f:\miiy. The Marueys were from ICentiicky. .Closes Janie. 
son was the first justice of the peace in the county. Histomi stone «as in Uler 
days utilir.-d by one— a certain well-known foreign horn citizen— as a part floor 
of a baking oven. He was indicted for this otfense, but escaped punishment ; 
subsequently this same individual, indicted for stealing liogs, and sentenced to 
penitentiary for oue year. A.xley's descendants are still residents of the county- 
John Winters' tombstone can still be seen in the cenielory of the " Grant M.'cl- 
ng House "—so called because situated on tlie famous Renault Grant. The 
ChatHns and among them the Horines are known residents of the county. 
JohnJames subsequently hel.i many county oftices; liis descendants, and those 
of his brother, James A. James, are prominent citizens of the c unly. The 
Tolins* family was very prolihc. Reuben Bradley lived about three miles 
north of Harrison, but the family in the county is not represented at present- 
AndeyKinney hadawater powermlil atwliat is now called Monroe City. There 
are no descendants now found in the county, they having moved north. The 
Mooresare moree.xtensively mentioned in the chapter on pioneers. The Clarks 
are still represented in the county ; they hail from Virginia. Daniel Starr, who 
used to live on the Frick place, removed to Texas. William Lem-n belonged 
to the oldest American settlers in Illinois. They are mentioned in the chapter 
on pioneers. 

Tolin, Josiah Lemen, Cartwood, Abram Bunker and 

Joshua Craig, petitioned the court for a road, beginning at 
the Hugh Ralston " plantation '' up Ryan's (now Monroe) 
creek, thence up Sherrill's branch to the New Design road, 
thence to the " Beaver ponds," there dividing, thence ' along 
the right-hand fork to Judge Lemen's plantation, there 
falling into the Horse-prairie road leading to the Wideman's 
and ]Manville's ferry on the Kaskaskia, the other fork from 
the Beaver ponds to the left, passing on by Michael Miller's 
to the ■' fountain," there falling into the road that leads from 
New Design to Belleville. 

First road in Mitchie township. The petitioner.=, Alexan 
der McNabb, Joseph Worley, Seth Chalffin, Joseph Wilson, 
Raphael Drury, Thomas McRoberts, and others, state un- 
der date of April 10, 1S17. that a permanent public road 
through Mitchie township is greatly wanted. This road is 
to start from Hugh Ralston's plautation — ^which, by the way, 
seems to have been the centre of population at that time — 
along the bluffs, through the plantations of Isaiah Levens 
and James Henderson, to a road estal)lished by the county 
court of R-aiidolph county, thence to the plantation of Jo- 
seph Worley. thence to Mill creek, where a bridge is to be 
erected, thence through the prairie so as to leave the plan- 
tation of the widow Fisher on the right hand, thence along 
the so called middle road to the county line. In December, 
1818, a road was opened from J. 'SI- Wilson's ferry landing 
on the Mississippi through Yankee prairie to Horse-prairie- 
Another road from Harrison through the American Bottom 
to Wilson's ferry was ordered to be opened August -, 1819. 
Among the petitioners are to be found the following names 
not heretofore mentioned : Andrew Hilton, James 8. Beau- 
raond, Robert Latty, John Grate, Johu Warnock. William 
Mcintosh, Charles Haldeman, R. Martin, John Ford, Prince 
Bryant, George Wallis, Elijah Talbott. Edward Garrick 
George Forquer, William Bryant. John ^l. Davis, John 
Brimberg, (a German > Francis Baldwin and J. ^Mitchell. 

The county was divided into the following road districts, 
Junes, 1817. 

No. 1. To commence on the Kaskaskia rnail at the southern 
boundary of Harrison township, and run north to what is 
called Robbin's place, or otherwise to a large pecan tree near 
said farm, with Thomas James as supervisor. 

No. 2. To contmence north at the Mitchie towasliip line 
and run south to the southern boundary line of the rnuiity, 
with William Worley as supervisor. 

No. o. To commence south at Robbin's |)lace, or the Pecan 
tree, and run north to the north end of the county bridge 
across Eagle creek, with George Atchinson as supervisor. 

No 4. To commence south at the north eml of the county 
bridge across Eagle creek, a' d run from thence north to the 
northern boundary line of the county, with Thomas Harrison 
as supervisor. 

No. 5'. To begin at the south line of the county and run 
north to the lane between the fields of Michael Miller and 
Felix Clark, with George M. Mourtry as supervisor. 

No. 6. To commence south at said line and run north to 
the boundary line of the county, with William Forquer as 




Moses Jameson, Alexander Jameson, Thomas Brownfield; 
J. W. Cooper, J. M Moore, Henry C. Miziier. John Roach, 
John Scott, Prince Bryant, John James, Seth Converse, 
John Divers, John Prim, Daniel Hull, Joseph Worley, 
Thomas M. Hamilton, and Alexander McNabb. 

From a record of stock marks of 1816 to 1818 we are 
enabled to give to the reader the names of all farmers of the 
counv owning stock. These names have been arranged in 
alphabetical, but not chronological order, to wit: 

Elisha Axley, William Alexander, Abraham Amos, 
Ichabod Badgley, Jacob Borer, John Burk, Seth Chalfin, 
Edward Crouch, Abram Clark, William Chalfin, Caldwell 
Cairns, Edward Clark, Jacob Clark, Adam Clover, John 
Clover, John Cooper, Moses Clawson, Ebenezer Clawson, 
Amos Chalfin, Joshua Carey, David Cox, Jonathan Church, 
James Cleiideuin, Daniel Converse, Robert C.)lman, Wil- 
liam Chance, Felix Clark, John Clark, John Coop, Erapson 
B. Cantril, John Cirr, W. C. Bryant, Raphael Drury, 
Michael Dace, David Ditch, G W. Ditch, William Ditch, 
Geo. W. Davis, Elijah Davis, James Davis, (called the 
pauper), Barnett Ertis, John Eagan, George Estes, Jacob 
Eastwood, Joseph Evans, Abraham Eastwood, Churchill 
Fulsher, William Farquer, Gram Fisher, Jacob Fultz, Jere- 
miah Gilman, James Garrison, John Grate, Edward Gavish, 
Euos L. Gaylord, William Goldsmith, Jake Garritson> 
William G. Goforth Joseph Hogan, Daniel Hull, P. Hogan, 
James Henderson, William Howard, Peter Holderaann, 
John Hogan, Daniel Hilton, Robert Haskins, John Haskins, 
Joseph Haskins, Redding B. Herring, Moses Haskins, Chris- 
tian Holdemann,Ad. Hussy, Sylvauus Harlow, Daniel Heely, 
John M. Hull, Mathias Harrison, Alexander Jameson, 
Ishraal Willard, John James, Thomas James, Henry Iraan, 
Christopher Iraan. Nathan Johnston, Samuel J. Kiukead, 
Audey Kinney, G. W. Kingsley, William ( Hills ) Lemeu, 
Gerardus Locke, Thomas Lusby, William Lemeu, Moses 
Locke, Samuel Locke, .Arnold Livers, David Lenisee, John 
McClure, John Moredock, Reuben Miller, John (Meyer) 
Myars, Thomas Marrs, John Mitchell, Benjamin Marney, 
John Miller, (bar keeper, 1817), Jacob McDavid, Alexander 
McNabb, Milton J. Moore, Samuel Miller, Benjamin Mas- 
terson, Enoch Moore, .fames B. Moore, C. H. Mizner, John 
Modglin Stephen W. Miles, James Moore, John Moore, 
Milton J. Moore 2nd, James B. Moore ?nd, Jacob Neft", John 
Neff, Abrara NefT, James Nelson, Henry Neff, Edward New- 
sham, Thomas O'Connor, Charles Owens, Adams Payne, 
David Petit, Andrew Porter, Luke Patterson, Jacob Pal- 
meier (German), William Robins, James Robins, Philip 
Rader, John Roach, John Robins, John Ryan, Hugh Ral- 
ston, Daniel Raper, .James Roberts, Daniel Rapert, James 
M. Robinson, John Rogers, Daniel Ramer, Peter Rogers, 
Solomon Shook, Daniel Shook, John Summers, Edward 
Smith, Jehu Scott, Daniel Sink, Peter Stroud, Solomon 
Stong, Adam Smith, Junies R. Shepherd, Nehemias Starr, 
Isaac W. Starr, William Steel, James Stirrett, Jonathan 
Shepherd, Elijah Talbert, Jacob Trout, James Taylor, Thom- 
aa Thaylor, Jewett Varnum, Alexander Wells, Edward 

Welch, George Wallis, John Werley, Joseph Werley, John 
M. Wilson, J. Rodgers William, Elisha Westbrook, B. 
Baker Whaley, Henry Wardman, Z )pher Williams, John D. 
Whiteside, Otho Wilson, William Wilson, D.ivid Whiteside, 
Je.sse Weswell, Hiram Whiteside, John Woodrome, John 
Whiteside, J. P. Waddle, Moses Williams, William Walker, 
David Yates, Joseph I. Young 
We introduce next a list of 


The oldest certificate of marriage is dated September 28, 
1810. The happy couple, to wit: William Calhoon and 
Nancy Quigley, had obtained their proper license from the 
clerk of Monroe county, Illinois, on the 20th of August pre- 
ceding, and were joined in the holy bands of wedlock, 
according to the rules of the Baptist Church, by James 
Garretson. This was the only marriage in the county 
in 1816. The next wedding took place almost a year 
later, August 14, 1817, when Abraham Amos, M. P. 
(missionary preacher), solemnized the rites of matrimony 
between William F. Roberts and Elizabeth Fonjuer ; and 
also Thomas Porter and Nina Wheeler. The marriage 
ceremony between John Warnock and MLss .Jane McClure 
was performed by Salmon Giddings, an ordained clergy- 
man. William Griflen and Polly Hendricks were lawfully 
married by Abram Amos, M. P., Sept. 4, 1817. Alexander 
Jameson, a justice of the peace, performed the marriage 
ceremony for Ira Scovel and Polly Chrisley on the 21st of 
December, 1817. John Henson and Sarah Davis were 
joined in the holy state of matrimony by J. Milton Moore, 
justice of the peace, on the 30lh of October, 1817 ; and 
Squire Alexander Jameson did a similar act of kindness to 
Joseph Andrew and Katharine Wiley Oct. 28, 1817 ; also 
for John McDavid and Betsey Fisher on the 1.5th of Sept'r 
1817 ; and, two days later, for Reuben Bradley and Nancy 

Jesse W. Cooper, justice of the p ace, on the tJth of Au- 
gust, 1817, was addressed by William Alexander, C. C. 0. 
M. C, as follows : Whereas there is a marriage shortly to be 
solemnized between Elisha Fowler, of the county of Monroe 
and territory of Illinois, and Mary Quigley, of the same 
county and territory ; and the said Elisha Fowler having 
legally proven the requisitions required of him according to 
law, this is therefore to license and permit you to join to- 
gether in the holy state of matrimony said parties, agreeable 
to the rites and ceremonies of your church; and for so doing 
this shall be your sufficient warrant. Given under my hand 
at my office at Harrisonville, Monroe county, this tith day 
of August, 1817, and of the Independence the forty-second. 
The Squire tied the knot on Sunday, August 10, 1.S17, ac- 
cording to law, as he says. 

A proclamation and warrant similarly composed and 
worded, with the addition of the solemn a.ssertion that the 
lady had consented and entered into security as the law 
directs, authorized the marriage of Daniel Vaughn and 
Rody Huit ; and Squire Cooper comically reporis that the 
"above named " were lawfully married according to law. 
The year 1817 was prolific in its crop of marriages, there 



having been eleven recorded in the county. The records of 
1818 contain the following: 

Ellis Chalfin and Rebecca Hull, Jan. 0, by Alexander Jameson, J. P. 
William Riggs and Sarah Brownfleld, .4pril 7, by Thomas Browufield, J. P. 
Thomas Vanmater and Delilah Cain, Feb. 15, by Abraham Amos, M. P. 
William Rodgers and Sarah Probins, Aug. 18. by J. W. Cooper, J. P. 
Joseph Hogan and Eliz.^beth Liycount, Aig. 7, by Jesse W. Cooper, J. P. 
Thoma.s Johnston and Eache Cain, Nov. 29, by James Garretsoii, M. G. 
The year 181S did not as well as 1817. 


Dennis Dace and Massey Robins, Jan. 2, by James Garretson, M. G. 

Jess Boggs and Polly Wilson, Jan. 21. by Jesse W. Cooper, J. P. 

William Brown and Betsey Barney, Jan. 2.3. by John Scott, J. P. 

William Anderson and Sally Valentine, alios SiUy Miller, January 23, by John 
Scott, J. P. 

Burdett Green and Rebecca Parker, Jan. 31, by James Garretson, M. G. 

Samuel Lock and Charily Steph- ns, April 21, by John Scott, J. P. 

Moses Divers and Phcebe Jones, July 15, by Henry C. Mizner. 

Moses Lock and Sally Stirrel, June 12, by Henry C. Mizner, J. P. 

James McDaniel and Elizabeth Modglin, Aug 6th, by J. Milton Moore, J. P. 

Jesse Miller and Elizabeth Modglin, Aug. 29, by J. Milton Moore, J. P. 

Elijah Axley .ind Elizabeth Everman, Aug. 26, by Th. Browntield, J. P. 

William D. Brightman and Sophia Devoe, Aug. 20, by T. M. Hamilton, J. P. 

John B. Wiser and Catharine Fry, late wife of Joseph Fry, legally divorced by 
an order of the Circuit Court of Monroe county, obtained license to get 
married ; but the certificate of marriage is not on file nor recorded. 

Nimrod Triplet and Franky Hutson, Nov. 18, by John Divers, J. P. 

Reuben Gon and Sarah Elliot, Dec. 20, by Henry C. Mizner, J. P. 

Among the marriages solemnized in Monroe county at an 
early day, that of Shadrach Bond should here be mentioned. 
The license was issued on the 16lh of June, 18'23, and worded 
as follows : 

State of Illinois, Monroe county, ss 

The people of the State of Illinois, to all to whom these 
prefents fhall come greeting : Know ye that a license is 
hereby granted to any licensed minister of the Gospel, any 
justice of the peace, county commissioner, or any other per- 
son legally authorized, to join together in the holy state of 
matrimony Shadrach Bond and Ann Todd, both of the 
county aforesaid, and for so doing this shall be a sufficient 

In witness whereof, I, Daniel Converse, deputy clerk for 
Samuel McRoberts, clerk of the county commissioners' court 
for Monroe county, have hereunto set my hand and seal 
(there being no public seal provided), this 1 6th day of June, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

Daniel Converse, Dep'y Clerk. 

The marriage was solemnized about ten days later, as will 
appear from the following certiticate: 
State of Illinois, Monroe (»unty, s« 

This may certify that on the twenty-sixth day of June, 
1823, by virtue of a license from the clerk of the cuunty 
commissioners' court of Monroe county, I joined together in 
the holy bonds of matrimony Shadrach Bond* and Ann 
Todd. Witness my hand and seal, June 27, 1823. 

Henry C. Mizner, J. P. 

* This Shadrach Bond cannot have been the "Governor," who ' 
Nov. 27, 181(1, in Nashville, Tennessee, to Miss Achsah Bond (an own cousin), 
who survived the Governoi- and died in Kaskai-kia, Feb. 29, 1844, as stated to 
the writer by Dr. B. N. Bond, of Slanberry, Mo., only surviving son of the Gov- 
ernor. The doctor Informs us that Daniel D. Smith and Miss Todd were 
married at the Governor's house, which fact was ascertained from a memoran- 
dum in the family Bible, now in his possession. 


The ancient village of St. Philip has been mentioned in 
the preceding sketch of the Renault Grant. Harrimmille, 
or Carthage, is frequently mentioned in the oldest American 
records of Kaskaskia, where it is sometimes called t'^e Ameri- 
can " block house" or "fort.' A plat of the town of "Car- 
thage " was filed for record on the 20th of July, 1816, 
signed James B. Edwards, deputy recorder of Monroe 
county. The town was located on the Mis-issippi river, in 
section 18, town 3—11 It contained 56 blocks of 4 lots 
each. The streets, 14 in number, crossed each other at 
right angles. Water, Second, Third, Walnut, Sycamore, 
Broad and Mulberry streets ran parallel with the river. 
The cross streets, commencing in the south, were named 
Main, Market, Moore, Lemen, Alexander, McRoberts and 
McClure streets. The public square was located in the 
southeastern part of the town, between Broad and Mul- 
berry and Main and Market streets. A donation to the 
county was made by the firm of McKnight & Brady, of St. 
Louis, on the 19th of July, 1816 This donation com- 
prised block 47 of the town of Carthage and four outlots, 
adjoining the town in the east, containing about 20 acres 
in the aggregate. The name of " Harrisonville" is easily 
accounted for, as the town was laid out during the adminis- 
tration of the first territorial governor of the Indiana terri- 
tory, of which, until 1809, Illinois formed a part. But why 
was the town named Carthage? Probably in honor of Mrs. 
Dido, wife of William Atchison, who was in possession of a 
tract of land containing 4U0 acres, known as Claim 1407, 
Survey .561, located in the immediate vicinity of the town, 
at the time of the organization of the county. William and 
Dido sold this tract to William Morrison, November 4,«, for §3000— the highest price paid for lands in those 
days. It is to be hoped that our Dido led a more fortunate 
life than her namesake, the queen of ancient Carthage. At 
any rate we found no account of a faithless and heartless 
uEneas, who, after playing shepherd with her in the adja- 
cent caves, could have caused her to ascend a funeral pile, 
and to pierce her loving heart with an old cavalry sabre. 

Waterloo was named and laid out by George Forquer* and 
Daniel P. Cook on section 25, town 2, south 10 in the be- 
ginning of 1818. A survey of the site was made by Enoch 
Moore, December 18, 1818. 

Town lots had been sold by Forqutr and Conk as early as 
April, 1818. Among the purchasers of these lots we found 
the names of James Smith, James Rankin, William How- 
ard, Dennis Dace, Michael Dace, John Garretson, Joseph 
Beaird, William Beaird, John Reynolds, Enoch Moore, 
Peter Prim, Guy Morrison, John Ryan, J. H. Lambert, 
Jesse W. Cooper and James Moore. 

Bridgewater, laid out by George Forquer, Daniel P. Cook 
and John James, was located south of Eagle creek, at its 
confluence with the Mississippi. It contained 19 blocks of 
from 6 to 12 lots each. The public square was composed 

*t;eorge Forquer was :i man of great inHuence. He occupied various respon- 
sible poi-i ions in the county. In later years he removed to Sangamon county, 
which he represented iu the State Senate in 1834 and 18.1.-.. He gave the im- 
petus to the great internal improvement and railroad fever, which plunged 
the State into a debt of a' out fourteen millions of dollars. 



of 8 lots, two each of blocks 2, 3, 8 and 9, being of oblong 
form, '2(>0 by 344 feet, and containing an area of 89.440 
i-quare feet. Samuel Mooney. John Ford, Freeman Kelly, 
Hamilton .Smith, David Levisse, James R. Sheppard and 
Henry C. Mizner were the first purchasers of lots. 

We return now to the government of the county. The 
second county board. 1^*17 to 1818, consisted of Caldwell 
Cairn?. James Lemen and James McRoberts. The labors 
of this board were confined to opening a few roads, granting 
of licens-es and permitting Ichabod Valentine to erect mill" 
dams on Eagle creek. The court had a settlement with 
John Moore, asse.'sor and treasurer, and also with James K. 
Moore, sheriff. It does not appear what the revenue had 
amounted to, but there were small balances, to wit: 833.02* 
and S20.)S.") against the officers. The cost of the assessment 
was stated to have been §12.00 exactly. 

The act of the legislature, January 12, 1818, established 
the so-called justices' courts, which were intrusted with the 
county government. This system continued in force until 
June 7, l><l!t. 

The first court of this kind was held en the 20th April, 
1818, Justices Jesse W. Cooper. Prince Bryant, J. Milton 
Moore, Alexander Jameson. John Scott, James Whaley and 
William Chalfin attending. The court was held in the 
house of Thomas Jame.s. A number of ^Nimrods appeared 
to claim the lawful rewards for killing wolves, to wit, 82 00 
for each scalp. These Nimrods were Ellis Chalfin, Warner 
Dace, John Clover, Joseph Harniss, William Quigley, 
Thomas Nelson and James McDonald. James Henderson, 
Adam Smith and Daniel C. Link were licensed to keep 
taverns, and John M. Wilson to run a ferry from his 
"house" across the Mississippi, for which he had to pay 
$3 00. 

Thomas O'Conner contracted for making the county 
assessment, for and in consideration of which he was to be 
paid S21.0O. 

The necessity of building a jail had now become apparent, 
and a contract was entered into with Samuel J. Kinkead on 
the 18th of April. 1.S18. 

In order to give the present generation an idea of what a 
dungeon of those days consisted, we introduce below the 
contract at length. 

John James was appointed to superintend the building of 
the jail, which seems to have been completed June 9, 1819. 


A contract is hereby made with Samuel J. Kinkead to 
build a jail on the public square in the town of Harrisonville, 
donated to the county for the purpose of having public 
buildings thereon erected by the present proprietors of said 
town, the jail is to be of the following descriptions, viz. : 

To be sixteen feet square in the clepr, the foundation to 
be of stone laid in lime mortar, three feet thick and two feet 
high, the jail to be built of " hughen " timber one foot scjuare 
and two tier, each to be dovetailed so as to lock at each 
corner ; timber of the same kind and size to be set in per- 
pendicularly between the in- and outer tier, so as to touch ; 
to be one story high and eight feet in the clear, all of the 

timber to be oak, except the two inside tiers, the upper tier 
of the lower floor and the lower tier of the upper one maybe 
of cotton wood, which is used in building the said jail, the. 
corners of said jail are to be boxed with good oak plank, the 
lower floor to be " hughen" timber, one foot square jointed 
and to be double, the upper tier of timber to " lay " across 
the under. The floor overhead to be of light materials and 
made in like manner with the lower one. A double door to 
be made of two inck oak plank, two feet nine inches wide to 
be riveted ; and the door is to be hung by. hooks firmly put 
into the logs, and it is to be secured by a good substantial 
lock : there are to be two windows, two feet by eight inches, 
with six iron bars, one inch square across each window, to 
be fastened into the logs 8 inches di-ep, at each end, and one 
perpendicular iron bar one inch square on the outside in the 
centre of each window, al*o to extend eight inches into the 
logs at each end. four plates to be well pinned down with 
two inch pins, gable ends to be made of inch oak plank, to 
be covered with a good and sufficient roof of rafters, being 
well spiked to the plates, to be well sheeted and covered with 
oak or walnut shingles, laid six inches to the weather, the 
shingles to be of i of an inch thick and well proportioned, 
the "hole'' (nomen et omen) to be completed in a workman- 
like manner by the first day of December, 1818, for the con- 
sideration of one thousand and four dollars current money, 
to be paid at the county treasury, by order of the justices 
court and their successors in office, as follows : two hundred 
dollars in advance and the balance when the building afore- 
said shall be completed in manner aforesaid, to the satisfac- 
tion of this court and their successors in office. And it is 
further ordered that the said Samuel J. Kinkead give bond 
and security in the sum of two thousand and eight dollars 
to the sitting justices of this court and their successors in 
office for the faithful performance of the foregoing contract 

Meanwhile Illinois had made preparation to be admitted 
as a sovereign state into the Union and a constitutional con- 
vention had been elected, and its members assembled at 
Kaskaskia in July, 1818, and having completed their labors 
adjourned August 2ti, 1818. 

Monroe county was repr.sented by Caldwell Cairns and 
Enoch Moore, both pioneers of the county. Cairns was a 
member of the county board during the first years of the 
county's existence, and in later years judge of probate. 
Moore also filled various official positions in the county, both 
gentlemen were exemplary officers. 

The first county commissioners' omrt since the admission 
of Illinois as a State convened at Harrisonville, on the 7th 
of June, 1819 The court was composed of the Honorables 
Caldwell Cairns, Joseph A Beaird and James McRoberts. 
"gentlemen," as Samuel McRoberts, the clerk, stated, 
"elected and qualified." 

The townships of territorial times were now converted into 
election precincts without any change in the territory. 

Eagle township commenced as heretofore in the southwest, 
where the "tornado" had crossed the Mississippi, and its 
elections were to be held at the house of Joseph Hogan. 

Belie Fountaine, poll at the tavern of David Ditch, in 



Harrison and Mitchic, poll at the court room iu the house 
of Thomas James, at Harrisonville. Mitchie became an 
election precinct on the 8th of June, 1824, with poll at the 
house of Seth Chalfin. 

The succeeding board was composed of the same persons, 
as Caldwell Cairns, the out-going member, was re-elected. 
In the third board, George Forquer and John Roach suc- 
ceeded Beaird and McRoberts. John Garretson was elected 
iu 1823, in place of Forquer, and Nathan Hamilton in 1824, 
in place of Roach. John D. Whiteside succeeded Caldwell 
Cairns in 182.5. The labors of these boards were confined 
to routine business only, as the financial couditiou of the 
county was most deplorable ; the county warrants were 
worth not more than thirty-five cents per dollar. The board 
had some difficulties with the clerk, but it is not known what 
had caused them. Mr. McRoberts was ousted and Squire 
Mizner appointed in his place. McRoberts brought suit in 
the circuit court against the county commissioners, who, on 
the 3d of June, 1822. were treated to a mandamus by his 
Honor, Judge Thomas Reynolds, to reinstate McRoberts. 
The mandamus was obeyed instanter ; whereupon McRob- 
erts entered upon the duties of the office to the end of his 
terra, September, 1824. Eighteen years later McRoberts 
was United States Senator from Illinois. 

In 1825 the county seat was permanently established at 
Waterloo by a board of commibsiouers appointed by the 
legislature of llliuois. The minutes of the county board 
contain the following entry in reference to the matter, to wit : 

April Term A. d. 182.5.— April 9, 1825. 
Nathaniel Hamilton, ) 

John 1). Whiteside 
John Garretson, 

County Commissioners. 

Report of commissioners appointed by the legislature to 
fix the county seat, was laid before the board by Mr. John 
D Whiteside, which report is as follows: 

We, the commissioners under the act of the 15th of Jan- 
uary, 1825, to fix the permanent seat of justice for the county 
of Monroe, to wit, Henry Conner, Joseph Conway and 
Samuel C. Christy, met at the house of David Ditch, in said 
county, on the 1st of April, 1825, and according to law took 
an oath btfore John Milton Moore, Esquire, a justice of the 
peace in and for said county, to faithfully take into view the 
convenience of the people, the situation of the settlements 
with an eye to future population and the eligibility of the 
place, which oath in writing is herewith returned and made 
a part of said return. On the 7th of the same month another 
of the commissioners, to wit, John Reynolds, took the same 
oath as above taken by the other commissioners and filed as 
aforesaid. The other commissioner, to wit, Thomas Rey- 
nolds, does not attend. After mature deliberation and 
reflection, and taking into view the convenience of the peo- 
ple, the situations of the settlements with an eye to future 
population and the eligibility of the different sites, we, the 
commissioners, do designate and determine upon the public 
square in the town of Waterloo, as laid out in the original 
plat of said town, made by Enoch Moore, on the 18th De- 
cember, 1818, and which plat is made a part of our return 

to the county commissioners of said county, to be the seat of 
justice for the said county of Monroe 

We, the said commissioners, have taken a bond for twenty 
acres of land, and another bond for the sum of five hundred 
dollars, which two bonds are herewith filed and returned to 
the said county commissioners. All lands which have been 
given to the county in consideration of the location of the 
seat of justice on said public square shall be considered and 
taken as part of the town of Waterloo. All of which actings 
and proceedings we, the commissioners as aforesaid, do certify 
and return to the county commissioners of Monroe county, 
9th April, 1825. 

H. Conner, 

John Reynolds, 
Joseph Conway, 
Samuel C. Christy, 
Affidavits of Commissioners. 
Be it remembered, that on the first day of April, in the 
year of our Lord one thou.>-and eight hundred and twenty- 
five, at the house of David Ditch, in the county of Monroe, 
personally appeared before me, J. Milton Moore, a justice 
of the peace for the aforesaid county of Monroe, Henry 
Ccnner, Samuel C. Christy and Joseph Conway, three of the 
commissioners who were appointed by the act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Illinois, at the last session, approved 
the 15th of January, 1.S25, to fix the permanent seat of jus- 
tice for the aforesaid county of Monroe, who, being duly 
sworn on the Holy Evangelist of Almighty God, faithfully 
to take into view the convenience of the people, the situation 
of the settlements with an eye to future population and the 
eli"ibility of the place. Given under my hand and seal this 
day and date above. 

J. MiLTos Moore, J. P. JskalI 

A similar affidavit was made on the 7th of April, 1825, 
by John Reynolds, who, however, was not sworn on the 
Holy Evangelist of Almighty God. 

The commissioners were paid the sum of S80 for their 
labors of locating the county seat. 

The changing of the county seat from Harrisonville to 
Waterloo was apparently perfected without trouble or diffi- 
culty. The scanty archives of the county were transported 
on an ox-cart from town to town. Some residents of Harri- 
sonville, however, were very much displeased and the most 
valuable property of the county, to wit, the doorlock, and 
other irons of the public jail at Harrisonville, was taken 
possession of by James A. James, a valiant Harrisonvillian, 
who retained them for years, not surrendering until Septem- 
ber, 1835, when the county agreed to make him a deed to 
the jail grounds at the village. In March, 1831, the court 
made an order to sell the old jail. The sheriff' who was to 
execute this order, refused to carry it out, for fear that he 
would be held " respunsiljle." whereupon the court made 
another order, in which the county was held to indemnify 
the sheriff, and the purchasers were assured to get possession. 
However, there was no sale. 



The first term of the county commissioners at Waterloo 
was held in David Ditch's tavern, on the (ithot'June, l><'2o; 
present — Nathaniel Hamilton, John D. White and John 
Garrelson, commissioners ; John James, sherift', and Daniel 
Converse, clerk. The tax levy of that year (1824) amounted 
to S735.t)"), and the sheriff was summoned to explain why he 
had not settled his accounts. John M. Wilson was licensed 
to run a ferry across the Jlississippi river to Selma's Cliffs. 
He paid S1"J.0() per year for this j.rivilege and was allowed 
to make the foUowiug charges: Foot passengers, 2.5 cts.; horse, 
371; man and horse, 625 ; cattle, "i.") ; calf, sheep or goat, 
12J cents; wagon and team, S2 00 ; dearborn, 81.2") ; cart 
and horse, SI 00 ; cart and oxen, SI 2.") ; barrel of spirits or 
wine, 2.") cents, and goods at 10 cents per 100 lbs. 

David Ditch was licensed to keep tavern at Waterloo, 
when upon the court adjourned for one hour, it is presumiil 
for the purpose of holding a private conference ou the ques- 
tion of prohibition. John Bamber became a member of the 
board iu September, \&25, taking the place of John Garret- 
son. An order was made iu D. cembtr, lf<2.'), that county 
orders issued prior to December, 1)S24, should be received by 
the tax gatherer at a discount of Otis per cent. ; those issued 
after December, 1824, and prior to June 1st, 1825, at 50 
per cent. ; and those subsequent to latter date and prior to 
date of order at 25 per cent, discount. Josiah Lemen was 
appointed commissioner to lake the census of the county. 

J. ililton Moore was employed to draft a plan for a court 
house, December 26, 1825; finished this job on the 0th of 
Mar. h, l'<2(i, and received §3.00 for his work. It had 
talven Mr. Moure months to draft the plan, but it took the 
court years to make use of them. The troubles in consequence 
of the change iu the county seat were being felt for years 
inasmuch as constant impediments were thrown into the 
paths of the commissioners. Board succeeded board without 
even being able to procure a suitable site for the public 
buildings. During this period of uncertainly the county 
commissioners had succeeded however to get the county out 
of financial ditficulties for coun y warrants were taken at 
par, December, 1830. The authorities received donations 
of land and lots iu 1<S30 for public buildings. 

The following grounds were donated to the county, on 
account of locating the seat of justice at Waterloo, to wit: 
Five acres of land granted by Enoch .Moore, beginning at 
the southwest corner of David Ditch's, aiid on the north- 
west corner of Garduer Stone's lots, thence north ten poles 
with said Ditch's lot, thence east eight poles, thence north 
thirty poles, thence west twenty-two poles, thence south 
forty poles, thence east fourteen poles to the place of begin- 
ning, which shall be divided by a street running north, sixty 
feet wide and iu the same direction. 

The founders of Waterloo besides donated the following 
town lots, to wit: Nos. 4, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 23,24, 
26, 27, 31,33, 40, 52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 and 64. These 
lots were to be sold, and the amount realized was to be 
applied towards paying for the erection of a court house. 
It seems that these 23 lots were sold for 8224.041. 

Finally ou the 26th day of March, 1831, bids were invited 
for the contracts for buildiuga brick court house, 30 by 36 

feet, and two stories high. W. W. Oraelveny ccntractid 
for the brick work for §478.50. He completed his work by 
the 7th of December, 1831, when he was paid S4 )8.50, the 
county remaining in debt to him to the amount of 840 on 
balance of contract, and 81 6. 'JO on account of extra work 

Robert Coleman received 8150 for wood work, but failed 
to complete the work, which was now entrusted to J. H. 
Harrington, who received in pay a certificate "to recover 
value of work done from the above contractor." 

The court, although in an unfinished condition, was 
occupiid on the 4th of June, 1832. 

This court house must have been a very frail building, for 
in September, 1834, the court took " notice" that the walls of 
the building were "shook " and injured by the boys throwing 
balls against them, whereui)nu the clerk was instructed to 
draw up a. proc/unidtiun forbidding the throwing of toy-balls 
against those walls, and have said proclamation posted, one 
at the court house and three more at the most public j)laces 
in town. Emery P. Rogers, Solomon Patterson and 
Thomas McRoberts are responsible for this " ukas." From 
a report of John Rya- , treasurer of the county, it appears 
that the revenue of the county for the year 1831 was 
81131.02, and that all nf if had been collected and paid into 
the treasury ; further that the collector of the revenue of 
1830 was in arrears to the amount of 8140 72, that ])ur- 
chasers of donation lots were still owing the county 8197.18i, 
and that Nancey Ramey, C. F. Fletcher, E. P. Rogers, 
David Ditch, John Divers, James A. James and J.ihu M 
Wilson had not jiaid their licenses, amounting in the aggre- 
gate to 834 00 We have stated repeatedly that the county 
authorities had at every occasion exhibited great readiness 
to license taverns and grog-shops, and now let it be saiil, iu 
honor of the good people of Waterloo, that, as early as 1832, 
they raised 826 for the purpose of sinking a well to procure 
good drinking water. Who would have thought of such a 
thing at Waterloo, and atso early a day ? The county board, 
not to be outdone by the villagers of Waterloo, appro- 
priated one dollar of the public funds towards purchasiiKj a 
Bihh' for use of the county otticials. 

We have baeu assiirod thit prLH-iou-i to this purchase 
the county officers hiwi been using Chesterfield's Letters to 
his .son for their edification, and, from present appearauces, 
it may be inferred that this information is correct. 

During the term of this board a number of revolutionary 
veterans appeared in court for the purpose of identifying 
themselves and iu order to get their certificates for pensiou. 
From these proceedings and an official statement by the 
State authorities, it appears Ebei czer Brown, aged 9)\, ha<l 
served in the Virginia Continentals, that his annual pension 
amounted to 848.33, and that he lived long enough to draw 
8144.09 ; Andrew Hilton, aged 77, of the Maryland Conti- 
nentals, drew 830.00 per annum for three years, so did 
Michael Miller, of tlu \'irgini:i Cjiitiueutals. James 
McRoberts, of the Pennsylvania Continentals, and Joseph 
Wright, of the Virginia Continentals, drew each 820 per 
annum. The total pensiou money paid to these five veterans 
amounted to 8734.98. George Goble, a sergeant, and 



William Howard, private, Third U. S. Infantry, and John 
Jeirod, private of the Sixth U. S. Infantry, were invalid 
pensioners, and received $96 per annum. They were not 
revolutionary soldiers, however. 

Solomon Patterson was appointed commissioner and agent 
for the disposal of school lands in 1833 

A new election precinct was organized in 1834, to be 


It commenced at Thomas Talbott's mills on Prairie du 
Long creek, thence direct to the big spring on Horsecreek, 
thence southwest to the old ruad from New Design to 
Kaskaskia, thence down said road to the Randolph line. 
The pull was established at the house of John Morrison, 
with Preston Brickey, John Bamber and Zopher Williams, 
as judges of election. 

In March, 1834, the county's cash box was replenished 
by a remittance of $300 00, due to he county, of amounts 
realized from sale of Gallatin county saline lauds. This 
money was immediately made use of in completing the 
court house. Leman French got $2-50 for furni.-hing the 
upper rooms, and Daniel Converse was paid 875 for paint 
ing the house. 

The court house was now completed, about ten years after 
Waterloo 4iad become the county seat. It speaks well for 
the morals of the people of the county, that the want of a 
jail was not felt until in 1835, when the court commenced 
to moot the question of building a jail. Afttr four years 
of diligent talking and planning, the question was brought 
to a vote and decided in favor of building a jail. 

In the meantime the county had come into possession of a 
large amount of money, her proportional share of the so- 
called iinproi'ement fund, mentioned in this chapter under 
the heading of Randolph county. John Morrison had been 
appointed to collect this fund, to wit $6,900, at Vaudalia, 
and he brought it safely to Waterloo on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1838. There was trouble now, how to save and 
preserve so vast an amount of actual money. The county 
board, composed of Sidney Todd, William Thrtlfull and 
J. M. Wooten, ordered, that Edward Newsham, J. H. 
Portle and James B. Needlei should become ihe custodians 
of this fund, that each of them should receive $2 300 of the 
money in order to loan it out in sums not exceeding $500, 
at not less than twelve per cent, annual interest for the 
benefit of the county This order, made at the December 
term, 1838, was succeeded by another order, of March, 1839, 
instructing the fund custodians to at once collect these 
funds and to hold them in readiness for further orders. 

The jail project had now ripened into shape, contractors, 
who had heretofore given the county a wide berth, were now 
ready and eager to go to work. The jail contract was let 
on the 3rd of June, 1839. 

This jail, the first in Waterloo, was erected in 1839. 
John Taylor of Belleville, contracted for the building of 
it on July 1st, 1839, for $2,400 (This jail stood east of the 
present court house). It was to be erected of good sound 
limestone, thirty-five feet long and twenty-five feet wide, 
two stories high, eight feet each exclusive of the joists. 

The walls of the lower story to be two feet thick, and the 
second story above the joists twenty-two inches thick, both 
stories to be divided by partition walls, eighteen inches 
thick of same materials, leaving an entry of ten feet wide, 
two outside doors and one door from the entry into each 
room, eight windows of fifteen panels, ten by twelve glass, 
four of which to be secured with iron grates. The founda- 
tion to be of limestone, to be sunk two feet and a half below 
the surface of the ground and raised to a level one foot 
above the surface of the ground, two feet and a half thick 
to extend under the partition, as well as side and end walls, 
and all to be laid in good lime and sand mortar. The 
dungeon to be lined with timber five inches thick with 
suitable doors and grating. The contractors had to furnish 
all ^he materials, which were to be of first-rate quality, etc. 
The jail was finished on the 9th of September, 1840 Its 
construction cost $100 more than contract price. The con- 
tractors were paid $1,205 in cash, and $1 295 in twelve per 
cent, interest bearing county orders. 

The county authorities appropriated a round thousand 
dollars of this fund, towards improving the road from 
Waterloo to Harrisonvdle, and entrusted Jacob J. Danner 
with the disbursement of this amount ; $250 of it were paid 
to Henry Hill for grading the road on Tamaroi's hill. The 
fund had been gradually reduced to $4,200.34. December 
8th, 1840, the fund commissioners surrendered this balance, 
all in promissory notes, to the county clerk for safe keeping. 
They were paid $508 for their services. (John Morrison 
received $45 for making the collection and bringing the 
funds from Vandalia to Waterloo). Converse, the clerk, 
remained custodian of this fund until December, 1843, when 
he turned the papers over to the county treasurer, by whom 
they by rights ought to have been kept and preserved from 
the beginning. These moneys were subsequently trtated 
and disbursed as other public funds belonging to the county. 
New Design precinct was organized December 8th, 1840, 
with poll at the house of Matthias Harrison. The popula- 
tion of the county, u.ore than 1200 in 1816, amounted now 
over 4000 souls 

The United States census of 1840, furnishes the following 
data : The population of Monroe was 4481 in the aggregate; 
there were then eleven slaves in this number, two male and 
nine female. Twenty-eight of the above number were ovtr 
seventy years of age. The occupations of the inhabitanis 
of the county, were defined as follows: Agriculture, 979; 
commerce, 32; manufactures and trades, 115; navigation 
of canals and rivers, 2 ; learned professions and engineers, 
13 ; number of pensioners for revolutionary or military 

services, . The unfortunates were : One deaf and 

dumb, three blind, two insane, all at private charge. There 
were five schools in the county attended by 168 pupils. 
Three hundred and seven adults were unable to read or 

The census of 1840 recites that th? county of Monroe was 
engaged in " mining " at that period. A closer examina- 
tion into this astounding statement led to an easy explana- 
tion. The " mine " was a stone-quarry, in which one man 
was employed, who contrived to get out 300 dollars' worth 



of rock (luring 1839. The agricultural wealth consisted in 
2289 horses, 8:):52 neat cattle, 3338 sheep, 16,516 hogs and 
3668 dollars' worth of property. The agricultural produces 
of the year 1839 were reported as follows: 22,012 bushels 
of wheat, loO of birley. 21,975 of oats, 350 of rye and 
293,462 of corn ; 436 pounds of wax, 10,016 bushels of po- 
tatoes, .397 tons of hay, 550 pounds of Hax, 300 pounds of 
tobacco, 20 pounds of cotton, 36.59 cords (if wood, 11,844 
dollars' worth of milk, butter and cheese, and 1910 dollars' 
worth of fruit. Homespun goods, woven on the famous 
old loom, represtnted a value of S16,630. Gardening 
produced a value of $66 and a "nursery" 8145. Nine 
merchants were doing business in the county with a capital 
of §31,281. Under the head of "Fisheries" we find that 
28 ffalloii-t of oil hm\ been produced in the county. Eight 
men had manufactured 920 dollars' worth of bricks. Two 
woolen manufactories, employing two persons turned out 
goods valued at S550. Three tanneries, worked by 5 hands, 
turned out 600 sides of sole leather and 1050 sides of upper 
leather. Two saddlery shops did 1800 dollars' worth of 
work. Two distilleries manufactured 7000 gallons of whis- 
key. The products of 2 flouring, 3 grist aud 4 saw mills, 
with a capital of §37,750, giving em|)loyment to 11 persons, 
were valued at 820,300. 

The proceedings of the county board during the succeed- 
ing years are void of interest. As a curiosity, we may 
mention here an order of the county board in reference to 
the official conduct of James B. Needles, ex-sherifl' of the 
county, to wit : 

"Ordered that he have a certificate under the seal of the 
court, that he has faithfully discharged the duties of the 
office of sherifl' of Monroe county for 6 years previous to 
September 1, 1840, and punctually settled and paid over all 
moneys charged against him as collector of the revenue of 
the county." 

The settlements of the treasurers had for years exhibited 
a balance of funds on hand, and yet there were considerable 
amounts of count}' warrants outstanding aud remained un- 
redeemed for vaiit of fuuil.<. This contradictory state of 
aflTairs finds an explanation in the following report: 

" The undersigned having been apjioiuted agent of the 
county wi h instructions to convert the iineurrent funds in 
the treasury of the county into lawful money, and to use it 
in paying off the floating debt jf the county, begs leave to 
report, that he realized 8315.37 cash from the sale of 8647 
of State bank paper, sold at 44 cts. per dollar, and also of 
$99 of the bank of Shawneetown, sold at 33 cts. ; that he 
bought county warrants amounting to 860 for 836 cash, and 
8372.50 more for 8279.37 (cash) ; that he charged 89 for 
his trouble, and further that there were still 820.50 out in 
county warrants which could be bought for 815.37* cents in 

Soon after, in 1845, Mr. Morrison, as sherifl' of the county, 
filed a report of his revenue collections, which will be intro- 
duced here at length, because of its accuracy, and because 
of its being the only one spread on the county record since 
the organization of the county. The following is the docu- 


John Morkison, collector, in acct with the county of Monroe. 

To am't of CO. revenue as per receipt for 18H, $3,440.77 

To ara't collected more Ihao charged, 69.90 


By treasurer's receipts filed, »2,ri38.37 

By taxes remitted under act for relief of sutTerera by tlood, . 441 15 

By errors— lands assessed twice 21.00 

By errors— in calculations, 2C.72 

By delinquent hits 26-67 

By adv. lands inundated, 140.50 

By forfeitures to the Stale 246.03 

By commission 77.95 

By balance p.l. to treasurer to-day, 182.IS 

t3,.'>06.57 $3,506.67 

Septb. 9, 1845. 

John Morrison, 

Sheriff" and collector. 

The assessed values of the taxable property in the county 
for 1845 was 8798,094, as rep')rted by John Ryan, the 

From the report of Mr. Ryan we glean the following 
facts : 

Monroe county had then 910 resident tax-payers, and 
their personal property was valued at 8172,500. Eight of 
these 910 had personal propjrty exceeding 1,000 dollars 
in value, to wit : 

S. W. Miles ?:i,"10 J. D. Whiteside 81.400 

James A. James l,62o Samuel E. Owen 1,:132 

Jacob Trout 1,531 Jewett heirs 1,209 

Samuel Newland 1,500 Ferdinand Rose . 1,02.') 

Slave property was assessed at $1,350. Henry Wademan, 
A. W. Gardner, Cecelie Beaird, M T. Hornie, S. W. Miles, 
and A. Eekert, were the slaveowners in 1843. 

Tliere was quite a number of citizens who sported pleasure 
carriages worth from 8100 to 8300 The present generation 
may have some curiosity as to who it was that drove to town 
in carriages forty years ago, and their curiosity shall be 
gratified. The gentry of 1843 was made up by the follow- 
ing : 

B. F. Masterson — his carriage was the finest or newest, 
for it was assessed the highest ; John Morrison, W. H. 
Gale, A. W. Gardner, William Wilson, J. R. James, J. M 
Moore, P. B. Brickey, Milton Moore, W. T. Eekert, Jesse 
Wiswell, Abram Clark, Lewis S. Steigers, and John Ste- 

The assessor's report further states that there were then 
thirteen capitalists in the county, who, together, were draw- 
ing interest on 88,930 loaned out. The report speaks also 
of thirteen merchants doing business in the county, who 
had stated their several stocks of goods to be worth 86,150 
in the aggregate. 

The town lots in the county were assessed at $21,955 ; the 
values vary from 810 to 81,000 per lot. Of the latter class 
there was but one, to wit : lot No. 90 in Waterloo, owned by 
E. Moore. 

The lands were assessed at from 83.00 to 85.00 per acre. 
There were 48,060 acres described iu claims and surveys, 
and 124,800 acres in sections. 

The county levy for the year 1846 was 50 cents per $100, 



which would yield a revenue of 8:^900.0(1, a tax of about 80 
cents per capita. 

Before closing our remarks in reference to the adminis- 
tration of county affairs by the county commissioners' courts 
(1819 to 1849), we should mention that the boundary line 
question between St. Clair and Monroe, and between Monroe 
and Randolph counties, had been adjusted during this 
period. The reports of the county surveyors may, therefore, 
find spai.'e here. 

J. Milton Moore, surveyor of IMonroe county and J. Mes- 
senger surveyor of St. Clair couniy made the following re- 
port, which is ordered to be filed and recorded. 

We the undersigned do hereby certify that on the 30th 
of November 1829 we commenced at the former corner to 
townships 2 and 3 south, between ranges 7 and 8 west of the 
third principal meridian, where we seta new post in the re- 
mains of a former "mound " from which a pine oak now 18 
inches in diameter, a former witness tree btars south (i9° west 
233 links distant, and with the compass set at a variation of 
8° 45 east and ran thence north 89° 05 between townships 
2 and 3 south range 8 west along the former line, renewing 
the blazes when passing through timbered lands, and setting 
posts when in the prairie at several points 5 miles and seventy, 
five chains to a flag stone placed at the point of the former 
corner to townships 2 and 3 south, ranges 8 and 9 west, from 
which stone a post oak, SO inches in diameter bears south 
21" west 135 links distant and a post oak now 15 inches in 
diameter bears north 09° west, 101 links distant ; each of 
them former witness trees to said corner, thence run north 
along the former range line and renewing the blazes in the 
same, 1 mile to the former corner of sections 30 and 31 T 
2 south, R. 8 west, reblazed the old line where we set a new 
post from which a Sycamore 30 inches in diameter bears 
north 59° east 72 links distant, each of which were the 
former witness trees to said corner, thence north 44° 06 
west, 8 miles and 33 chains blazing the same to the former 
corner of sections 30 and 31 T. 1 S. R. 9 west where we set 
a new post by the remains of the former witness trees to said 
corner, they having been recently felled, and take for new 
witness trees a post oak 18 inches in diameter bearing 46J° 
west 187 links and a post oak 15 inches in diameter bearing 
north 16 J ° west 243 links distant, they being the former 
witness trees to sections 25 and 30 T. 1. S. R. 10 west thence 
north along the former line between ranges 9 and 10 west, 
reblazing the same 1 mile to the corner of sections 19 and 30 
T. 1 S. R. 9 west where we set a large flag stone in the 
prairie, thence north 44° west intersecting the former section 
corner diagonally to seclions 13, 14, 23 and 24 and sections 
10, 11, 14 and 15 and sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, five miles and 
52J chains to the northwest corner of section 4, T. 1 S. R. 10 
west thence on the same course 2 miles and 66 chains to the 
banks of the Mississippi river, where we set a post, from 
which a black walnut, 18 inches in diameter, bears south 08} 
east, 25 links distant and a sycamore, 26 inches in diameter 
bears south 8 east, 50 links distant. The aforesaid line being 
in conformity to an order of the county commissioners of St. 
Clair and Monroe counties and in conformity to the act of 

the legislature relative to the northern boundary of Monroe 

Report is dated December 3d 1829 and signed by J. Mil- 
ton Moore and John Messenger, surveyors. Cost of survey 
was 143 16. 

Southern boundary line. Report of James Thompson and 
J. M. Moore, county surveyors, made the following report, 
March 1st 1830 and ordered to be recorded.. 

Report: We commenced to run the line between the coun- 
ties of Randolph and Monroe at the southeast corner of 
township 4 S. R. 9 west of the third principal meridian at a 
variation of 7" 36 east, thence south 70 west on a random 
line 62 chains to the house of James M. Canada (Kennedy) 
about 6 chains north of the line 1 mile 30 chains a 15 K 5 
links, thence north west 2 miles and 40 chains, second south 
east 4 miles 16V chains, Kaskaskia road, 5 miles to the top 
of the bluff", 7 miles and 01 chains to a road, 8 miles 236 
chains, road to Kaskaskia, 8 miles and 55 chains to Alexander 
McNabb's farm, fell 125 chains south of said farm, thence 
cerrected the course and run from said farm south 71° 05 
west on true line to the Mississippi river, which nine miles 
and 78 chains to the river bank we set a post from which a 
Cottonwood, 18 inches in diameter bears north 61 east 24J 
links distant and another Cottonwood tree 1 6 inches in 
diameter bears north, 25° west, 27 links distant, thence went 
back to A. McNabb's farm and corrected the line and blazed 
.it back to the beginning corner. 

In conformity with a law of the legislature of the state of 
Illinois providing for running a line between the counties of 
Randolph and Monroe Dated February 18th, 1830. Cost 
of survey §46.00. 


From the reports it appears that the school lands of town- 
ship 3 — 8 were sold in 1830, averaging about 83 50 per acre. 
Amount realized, $2216 00. 

T 1—111 . 
T3— 9 . 
T 3—10 . 
T 2— . 
T a-11 . 

. I V2i\m T 4—10 

. l'.i(i!l.i;(l T4— 9 

IC^T-IT T4— 11 


-,t.ln) Total Sohnol fund in 1848 . 811.309. 


The regime of the ciunty c3'Timi<3ioner's court ended in 
1849. The constitutional convention of 1847 entrusted the 
administration of county affairs to county courts, composed 
of a county judge and two associate justices, who held their 
respective offices for four years. 

The last county board of ilouroe county was composed of 
E. P. Rogers, Joseph Livers, and John Burk. 

Before reciting the events of the period from the adoption 
of the new constitution, March, 1848, to the present time, 
we shall here introduce an extract of the circuit courts of 
the county. 


The first circuit court, held July 21. 1817, at Harrison- 
ville, was presided over by Hon. Jesse B Thomas, with 
Charles Matheny as prosecuting attorney. The grand jury 
at this term was composed of the following gentlemen free- 
holders: William Chalfin, foreman, Alexander McNabb, 
Daniel Hull, Jacob Trout, Ebenezer Bourne, John Worley, 



Jacob Clark, John Sliehan, Daniel Shook, Jacob Clover, 
Leonard Kerr, George Ramey, Daniel Starr, John Roach, 
Joseph A Beaird, Elijah Davis, Daniel Link, Michael 
Dace, Solomon Shook, and Levi Piggott. 

The indictments returned were as follows: 

Andey Kinney, assault aud battery for severely beating 
and wounding, at his mill in Harrisonville township, one 
William Hogan, tried and acquitted. 

John Lock, larceny. John had stolen a bridle from Jcihn 
James, of the value of 80.00 ; pleaded guilty, and paid a 
fine of ?1 2.00 and costs, and returned the bridle. 

William Hogan, the very man on whose account Andey, 
the miller, had been indicted, was brought up for larceny, 
because he had, bv force, broken the lock of a chest, left in 
his custody by Joshua Carey, and stolen its contents of the 
value of 811. 5u 

There were 7 more cases of assault and battery ; the fighters 
were invariably finul from So to 812 00, but the fine was as 
invariably remitted by a lenient aud benevolent judge. 

A divorce case, Sarah Miller vs. Abraham Miller, was 
tried and Sarah's prayer granted. She was also awarded 
the custody of their only child, a boy named Isaac. 

Another divorce case, Joseph Hogan versus Patsey (prob- 
ably an abbreviation of Potiphar) Hogan was tried before 
Judge Warnock at the August term, 1818. Joseph's griev- 
ous wrongs are set forth in the following pathetic declaration : 

To the honorable Circuit Court for the 

county of Monroe, lUinoia Territory. 

Your petitioner humbly sheweth that sometime in the 
month of February in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and si.icteen, he was lawfully married to Pat- 
sey Bailcv, now Patsey Hogan, that he continued to live in 
peace and happiness with her for about three months, when 
the said Patsey Hogan, contrary to the duties of a wife and 
the matrimonial injunctions, eloped from his bed and board, 
without his knowledge or consent, and now lives in open 
adultery with other men. 

Your petitioner humbly prays the honorable court for the 
causes above stated, to decree a dissolution of the bonds of 
matrimony entered into with the said Patsey llogan, and 
your petitioner will ever be in duty bound to pray, etc. 

For Joseph Hog.^n, 

by E. Martin, his attorney. 

Hogan had the following witnesses subpa-naed, to wit ; 
Alexander Jameson, Edward Croush, and Adam Payne. 
PaLsey made no defense, and the divorce was granted. 

The first criminal court held in Monroe county after the 
admission of Illinois !is a sovereign state, was presided over 
by Joseph Phillips, chief justice of the supreme court, May 
3d, 1819. Subsequent terms were held by John Reynolds 
in lf<19, 18-20, and 18-21. Hon. Phillips is on the bench 
again in 1822, succeeded in 1823 and 1824 by Thomas Rey- 
nolds. In 182-5 and 18-2(5 Samuel McRoberts, the former 
clerk, was found on the bench ; he had entered upon his 
career to fame and honors, which elevated him to a seat in 

the Senate of the United States. The next judge was T. W. 
Smith. While at the bench at Waterloo, in March, 1828, 
he heard the first murder case tried in the county. From 
papsrs on file we glean the following facts in this, 

The first murder case. A boy, or young man, Jacob Gil. 
mon, had died on December 22, 1827, under suspicious cir- 
cumstance.*, so that William Biggs, the coroner, deemed it 
his duty to hold an inquest .V coroner's jury, with Joshua 
Talbot as foreman, was called on the 'Mth of January, 18-28, 
to hear the testimony of Cynthia Reynold, who swore that 
between the 4fh und \Oth of Jubj lasl she was a' the house of 
Jervett Varnum, and she understood that the said Varnum 
was then whipping Jacob Gilmon at the cow pen. which was 
a consderable distance from the house, and she, the said 
Cynthia, distinctly heard blows, which she supposed to be 
indicted on the body of said Gilmon with a stick, and that 
Gilmon screamed from the tirfie she first heard the blows, 
and that he continued screaming for a considerable time 
after the blows ceased, and that he continued crying until 
she went to bed ; and that he, the saiil Varnum came to the 
house apparentlv in great passion, and said that he had given 
the said Jacob the severest whipping that he had ever given 
him. On the day following said Jacob said in the presence 
of herself and Mrs. Varnum, that Jewett would never give 
him but one more whipping, for he had almost killed him. 
The wife of said Jewett told him to hush, that Jewett had 
not given him too much ; and he (-lacob) said that Jewett 
had given him too much, had thrown him against the fence 
and almost killed him. 

The phvsicians attending the post mortem have the follow- 
ing testimony in writing : 

" We, the undersigned practitioners in medicine, having 
been called on by W. Biggs, the coroner of Monroe county, 
to examine the body of Jacob Gilmon who was supposed to 
have died from the effects of an external injury received, do 
certify on oath, that our examination was particularly con- 
fined to the head, and by careful examination of the hones 
of the o-ifronfis and os temporis (!) and the upper part of the 
OS temporis ^sic) having been fractured, we do agree that the 
said deceased came to his death by violence committed iu 
some way. 

W. G. GOFARTH, J.VMIvS Newlin, T. St.vxtos.' 

Thereupon the coroner's jury agreed to render the follow- 
ing verdict : 

We, the jurv, aft^r examining the body of Jacob Gilmon, 
believe his death was caused by violence done by Jewett 
Varnum, from the evidence produced. 

Joshua Talbot, foreman. 

Varnum was thereupon committed to jail, and for that 
purpose, on January -M. taken to Belleville, as Monroe 
county had no jail, only a lock and some irons, and they 
were in possession of a citizen of Harrisonville. He imme- 
diately petitioned Judge T. W. Smith for a writ of hnbeas 
I corpus, under which he was brought to Edwardsville before 
1 his Honor, Feb. 5, 18-28. The judge admitted him to ba il 



in $500 with Thomas Hamilton as security. The case was 
brought before the grand jury, «ho on the 8th of March, 
1828, indicted Varnum for murder. The indictment set 
forth that the beating given the boy ou Ju'y Titli, 1828, had 
Caused his death on the 22d of December next, etc. 

The case was tried on the 13ih of August, 1828, and 
Varnum was acquitted. 

A Challenge to fight a Duel. — At the next term of tbe 
court, in August, 1828, Justus Varnum was indicted for 
challenging Isaac Clark to fight a duel with rifles, to wit, 
on the 13th of July last. Bad blood, caused by a lawsuit 
about the right of some property, had prevailed for some 
time between the parties. The duel was not fought, and the 
case against Varnum the Just was nol. pros, iu August, 1829. 
Another Murder. — Eliza Head was put on trial for her 
life in May, 1831, before Judge T W. Smith. It appears 
that Daniel Winn had made an aifidavit before 'Squire 
Thomas McRoberts, on the 21st day of April, 1826, that he 
had found the dead body of a female infant near his house ; 
that he had reason to believe that said infant came to her 
death by violence ; and further, that he believed that one 
Eliza Head was the murderess of the child. A special 
term of the court was thereupon called by Judge Smith, to 
be held in May, 1831. The grand jury, through James 
Ta:ylor, their foreman, presented an indictment against said 
Eliza, charging that on April 19, 1826, immediately after 
having given birth to a bastard child, she had destroyed its 
life by filling the mouth and throat of the infant with dirt 
and leaves, not having the fear of God before her eyes but 
being moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil, 
and against the peace and dignity of the state, etc. 

The prosecution summoned the following witnesses : Daniel 
and Mary Winn, James Wells, Fielder Burch, Samuel New- 
lin, J. M. Wilson, Robert Miller, James Miller, Robert 
Wilson, David Ditech and Abigail Converse. The trial 
came oft' on the 31st of May, Attorney-General Alfred Cowles 
prosecuting and A. W. Snider defending. The jury, com- 
posed of William Wright, James Shephard, James Modglin, 
John Wooters, Lynville M. Daniel, Elijah Axley, John 
Matlock, Moses Lock, John Clark, Thomas McDaniel, Tho- 
mas Sterrill, Jr., and Thomas Morgan, rendered a verdict 
of "not guilty." 

A second indictment, charging the said Eliza with con- 
cealing the death of a child, was disposed of by a plea of 
want of jurisdiction, the plea being sustained by the 

More Murders. — Henry Appel, indicted April, 1818, was 
tried and found guilty at said term. He was defended by 
Bissell and Engelmann, and obtained a new trial, when he 
was found guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary for five years. Two cases of larceny against him 
added fifteen years to the above sentence. Appel was a 
St. Clair county man ; the name of his victim is not men- 
tioned in the records. 

Jacob C. Jones was tried for murder August, 1848, and 
acquitted. Christopher aad Franz Reininger wsre tried for 
murder April, 1849 ; they, too, were acquitted. 

Leaving this subject of murder and bloodshed, we shall 
turn now to another subject, to wit : the naturalization of 
foreign- born residents of the county. 


European immigrants commenced to arrive in the county 
of Monroe about the year 1833. The first naturalization 
papers were granted to John Raddleberger, August 26, 1840. 
His Honor, Judge Sidney Breeze, administered the oath of 
allegiance to the applicant, and made him a naturalized 
citizen of the United States. Applications for citizenship 
now became numerous, and as it may interest the present 
genei'ation to read the declaration of such applicants, we 
introduce here that of Ludwig Pilger, to wit : 

I, Ludwig Pilger, an alien bornjree luhite person, do here- 
by in conformity with the acts of congress relating to the 
naturalization of foreigners, declare and make known that 
my true and proper name is Ludwig Pilger, that I was born 
in the Grand Dutchy of Hesse Darmstadt on the 27th day 
August, 18(10, and that I am forty years of age, that I be- 
longed to the German nation and owed allegiance to the 
Grand Duke of Hesse, that I landed at the city of New 
York, and in the United States of America, on the 20th 
day of June, 1834, that I have ever since my first arrival 
remained under the jurisdiction of the said United States, 
and that it is bona fide my intention to renounce, forever, 
all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign Prince, State or 
Sovereignty whatever, and, more paiticularly such allegiance 
and fidelity as I may in any wise owe to the said Grand 
Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, and to become a citizen of the 
United States : that I do not now enjoy or possess, nor am I 
in any wise entitled to any order of Distin-ction or title of 
nobility, and that I am sincerely attached to the principles 
contained in the Constitution of the United States, and desire 
that this my declaration and report may be accepted, filed 
and recorded preparatory to my intended conformity with 
the several acts of congress heretofore passed on that subject. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me ") 

this 23d day of Eebruarv, A. D., V Ludwig Pilger. 
1840. ■ 3 

W. W. Omelveny, clerk. 

List of foreign born citizens naturalized in the county, 
from August 26, 1840, to April term, 1850. J. A. Franke, 
George Frick, John Frick, Joseph Haller, W. Kraemer, 
Philip Wehrheim, John VVehrheim and E. Waldmann, 
August C. Haserick, Joseph Riehl. John P. Brann, Sebas- 
tian Berger, James Burke, Joseph lieinpe, Jacob Horn, 
John Koechel, George Koch, George Leip, B. Mosbacher, 
Joseph Mohler, .Joseph Mohr, Louis Nadler, Joseph Reihl, 
Jacob Ruch, Joseph Schroeder, Valentin Siegel, Vincent 
Somm, Andrew Schirmer, Anton Schaefer, Joseph Sp^cht, 
John Schaft'er, Anton Sparwasser, William Thackway, 
David Walsh, John Welch, John Kirsch, Patrick McGrath, 
Michael Kelley, Jacob A. Beck, Henry Lauer, Mathias 
Huth, Lewis Pelzer, George de Pugh, Anton Dictz, Urban 
Voelkli, James Newsham, George Maerz, Adam Bruegel, 



Adam Hahnenberger, Christopher Klube, John Minker, 
Heniy Oestrich, Henry Miller, Adam Beeker, Henry Manni, 
Johann Dietz, Nicholas Reitz, Valentin Schafenberger, 
John Hempe, John P. Hofman, Peter U'ierscheini, sr., and 
Peter Wierscheim, jr., John McCrossin, Thomas Bums, 
Jacob Ran, James Rogcow, Frederick Henekler. Thomas 
Coop, .Tohn Adam Mummert, Michael O'Leary, Charles 
Henekler, James Sinimott, Jacob Frick, Christopher Heyl, 
J. Michael Kraetner, Gottlieb Much, Charles Frick, Paul 
Schmitz, Jacob Ralin, Daniel Klein, Louis Grossmann, 
Joseph Roscow, Philip Jarges, Peter Wickline, Perry Fox, 
Martin Huth, Thomas Crowe, John P. Ensinger, jr., John 
Dixon, George A. Kopp, John Lofink, Martin Dunn, 
Thomas Lamb, William Gilraore, Valetin Bruegel, Thomas 
Griffin, John Rye, John Delaney and Michael Berthall. 

This list contains but a part of the names of the early 
emigrants. Hundreds obtained their naturalization papers 
'n other counties and in St. Louis, Mo. Many more, find- 
ing no difference between citizenship and the right of suff- 
rage, took no step to be naturalized, as the constitution of 
the State gave the latter right to all who had been residents 
of the county prior to its adoption — March, 18-18. 

The number of immigrants poured into the county since 
1^48, principally from Germany, have completely turned 
the features of this county, which at its organization was 
largely American. The German language now predomin- 
ates in many parts of the county, and in the stores, the 
shops, yea, even in the court house, " wird deutsch yespro- 
chen." Many of the remainders of the old American stock 
understand the German perfectly and speak it fluently. 

The German schoolmaster, and above all, the German 
priest or clergyman have by their ceaseless efforts succeeded 
in perpetuating the language of the Yaterland on the banks 
of the Missistipj)i. 


TO 1848. 

Section 8, Article \1. of the Constitution of 1S18, stipu- 
lated that Monroe should be entitled to one Senator and one 
Representative, until a State census should be taken. 

The Fimt General Axsemh/tj convened at Kaskaskia, Oct. 
5, 1818, and adjourned on the 13th of that month, because 
the Constitution had not yet been approved by Congress. 
It met in second se.-sion, January 4, 1819, and adjourned 
March :'l, 1819. Alexander Jameson represented the county 
in the Senate, and William Alexander in the House, 1818 
to 1820. 

The Second (imeral Axsembhj convened at the new State 
Capital, Vandalia, December 4, 1>^2(I, and adjourned Feb. 
15, 1821. Alexander Jameson, senator, and Enoch Moore, 
representative, 1820 to 1><22. Vandalia remained the State 
capital for twenty years. 

Third General Ai^embhj, 1822 to 1824. Joseph A. Beaird, 
senator; William Alexander, representative. 

Fourth General Assardily, 1824 to 182t). Joseph A. 
Beaird, senator; George Forquer and Thomas James, repre- 

Fifth General Assembly, 1826 to 1828. Joseph A. Beaird,* 
senator ; Thomas James, representative. 

Sixth General Assembly, 1828 to 18;50. Samuel McRoberts f 
senator ; Moses Lemen, representative. 

Seventh General Assembly, 1830 to 1832. Jonathan 
Lynch, senator ; John D. Whiteside, representative. 

Eighth General Assembly, 1832 to 1834. Jonathan 
Lynch, senator ; John D. Whiteside, representative. 

Ninth General Assembly, 1834 to 1830. Benjamin Bond, 
senator ; John D. Whites'ide, representative. 

Tenth General Assembly, 183(; to 1838 John D. White- 
side, senator (resigned March 6, 1837); James B. Moore, 
senator (successor of Whiteside); David Nowlin, represen- 
tative (resigned); John A. Summerville, representative (suc- 
cessor of Nowlin). 

Eleventh General Assembly, 1838 to 1840. James B. 
Moore, senator ; Edward T. Moore, representative. 

Twelfth General Assembly. 1840 to 1842, convened at 
Springfield (now the capital of the State), on the 23d of 
November, 1840. James A. James, senator ; W. H. Bissell, 

Thirteenth General Assembly, 1842 to 1844 James A. 
James, senator; Jacob J. Danner, Andrew J. Dickinson and 
William McBride.]; representatives. 

Fourteenth General Assembly, 1«44 to 1840. Joseph Mor- 
rison, senator for Randolph and Monroe ; E. Adams, E. W. 
Robbins and John D Whiteside,' representatives for Ran- 
dolph and Monroe. 

Fifteenth General Assembly, 184fi to 184.H Joseph Mor- 
rison, senator ; Robert Mann, John Morrison and Edward 
Omelveny, representatives. 

MONROE COUNTY — 1849 TO 1883. 

The State Convention of 1847 was convened at Spring- 
field June 7th, 1847. and adjourned August 31st, 1847. 
The constitution proposed was ratified at a special elec- 
tion held on the 6th of March, 1848, and went into force 
and effect April 1, 1848 

This convention was composed of one hundred and sixty- 
two delegates. Newton Cloud, of Morgan county, was 
president, Henry VV. Moore secretary, and John A Wilson 

James A. James and John D. Whiteside represented the 
county of Monroe in the convention. 

As stated on a preceding page, the county commissioners, 
court was abolished by the new constitution, and the govern, 
ment of the county entrusted to county courts. 

First County Co«r(, 1849 to 18.o3 — John Morrison, County 

* A re-npportionment was made January 12, 18'-fi, by whi<'h Monrop, Clinton, 
and Washington counties formed a senatorial, and the county of Monroe a 
representative district. 

t Samuel McRoberts was elected to fill u vacancy caused by the death of Jo- 
seph A- Beaird. McRoberts had been clerk of both lounty and circuit courts, 
as well as recorder, during the infancy of the county. His records are to this 
day models of accuracy and penmanship. He was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1841, to succeed John M. Rob'nson, of Carmi. McRoberts died 
March 22, 1813, and was succeeded by James Semple of Alton, senator, appointed 
by Gov. Ford 

t February 26, 1811, the ratio for a senator was fixed at 12,non, and for a repre. 
snntaUve, at 4,<xio inhabitants. Monroe remained a part of the old St. Clair 
senatorial district, and formed with Randolph county a representative district, 
which was entitled to three members of the house. 



Judge ; Bradley Rust, James M. Robinson, Associate 
Justices ; Daniel Converse, Clerk ; John H. Wilson, 

The first meeting of this court took place on the 3d of 
December, 1849 The proceedings during the first two 
years of this court are void of interest. The judge himself 
devoted his attention to examining most minutely into all 
county affairs. The constantly increasing public business, as 
well as the growing claims on account of support of paupers 
necessitated an increase in taxation. Besides, the o/(^ court 
house, whose walls were '■ shook " by the balls of children 
when it was new — 1834 — was wholly inadequate for even 
the most modest demands. The question, when and how to 
build, was mooted for fully two years, and when at last the 
plan of building a new court house was matured, and a 
contract made, the court wisely ordered a special tax for the 
purpose of paying for the work as it progress; d, 

The contract price was only 88,000, but how carefully was 
the contract itself drawn up. There is, we venture to say, 
uo contract on the files of any of the other counties of the 
State so detailed and so carefully worded as the one in 
question. Its perusal may not interest all the readers of 
this sketch, and yet it is very good reading, and men in 
future may learn a lesson from it. 

The New Court Huu-e. — The building of the present 
court house was an undertaking of some magnitude, consid- 
ering tlie indifferent condition of the county finances, and 
the limited revenues of the county. 

The county authorities were well aware of the situation, 
and the articles of agreement drawn up and entered into on 
the 5th day of (September, a. d. 1851, bear witness to their 
fonsiylit. We intiuduce this voluminous document at 
full length, so that in future times the county authorities 
may be guided in similar cases. 

Tlie Agreem nt. — This article of agreement made this 5th 
day of April, a. d. 1851 between Lloyd Prather, of the 
first part, and John Morrison, judge of the county court, 
Bradley Rust and James M. Robinson, associate justices of 
the county court of Monroe county, Illinois, and their succes- 
sors in ofKce for the second part, witnesseth : 

That for and in consideration of the sum of S8,000, to be 
paid by the said parties of the second part or their successors 
in office, as hereinafter on their part particularly set forth, 
the said Lloyd Prather does hereby agree and bind himself, 
to build a Court House on the public square in the town of 
Waterloo, Illinois, for said county, and on such place on 
said square as shall be de.'^ignated by the said county court, 
according to the following plan and specifications, to wit : 

1st. Excavation of all that part of the earth that will be 
under the two rear rooms, to be excavated six feet from the 
lower edge of the joists, the same being about 17x25 feet 
each, all that other part of the outer foundation which will 
be under said building, as shown in the plot annexed hereto, 
and drawn to i inch to the foot, making the said building 
43x60 feet on the ground, is to be excavated to the depth of 
2} feet and 2i feet wide, and all partition walls are also to 
be excavated to said depth, eighteen inches wide, said cellars 
and trenches for foundation to be dug to a level from the 

proper point in such a manner that the brick walls will 
stand plumb over the center of all the lower foundations. 

2d. Foundaiion. — All that part of the foundation from 
the bottom of the cellars to the top of the grade, and all 
that other part of the foundation of said building to be good 
common mason work of lime stone rock of good sine for such 
a job, well laid in good lime and sand mortar, said walls to 
be laid solid and firm clear through the whole thickness of 
the wall, all of said mortar walls to be two and a half feet 
thick, and all the inner or partition walls to be eighteen 
inches thi ^k, brought up to a true level at the top of grade. 

3d. Upper Found ttioii.—A.U that part of the upper 
foundation under the outer walls of said building to be raised 
on the outside from the top of the lower foundation or grade 
to the height of two feet with good bush hammered cut 
rock of lime stone, laid in two ranges if practicable, with as 
small joints as possible of lime and sand mortar; the rock 
for said foundation is to have an inch and a half margin cut 
or tooled all around, top and bottom, and the center snugly 
dressed with a fine bush hammer, the lower range of rock to 
be a little wider than the upper one. And the thickness to 
vary from 6 or S to 14 inches, and those thick and thin rock 
placed alternately on the walls so as t) make a good joining 
with the backing up behind the face work, which is to be 
sufficient to make the walls two feet thick of common mason 
work. On the top of this cut stone work there is to be a 
water table, eight inches in depth and dressed in the same 
manner on the face as the other cut-ston-', said water table 
to be from ten to fourteen inches wide, and beveled from 
the brick walls between the outside three-fifths of an inch so 
as to throw off the water, and the same is to project over all 
around one and a half inches and beveled snugly all around, 
making good intersections. There is to be backing up 
behind the water table level with the top, the same as the 
backing up behind the other cut work. The partition walls 
in the upper foundation to be raised to a level with the 
outer foundation, the same thickness as the lower and the 
same kind of work, all of which must be well and substan- 
tially done, taking care to have the walls well tied together 
from the face, or nearly so, tha: the two beds will come 
snugly together and thereby prevent springing when the 
weight comes on. 

4lh. Sills, etc. — There are to be sills at the side entries 
doors set in range with the water table, the same thickness 
and worked in the same manner